請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5721
標題: 探討截留於快濾池中微生物組成及其對過濾系統造成之可能影響
Microorganism composition and its possible effect in the rapid sand filter of drinking water treatment process
作者: 郭譯惇
Kuo, Yi-Tun
關鍵字: rapid sand filter
快濾池
Microorganism composition
微生物組成
出版社: 環境工程學系所
引用: 參考文獻 中文部分 圖書 石濤 (2006) 環境微生物學,鼎茂圖書出版股份有限公司,台北。 徐振盛及李孟諺 (1995) 環境微生物學,淑馨出版社,台北。 高肇藩 (1990) 給水工程-自來水工程,三民書局股份有限公司,台北。 高肇藩 (1997) 給水工程,三民書局股份有限公司,台北。 黃政賢 (1997) 給水工程,高力圖書有限公司,台北。 期刊論文 陳是瑩及曾怡禎 (1980) 鳳山水庫藻類與水質的季節性變化,藻類與環境研討會論文集: 75-83。 賴雪端 (1984) 大甲溪與烏溪流域之淡水矽藻,國立中興大學植物學研究所,碩士論文,台中。 陳是瑩及曾怡禎 (1984) 澄清湖生態的研究 I:程清湖水質與藻類季節性變遷的研究,中華民國自來水協會第一屆給水技術研討會論文集。 曾怡禎、葉宣顯、賴文亮、陳振正、謝東穎、昇衡、蔡木川及王上銘 (1999) 不同淨水程序對藻類去除效率之研究,中華民國自來水協會第十六屆自來水研究發表會論文集: 121-130。 葉宣顯 (1999) 澄清湖高級淨水處理模場試驗研究(第一年)報告,台灣省自來水公司委託計畫。 賴文亮、陳彥宏及楊博名 (2006) 以螢光光譜儀之三度位向功能進行水源中藻相鑑定與定量藻數及其螢光物質成份(I),行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫。 網路資源 曾怡禎及張權英 (2001) 利用分子生物方法分析微生物群落結構。 URL http://www.epa.gov.tw/b/b0100.asp?Ct_Code=06X0001330X0004607 尹開民、顏榮華、魏佩玉及許永華 (2002) 產氣單胞桿菌屬Aeromonas spp.檢測方法驗証與環境水域分佈調查。 URL http://www.niea.gov.tw/analysis/protect/2002/2002-07.htm 行政院環保署環境檢驗所 (2005) 水中總菌落數檢測方法。 URL http://www.niea.gov.tw/ 蔡竹固 (2005) 微生物之培養與鑑定。 URL http://web.ncyu.edu.tw/~jgtsay/jg4-13-3.html 行政院環境保護署 (2009) 90~96年度河川及水庫水質分析報告。 URL http://www.epa.gov.tw/FileDownload/FileHandler.ashx?FLID=9446 西文部分 Books Curds, C.R. (1975) Protozoa. In Ecological Aspects of Used Water Treatment. Curds, C.R., and Hawkes, H.A. (eds). London: Academic Press, pp. 203-268. Maier, R.M., Pepper, I.L., and Gerba, C.P. (2000) Environmental Microbiology San Diego: Academic Press Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F., and Maniatis, T. (1989) Strategies for Cloning in Plasmid Vectors. In Molecular Cloning. A Laboratory Manual USA: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Journal Articles Aggen, J.B., Humphrey, J.M., Gauss, C.-M., Huang, H.-B., Nairn, A.C., and Chamberlin, A.R. (1999) The Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Analogues of the Serine-Threonine Protein Phosphatase 1 and 2a Selective Inhibitor Microcystin LA: Rational Modifications Imparting PP1 Selectivity. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 7: 543-564. Alison R. Sherwood, G.G.P. (2007) Universal Primers Amplify a 23S rDNA Plastid Marker in Eukaryotic Algae and Cyanobacteria. Journal of Phycology 43: 605-608. Allen, M.J., and Geldreich, E.E. (1978) Distribution Line Sediments and Bacterial Regrowth. Proceedings of the American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference: 1-6. Amann, R.I., Krumholz, L., and Stahl, D.A. (1990) Fluorescent-Oligonucleotide Probing of Whole Cells for Determinative, Phylogenetic, and Environmental Studies in Microbiology. Journal of Bacteriology 172: 762-770. Amann, R.I., Ludwig, W., and Schleifer, K.H. (1995) Phylogenetic Identification and in Situ Detection of Individual Microbial Cells without Cultivation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59: 143-169. Aoyama, K. (1990) Studies on the Earthy-Musty Odours in Natural Water (IV). Mechanism of Earthy-Musty Odour Production of Actinomycetes. Journal of Applied Microbiology 68: 405-410. Arora, H., Giovanni, G.D., and Lechevallier, M. (2001) Spent Filter Backwash Water Contaminants and Treatment Strategies. Journal of American Water Works Association 93: 100-112. Belov, A.P., Giles, J.D., and Wiltshire, R.J. (1999) Toxicity in a Water Column Following the Stratification of a Cyanobacterial Population Development in a Calm Lake. Mathematical Medicine and Biology 16: 93-110. Bos, R., van der Mei, H.C., and Busscher, H.J. (1999) Physico-Chemistry of Initial Microbial Adhesive Interactions - Its Mechanisms and Methods for Study. