Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5783
標題: 台灣中部地區大氣中粒狀污染物之金屬分佈特性
Distribution Characteristics of Metallic Constituents in Particulate Matter Collected from Central Taiwan
作者: 王家豪
Wang, Chia-Hao
關鍵字: Particulate matter
粒狀污染物
Metal
Cntral Taiwan
金屬
中部地區
出版社: 環境工程學系所
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摘要: 空氣懸浮微粒是具有健康危害效應的物質,空氣懸浮微粒所附著的汙染物主要可以分成:碳化物、金屬、鹽類以及二次污染物等。其中金屬成分主要包含有Mn、Fe、Cu、Zn、Pb、Cr及As等,主要來源為煤炭或是重油燃燒。本研究之主旨為以台灣中部地區彰化和美、南投草屯、及台中縣清水等三個地區作為採樣地點,探討不同地區之粒狀污染物濃度與吸附之重金屬濃度的分佈特性,並可研究粒狀污染物中金屬元素組成成分的分析來鑑定可能污染物來源。研究採樣期間為2008年7月至2009年4月,使用高量空氣採樣器 (High - volume air sampler),進行連續 24 小時空氣採樣,其中和美、草屯及清水地區則各為33個(樣本數共為99個)。將採樣後之玻璃纖維濾紙以加熱萃取法消化,並且將消化液利用感應耦合電漿發射光譜儀(ICP-OES),進行金屬濃度(Cd、Co、Cr、Cu、Fe、K、Mn、Na、Ni、Pb、Zn)之分析。 研究結果顯示,和美、草屯及清水總懸浮微粒的平均濃度分別為111.3±45.0 μg/m3、95.7±44.6 μg/m3、91.3±54.0 μg/m3,顯示和美>草屯>清水。在此3處採樣點,粒狀污染物的濃度從21.7 μg/m3上升到270 μg/m3不等,並且明顯的顯示出粒狀污染物的濃度在夏季(21.7 μg/m3~79.1 μg/m3)較低,而冬季(49.9 μg/m3~270 μg/m3)有明顯的升高趨勢,此一現象可能因夏季時較冬季容易降雨造成大氣中污染物去除所致。研究結果顯示,金屬的濃度的高低在和美大體趨勢為: K > Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Cr > Ni> As > Cd > Co,其中除去濃度過高的鹽類以外,Fe、Cu、Zn及Pb為最大的組成部分;而除了特定的採樣時間外,毒性較為顯著之Cd (0.138-4.90 ng/m3)、Cr(2.13-37.1 ng/m3)及Pb (4.10- 183 ng/m3)濃度的高低與粒狀污染物濃度有明顯的正相關。本研究結果亦發現,彰化和美測站之Pb濃度較其他採樣點較高。本研究結果亦證實隨著氣候因子(季節及風向等)的差異,特定汙染源所排放的廢氣也會對採樣點的粒狀污染物濃度造成不同程度的貢獻。 (本研究由國科會研究計畫經費贊助,計畫編號NSC97-2314-B-005-001)
It has been shown that particulate matter poses threat to the health of general public. The pollutants associated with particulate matter may subdivide into: hydrocarbons, metals, salts as well as secondary pollutants. The primary constituents of metals in particulate matter mainly contain Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and As where fossil fuel combustion is the major sources of emission. The objective of this study was to investigate the levels of metals associated with atmospheric aerosol collected at three sampling sites in central Taiwan, including Hemei、Tsaotun, and Chinshui. Distribution characteristics of metallic constituents in particulate matter and total suspended particulate matter (TSP) concentration collected from central Taiwan were measured to determine the origin of the sources of these pollutants. Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) was collected at these sampling sites from July 2008 to April 2009 by using a high-volume air sampler (n=99). Metals were recovered by the hot acid extraction procedure and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) to identify a total of 11 elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). Results indicated that the average concentration of TSP for Hemei、Tsaotun and Chinshui were found to be 111.3±45.0 μg/m3, 95.7±44.6 μg/m3, 91.3±54.0 μg/m3, respectively, where the average concentration of TSP followed the rank order: Hemei > Tsaotun > Chinshui. Overall, concentrations of TSP of these three sampling sites were at levels ranging from 21.7 μg/m3 to 270 μg/m3. We noticed that the concentration of TSP is lower in summer (21.7 μg/m3~79.1 μg/m3) when compared to those detected in winter (49.9 μg/m3~270 μg/m3). This finding may be due to the fact that average amount of precipitation in summer is greater when compared to those in winter, leading to the expeditious elimination of ambient particles. Additionally, we observed that levels of metallic elements associated with TSP collected from in Hemei followed the rank order: K > Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Cr > Ni> As > Cd > Co. Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb were among the highest levels of all constituents, excluding salts. On the average, levels of Cd (0.138-4.90 ng/m3), Cr (2.13-37.1 ng/m3), Pb (4.10- 183 ng/m3) were positively correlated with the concentrations of TSP. We also noticed that the average concentration of Pb in Hemei is higher than those of the other two sampling sites. Collectively, these findings confirmed that seasonal variation in climatic condition may have effects on the differences in the varying degree of contribution of specific source of pollution discharges to the sampling sites. (The authors gratefully acknowledge the National Science Council, Taiwan for financial support under project No. NSC97-2314-B-005-001)
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5783
其他識別: U0005-3007201017393300
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-3007201017393300
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