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Application of the catalyst for the treatment of waste incineration pollutants
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This study investigates the effects of different pollutants (particulates, heavy metals, SO2, HCl, and H2O) on the performance of catalyst for the removals of NO and organic compounds in a simulated condition of waste incineration flue gas. Firstly, the effects of metal modification, oxygen concentration, reductant, and Na content on the activity of catalysts for NO removal were investigated. Then, the single and multiple effects of SO2, HCl, and H2O on the performance of the catalysts for NO reduction are elucidated in a quartz tube catalyst reactor. Finally, the single and multiple effects of particulates, acid gases, and heavy metals on the performance of catalysts for the removals of NO and organic compounds in a laboratory-scale incinerator were studied. Different catalysts (Rh/Al2O3, Pd/Al2O3 and V2O5-WO3) and modified catalysts (Rh-Na/Al2O3) were used in this study. The reaction mechanism of catalyst and the effects of different factors were evaluated by BET, EA, XRD, SEM/EDS, TEM, ESCA, and FTIR analyses. The results showed that Pd/Al2O3 catalyst had lower catalytic reduction activity than Rh/Al2O3 catalyst at 200-300oC. Adding Na significantly influenced the BET surface area and metal dispersion of Rh/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 catalysts, and also increased the NO conversion to near 100% at 250-300oC. Rh/Al2O3 catalyst had good performance for NO removal at relatively high oxygen concentrations. However, the Rh/Al2O3 catalyst were gradually deactivated for NO and CO conversions when SO2 and HCl present in the flue gas due to the formation of Rh2(SO4)3 and RhCl3. The addition of Na on Rh/Al2O3 significantly improved the removal efficiency of NO when SO2, HCl, and H2O present in the flue gas. Adding Na to Rh/Al2O3 catalyst suppressed the deactivation effect of SO2 and HCl because of the formation of Na2SO4 and NaCl. H2O could compete with NO to adsorb on the active sites of Rh-Na/Al2O3 catalysts and enhance the formation of NO3 to react with H. According to the results of experiments performed by the laboratory-scale incinerator, particulates, heavy metals, SO2 and HCl had significant effects the activities of catalysts for simultaneous removals of NO and PAHs. When the flue gas contained particulates, the surface of the catalysts was covered by the particulates. The increases in the particulate concentrations in the flue gas suppressed the DRE of PAHs, but the increases in the carbon content on surface of catalysts promoted the NO conversions. The increased content of heavy metals Cd and Pb on the surface of catalysts decreased the activity of catalyst for NO removal, but did not change the chemical state of active phase. The DRE of PAHs by the catalysts was significantly suppressed by the increased concentrations of heavy metal Cd, but was promoted with high concentration of Pb. Both HCl and SO2 had negative effects on the performances of Rh/Al2O3, Rh-Na/Al2O3, and V2O5-WO3 catalysts for PAHs removal. The influence of SO2 was higher than HCl on the performances of the catalysts for PAHs removal, but was lower than HCl for NO removal. The influence levels of different pollutants on the performances of the catalysts for NO removal followed the sequence of HCl > heavy metals > SO2 > particulates. These findings imply that the catalyst reactor can be valid to decrease the emissions of pollutants in the waste incineration system. However, the catalytic reactor is suggested to be set up in the downstream of APCDs to mitigate the poisoning of catalysts.
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