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 23: 179-229. Colbourne, J.S., Dennis, P.J., Trew, R.M., Berry, C., and Vesey, G. (1988) Legionella and Public Water Supplies. Water Science and Technology 20: 5-10. Comte, S., Guibaud, G., and Baudu, M. (2006) Biosorption Properties of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) Resulting from Activated Sludge According to Their Type: Soluble or Bound. Process Biochemistry 41: 815-823. Durmaz, B., and Sanin, F.D. (2001) Effect of Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio on the Composition of Microbial Extracellular Polymers in Activated Sludge. Water Science and Technology 44: 221-229. Eikelboom, D.H. (1975) Filamentous Organisms Observed in Activated Sludge. Water Research 9: 365-388. Ferguson, R.L., Buckley, E.N., and Palumbo, A.V. (1984) Response of Marine Bacterioplankton to Differential Filtration and Confinement. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 47: 49-55. Frolund, B., Palmgren, R., Keiding, K., and Nielsen, P.H. (1996) Extraction of Extracellular Polymers from Activated Sludge Using a Cation Exchange Resin. Water Research 30: 1749-1758. Geldreich, E.E. (1978) Bacterial Populations and Indicator Concepts in Feces, Sewage, Stormwater and Solid Wastes. Indicators of Viruses in Water and Food: Ann Arbor Science: 51-97. Goodwin, J.A.S., and Forster, C.F. (1985) A Further Examination into the Composition of Activated Sludge Surfaces in Relation to Their Settlement Characteristics. Water Research 19: 527-533. Grotenhuis, J.T., Smit, M., Plugge, C.M., Xu, Y.S., van Lammeren, A.A., Stams, A.J., and Zehnder, A.J. (1991) Bacteriological Composition and Structure of Granular Sludge Adapted to Different Substrates. In, 1942-1949. Head, I.M., Saunders, J.R., and Pickup, R.W. (1998) Microbial Evolution, Diversity, and Ecology: A Decade of Ribosomal RNA Analysis of Uncultivated Microorganisms. Microbial Ecology 35: 1-21. Heid, C.A., Stevens, J., Livak, K.J., and Williams, P.M. (1996) Real Time Quantitative PCR. Genome Research 6: 986-994. Higuchi, R., Fockler, C., Dollinger, G., and Watson, R. (1993) Kinetic PCR Analysis: Real-Time Monitoring of DNA Amplification Reactions. Nat Biotech 11: 1026-1030. Hoehn, R.C., Barnes, D.B., Thompson, B.C., W., R.C., and J, G.T. (1980) Algae as Sources of Trihalomethane Precursors. Journal of American Water Works Association 72: 344-350. Horan, N.J., and Eccles, C.R. (1986) Purification and Characterization of Extracellular Polysaccharide from Activated Sludges. Water Research 20: 1427-1432. Hsueh, Y.-H., Somers, E.B., Lereclus, D., and Wong, A.C.L. (2006) Biofilm Formation by Bacillus Cereus Is Influenced by Plcr, a Pleiotropic Regulator. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 5089-5092. Hu, T.L., and Chiang, P.C. (1996) Odorous Compounds from a Cyanobacterium in a Water Purification Plant in Central Taiwan. Water Research 30: 2522-2525. Huang, L.