Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5754
標題: 去流體化行為於能源/資源回收過程之影響研究
Energy utilization and pollutant generation through fluidized bed operation: Effect of defluidization
作者: 郭家宏
Kuo, Jia-Hong
關鍵字: Defluidization
去流體化
Agglomeration inhibition
Incineration
Gasification
Heavy metals.
結塊抑制
焚化
氣化
重金屬
出版社: 環境工程學系所
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摘要: 本研究主要探討流體化床中去流體化現象對於流體化床應用之影響,首先探討結塊行為在焚化飛灰再處理、流體化床重金屬吸附行為、去流體化現象抑制、結塊過程中進料物質與添加劑影響重金屬排放行為等流體化床應用方面的影響,了解流體化床結塊現象影響污染物(有機污染物、重金屬)和產物(如氫氣等)排放行為以及利用鋁系和鈣系等物質來控制流體化床結塊去流體化之研究。最後利用實驗數據、結塊物質特性分析結果以及熱力平衡模式探討結塊與重金屬在結塊過程中之機制,且以數據回歸的方式修正去流體化預估式來應用於結塊抑制的環境下。 在流體化床熱處理焚化飛灰的實驗結果得知,在不同的操作條件下重金屬鉛主要存在於固相(飛灰及底渣)中,而重金屬鉛殘留在粗粒徑的床質粒徑範圍主要的原因是因為灰份燒結作用導致,而砂床的燒結現象使得重金屬被包覆,導致溶出濃度降低。另外在重金屬吸附實驗的結果指出,添加鈉金屬會因燒結的影響增加系統的顆粒粒徑大小,同時系統中高濃度的重金屬則會出現於粗顆粒中,使得床質和吸附劑對於重金屬吸附效率上升。 在結塊抑制實驗結果顯示,操作溫度以及床質粒徑增加的條件下,其到達去流體化時間將減少,而在增加操作氣速時將會延長去流體化的過程,有機物濃度將會隨著操作時間逐漸增加,同時系統內的共熔物質的量也跟著增加,然而到達去流體化後有機物排放濃度將會大幅下降。此外,在系統開始去流體化,爐床表面的高溫使得重金屬大量逸散,導致重金屬的大量排放。另一方面,結塊過程影響氣化過程中產生之氣態產物的結果顯示,在不同的操作條件如溫度、空氣配比以及床質質量等條件下,其產物在結塊過程有相似的排放趨勢。氫氣以及一氧化碳在結塊過程發生後會因為表面高溫而提高其含量,而二氧化碳則會降低。同時氣體之低位發熱量亦會在去流體化發生後提高。 熱力平衡模式模擬結果顯示在添加鋁系添加劑抑制結塊的主因在於與鈉反應產生高熔點之鋁鈉複合物質;添加鈣系添加劑能夠提升系統整體的熔點用以抑制結塊去流體化。整理熱力平衡模式所預測重金屬於結塊過程中與床質和結塊抑制劑間親和力之關係可以發現,重金屬在結塊或結塊抑制過程中會分別與其他元素及操作條件下具有不同的反應途徑。
The aim of this dissertation is to understand the mechanisms of bed agglomeration and agglomeration inhibition in various fluidized bed applications. The emission behaviors of pollutants (organics and heavy metals) or products (e.g. H2) during defluidization are also in consideration. To achieve these objectives, this dissertation involved three main tasks: (1) investigating the effect of agglomeration/defluidization on the emission behavior of pollutant and product in fluidized bed application such as incineration, gasification and addition of bed additives, fly ash re-treatment, and (2) controlling and preventing the bed agglomeration by using Al- and Ca-based additives. (3) Studying the mechanism of bed agglomeration and the fate of heavy metals by the experimental results and thermodynamic equilibrium simulation. Additionally, the prediction model for agglomeration inhibition with different Al/Na ratios in waste is also investigated. In fly ash re-treatment, Pb existed mainly in the solid phase (fly ash and bed materials) under different conditions. And then, the ash sintering results Pb exists in coarse particle. However, a low concentration in the TCLP leachate from the bed materials meant that Pb was captured in the sintered bed materials. On the other hand, the comparison of sorbents and Na additive for relative enrichment factor shows that addition of Na causes high concentration of heavy metals exist in coarse particle. Moreover, the adsorption efficiency of metals decreases when the operating temperature increases but is increase when addition of Na in system. The experimental results of agglomeration inhibition tests indicated that Al inhibited agglomeration in fluidized beds at different Al/Na ratios. The time to reach defluidization decreased as temperature and particle size of bed materials increased, but increased as gas velocity increased. On the other hand, the emission of organics increased with operating time due to the accumulation of eutectics and the formation of agglomerates, reducing the combustion efficiency and quality of the fluidized bed. The concentration of organics decreased sharply because of combustion heat accumulated on the surface of the sand bed at defluidization. However, the concentration of volatized heavy metals emitted shows a dramatically increases after defluidization. On the other hand, the concentrations of gaseous products emitted with operating time are similar under various operating conditions such as temperature, air factor, and the amount of bed materials during agglomeration process. The concentration and selectivity of H2 and CO increases but CO2 would be reduced at that time. Besides, the results also present that the LHV value of syngas increases during defluidization process. The results obtained from the thermodynamic equilibrium simulation, heavy metals Pb, Cr, and Cd all reacted with the bed materials to form metallic oxide silicates without additives. According to the simulation results, Al reacts with Na to form high-melting-point compounds inhibiting the formation of agglomerates. Then, the system melting point increases due to addition of Ca which also extends the agglomeration tendency. Besides, each heavy metal has different affinities with other species during the agglomeration inhibition process according to the results of the affinity test. Accordingly, the experimental results and thermodynamic equilibrium simulation results generally agreed well with each other, and the affinity test was established to have a better understanding of the formation of heavy metals in fluidized bed at high temperature.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5754
其他識別: U0005-1708201017310500
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-1708201017310500
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