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標題: 結合厭氧菌、紫色不含硫光合細菌和藍綠細菌產氫之研究
Hydrogen production with combination system of anaerobic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria
作者: 蔡明諺
Tsai, Ming-Yen
關鍵字: anaerobic bacteria
photosynthetic bacteria
出版社: 環境工程學系所
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摘要: 溫室效應日益嚴重,回歸源頭乃由於化石燃料過度的使用,不但造成有限資源逐漸減少,在燃燒的過程中尚會釋放出COx、NOx、SOx、CxHx、煤煙、飛灰、焦油液滴與其他有機化合物,對環境造成很大的衝擊,因此發展替代性再生能源已成為迫切的課題。 「氫氣」是一種乾淨且熱值很高的能源(122 KJ/g),若採用生物的方式產生氫氣,利用有機廢棄物(廢水)作為基質,不但可處理污染物,且同時可以獲取能源,更可以達到淨二氧化碳零排放等多重利益。現今具有產氫能力的微生物有綠藻、藍綠細菌、紫色不含硫光合細菌和厭氧菌等,本研究所使用的微生物分別為:厭氧菌、紫色不含硫光合細菌(Rhodopseudomonas plaustris WP3-5)和藍綠細菌(Anabaena sp. CH3),由於厭氧菌、紫色不含硫光合細菌與藍綠細菌各有不同的產氫條件,若能夠有效結合這三種微生物,必能提升產氫量及產氫率,對於未來氫能源發展上有很大的助益。本研究分為兩個部分:第一部分是以篩選過的廚餘作為基質,供給厭氧菌暗醱酵產氫,富含有機酸的出流水直接供給、經UV滅菌燈或固液分離系統處理後,再作為紫色不含硫光合細菌的基質進行光合產氫,以達連續產氫的目的。第二部分乃是探討不同基質負荷率(不同HRT)對於紫色不含硫光合細菌與藍綠細菌在共培養CSTR系統中產氫的情形。 實驗中的厭氧菌(植種源)取自台中某生活污水廠污泥,並經由熱篩程序處理後直接使用,以高碳水化合物的廚餘作為基質,實驗以串聯的理念同時操作所有單元,監測水質參數並觀察暗醱酵反應槽和光合反應槽產氫的情形。結果顯示在暗醱酵反應槽和光合反應槽之間加入固液分離系統,對於暗醱酵產氫並無明顯助益,其原因為厭氧產氫菌無法穩定在反應槽之中存在,再者固液分離槽的底面積過大,不適合作為沉澱槽,污泥無法順利迴流至暗醱酵槽中,造成厭氧產氫菌持續被washout。但對於光合產氫而言,固液分離系統能明顯攔阻雜菌進入光合反應槽,若控制合適的質基負荷率,最大產氣率可達19.0 mL/L-hr,最大氫氣百分比為81%,平均產氫率為8.4 mL-H2/L-hr。 在第二部分的共培養實驗中,以不同的操作方式(半批次、半連續流和連續流)(不同的基質負荷率)觀察共培養產氫的情形。結果顯示太高的基質負荷率和較低的基質負荷率皆會造成共培養無法順利產氫,當基質負荷大於167 mg-fructose/L-day,會造成藍綠細菌停止生長,進而影響光合細菌無足夠的有機酸使用。當基質負荷率小於125 mg-fructose/L-day,藍綠細菌不會利用果糖而會利用水中的二氧化碳,再加上光合細菌不停的消耗乙酸,造成 pH劇升,抑制光合細菌和藍綠細菌產氫。
The combustion of fossil fuels not only results in gradual decrease of natural resources but also releases COx, NOx, SOx, CxHx, soot, fly ash, tar droplets and other organic compounds in burning processes. These have serious impacts on the environment. It is thus necessary to search for alternative energy resources, such as hydrogen, a clean and high heat value (122 KJ/g) energy source. If organic wastewater is used as substrate for biological hydrogen production, waste minimization and hydrogen gas production can both be achieved. It could also result in zero net carbon dioxide emission. The types of microorganisms such as anaerobic bacteria, purple nonsulfur bacteria, cyanobacteria could produce hydrogen. In this study, we intended to combine anaerobic bacteria, puple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria for hydrogen production. If we could integrate these three microorganisms effectively, the hydrogen production yield and hydrogen production rate will be increased. This study was divided into two parts. In the first part, we used the screened kitchen waste as substrate for dark-fermentative hydrogen production. The effluent of dark fermentation would feed to photo-fermentative reactor directly or through different processes (UV lamp or solid-liquid separation system) for photo-fermentative hydrogen production. The second part was to explore the effect of different substrate loading rates (different HRTs) for hydrogen production of purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria in co-culture system. The inoculum of dark fermentation was collected from the sludge of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and use directly after heat treatment. The kitchen waste containing high carbohydrate was used as substrate. Different units were operated at the same time. The water quality parameters and the hydrogen production of both of the dark-fermentative reactor and the photo-fermentative reactor were monitored. The results showed that adding a solid-liquid separation system between the dark-fermentative reactor and the photo-fermentative reactor was not helpful for the hydrogen production of dark fermentation. The main reason was that anaerobic bacteria could not exist in the reactor steadily. As the solid-liquid separation tank's bottom area was too wide to be a suitable sedimentation tank, sludge could not return to the dark-fermentative reactor successfully. Yet for photosynthetic hydrogen production, the solid-liquid separation system could successfully eliminate the bacteria which might contaminate the photo-fermentative reactor. Under suitable substrate loading rate, the maximum gas production rate of the photo-fermentative reactor was 19.0 mL/L-hr, maximum percentage of hydrogen was 81%, and the average hydrogen production rate was 8.4 mL-H2/L-hr. In the second part of the experiments different modes of operation (semi-batch, semi-continuous flow and continuous flow under different substrate loading rates) were used to observe the hydrogen production of co-culture system. The results showed that too high substrate loading rate and too low substrate loading rate would result in low hydrogen production yield of the co-culture system. When the substrate loading rate was greater than 167 mg-fructose/L-day, cyanobacteria would stop growing. Thus the purple nonsulfur bacteria did not have enough organic acid for hydrogen production. When the substrate loading rate was less than 125 mg-fructose/L-day, cyanobacteria used dissolved carbon dioxide as carbon source instead of fructose. At the same time, the purple nonsulfur bacteria would consume acetate continuously. It would cause high pH value and inhibit the hydrogen production of both of the purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria and the cyanobacteria.
其他識別: U0005-2607201010174600
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