-N., De Wever, H., and Diels, L. (2008) Diverse and Distinct Bacterial Communities Induced Biofilm Fouling in Membrane Bioreactors Operated under Different Conditions. Environmental Science & Technology 42: 8360-8366. Jensen, S.E., Anders, C.L., Goatcher, L.J., Perley, T., Kenefick, S., and Hrudey, S.E. (1994) Actinomycetes as a Factor in Odour Problems Affecting Drinking Water from the North Saskatchewan River. Water Research 28: 1393-1401. Jones, J.G., and Simon, B.M. (1977) Increased Sensitivity in the Measurement of Atp in Freshwater Samples with a Comment on the Adverse Effect of Menbrane Filtration. Freshwater Biology 7: 253-260. Jorand, F., Zartarian, F., Thomas, F., Block, J.C., Bottero, J.Y., Villemin, G., Urbain, V., and Manem, J. (1995) Chemical and Structural (2D) Linkage between Bacteria within Activated Sludge Flocs. Water Research 29: 1639-1647. Kämpfer, P., Erhart, R., Beimfohr, C., Böhringer, J., Wagner, M., and Amann, R. (1996) Characterization of Bacterial Communities from Activated Sludge: Culture-Dependent Numerical Identification Versus in Situ Identification Using Group- and Genus-Specific Rrna-Targeted Oligonucleotide Probes. Microbial Ecology 32: 101-121. Koksal, F., Oguzkurt, N., Samasti, M., and Altas, K. (2007) Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Aeromonas strains Isolated from Drinking Water Samples in Istanbul, Turkey. Chemotherapy 53: 30-35. Kuhn, I., Allestam, G., Huys, G., Janssen, P., Kersters, K., Krovacek, K., and Stenstrom, T. (1997) Diversity, Persistence, and Virulence of Aeromonas strains Isolated from Drinking Water Distribution Systems in Sweden. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63: 2708-2715. Labrenz, M., Brettar, I., Christen, R., Flavier, S., Botel, J., and Hofle, M.G. (2004) Development and Application of a Real-Time PCR Approach for Quantification of Uncultured Bacteria in the Central Baltic Sea. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70: 4971-4979. Lanciotti, E., Santini, C., Lupi, E., and Burrini, D. (2004) Actinomycetes, Cyanobacteria and Algae Causing Tastes and Odours in Water of the River Arno Used for the Water Supply of Florence. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology—AQUA 52: 489-500. LeChevallier, M.W., Babcock, T.M., and Lee, R.G. (1987) Examination and Characterization of Distribution System Biofilms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 53: 2714-2724. Li, J., McLellan, S., and Ogawa, S. (2006) Accumulation and Fate of Green Fluorescent Labeled Escherichia coli in Laboratory-Scale Drinking Water Biofilters. Water Research 40: 3023-3028. Lin, S.D. (1976) Source of Tastes and Odors in Water. Water and Sewage Works 123: 101-104. Liu, H., and Fang, H.H.P. (2002) Extraction of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (Eps) of Sludges. Journal of Biotechnology 95: 249-256. Liu, Y., Yang, S.-F., Liu, Q.-S., and Tay, J.-H. (2003) The Role of Cell Hydrophobicity in the Formation of Aerobic Granules. Current Microbiology 46: 270-274. Mahmoud, N., Zeeman, G., Gijzen, H., and Lettinga, G. (2003) Solids Removal in Upflow Anaerobic Reactors, a Review. Bioresource Technology 90: 1-9. Mez, K., Beattie, K.A., Codd, G.A., Hanselmann, K., Hauser, B., Naegeli, H., and Preisig, H.R. (1997) Identification of a Microcystin in Benthic Cyanobacteria Linked to Cattle Deaths on Alpine Pastures in Switzerland. European Journal of Phycology 32: 111-117. Mouchet, B. (1998) Solving Algae Problems: French Expertise and World-Wide Applications. Journal of water supply: research and technology- AQUA 47: 125-141. Myklestad, S.M. (1995) Release of Extracellular Products by Phytoplankton with Special Emphasis on Polysaccharides. Science of The Total Environment 165: 155-164. Naghavi, B., and Malone, R. (1986) Algae Removal by Fine Sand/Silt Filtration. Water Research 20: 377-383. Nielsen, A.T., Liu, W.-T., Filipe, C., Grady, L., Jr., Molin, S., and Stahl, D.A. (1999) Identification of a Novel Group of Bacteria in Sludge from a Deteriorated Biological Phosphorus Removal Reactor. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65: 1251-1258. Nishiwaki-Matsushima, R., Ohta, T., Nishiwaki, S., Suganuma, M., Kohyama, K., Ishikawa, T., Carmichael, W.W., and Fujiki, H. (1992) Liver Tumor Promotion by the Cyanobacterial Cyclic Peptide Toxin Microcystin-Lr. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 118: 420-424. Norton, C.D., and LeChevallier, M.W. (2000) A Pilot Study of Bacteriological Population Changes through Potable Water Treatment and Distribution. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66: 268-276. Pouria, S., de Andrade, A., Barbosa, J., Cavalcanti, R.L., Barreto, V.T.S., Ward, C.J., Preiser, W., Poon, G.K., Neild, G.H., and Codd, G.A. (1998) Fatal Microcystin Intoxication in Haemodialysis Unit in Caruaru, Brazil. The Lancet 352: 21-26. Pringle, J.H., and Fletcher, M. (1983) Influence of Substratum Wettability on Attachment of Freshwater Bacteria to Solid Surfaces. In, pp. 811-817. Rouxhet, P.G., and Mozes, N. (1990) Physical Chemistry of the Interaction between Attached Microorganisms and Their Support. Water Science and Technology 22: 1-16. Schmidt, J.E.E., and Ahring, B.K. (1994) Extracellular Polymers in Granular Sludge from Different Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactors. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 42: 457-462. Shen, C.F., Kosaric, N., and Blaszczyk, R. (1993) The Effect of Selected Heavy Metals (Ni, Co and Fe) on Anaerobic Granules and Their Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS). Water Research 27: 25-33. Silvey, J.K.G. (1953) Relation of Irrigation Runoff to Tastes and Odors. American Water Works Association 45: 1179-1186. Staley, J.T., and Konopka, A. (1985) Measurement of in Situ Activities of Nonphotosynthetic Microorganisms in Aquatic and Terrestrial Habitats. Annual Review of Microbiology 39: 321-346. Teske, A., Wawer, C., Muyzer, G., and Ramsing, N.B. (1996) Distribution of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Stratified Fjord (Mariager Fjord, Denmark) as Evaluated by Most-Probable-Number Counts and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of PCR-Amplified Ribosomal DNA Fragments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62: 1405-1415. Torsvik, V., Goksoyr, J., and Daae, F.L. (1990) High Diversity in DNA of Soil Bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 56: 782-787. Ueda, S., and Earle, R.L. (1972) Microflora of Activated Sludge. The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 18: 239-248. Urbain, V., Block, J.C., and Manem, J. (1993) Bioflocculation in Activated Sludge: An Analytic Approach. Water Research 27: 829-838. Wagner, M., Amann, R., Lemmer, H., and Schleifer, K.H. (1993) Probing Activated Sludge with Oligonucleotides Specific for Proteobacteria: Inadequacy of Culture-Dependent Methods for Describing Microbial Community Structure. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59: 1520-1525. Electronic Resources Suffet, I.M., Mallevialle, J., and Kawczynsk, E. (1995) Advances in Taste-and-Odor Treatment and Control. In: American Water Works Association. U.S. APHA, A.-W. (1998) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. In. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association.
摘要: 台灣地區雖然降雨量豐富,但降雨時間及分布極不平均,需興建水庫來提供穩定自來水水源,但由水庫中所取得之原水水質條件不一,因此,維持淨水程序的正常操作成為一重要課題。傳統淨水處理程序中的快濾池為消毒處理前的最後處理單元,其效能將直接影響供水品質,若有微生物被阻留並生長於濾床中,不僅容易產生臭味,將造成濾床阻塞而縮短濾程,迫使反沖洗次數增加,增加淨水程序操作成本,這類阻塞現象已經多次在台灣的不同淨水廠中被發現。 因此,為瞭解被截留於快濾池中之微生物組成及其對淨水程序產生之可能影響,本研究針對一般操作條件下之原水及模擬濾床中不同深度之濾砂採樣,分別利用16S rDNA及23S plastid rDNA基因序列進行PCR-DGGE分子生物技術分析,藉由定序及資料庫比對,建構出截留於淨水程序快濾池中微生物組成。微生物族群分析分為三部份討論,第一部份為易截留於濾床之微生物,以直接由濾砂上獲得之微生物族群表示,第二部份為易反洗出之族群,以由濾砂懸浮液獲得之微生物族群表示,第三部份為易培養之細菌族群,以經由Nutrient Broth (NB)培養後的細菌族群為主。藻類方面分二部份進行,第一部份針對體積較大且DNA不易萃取之矽藻,利用DAPI染色後進行顯微鏡觀察,第二部份應用藻類23S plastid rDNA基因序列進行PCR-DGGE分析,建構快濾池中之可能藻相,探討其對濾床操作之影響。本研究同時探討在添加不同濃度消毒劑下,濾床菌群結構變化,並分析胞外多醣體(EPS)濃度,已協助判斷消毒劑使用對微生物之影響。 研究結果顯示位於濾床上層微生物多樣性較豐富,中層次之,下層微生物種類較少;存在濾床中的細菌種類大部分為具有分泌胞外多醣體能力之細菌,且細菌族群受季節變化影響不大。藻類多樣性則隨季節不同而變動,經由顯微鏡觀察得知,冬季濾床突發性阻塞情形主要由矽藻(針桿藻)引起。由顯微鏡觀察結果得知當添加消毒劑不足量時,細菌及藻類會產生許多生物性凝聚物質,使針桿藻糾結在一起。配合胞外多醣體分析結果,未添加消毒劑時,各層胞外多醣體濃度平均為20 mg/L,當添加消毒劑濃度為0.3 ppm時,胞外多醣體急遽增加至42 mg/L,當消毒劑濃度為0.6 ppm時,濾床各層胞外多醣體濃度差異不大;當消毒劑濃度提高至1.2 ppm時,胞外多醣體濃度開始下降,且針桿藻糾結情形獲得改善;當消毒劑濃度添加至1.5 ppm時,胞外多醣體下降至12 mg/L,由此可知當消毒劑殺菌力不足時,可能會造成胞外多醣體增加進而影響淨水程序。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5721
其他識別: U0005-3006200912544400
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-3006200912544400
顯示於類別:環境工程學系所

文件中的檔案:
沒有與此文件相關的檔案。


在 DSpace 系統中的文件,除了特別指名其著作權條款之外,均受到著作權保護,並且保留所有的權利。