請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5789
標題: Anammox-MSBR系統之除氮效率及菌群結構探討
Nitrogen removal and microbial community structure of an Anammox-MSBR system
作者: 鄭敦仁
Cheng, Tun-Jen
關鍵字: 無氧氨氧化反應
Anammox-MSBR system
MSBR系統
除氮效率
菌群結構
HZO基因
Nitrogen removal
Microbial community structure
HZO gene
出版社: 環境工程學系所
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摘要: 近年來,由於工業開發及農業肥料過度使用,使得許多含氮污染物未經妥善處理即排放至環境中,導致水體含氮化合物含量過高,可能影響生態環境及人體健康。傳統上去除廢污水中氮化物需經由硝化脫硝等複雜程序處理,過程中必須考慮碳源以及溶氧等因素,操作設置成本昂貴,因此學界目前正積極開發研究無氧氨氧化(Anammox)技術。無氧氨氧化作用為自然界中重要的氮循環機制,具此機制之微生物稱無氧氨氧化微生物,屬於自營性微生物,可於無氧環境下,利用CO2作為碳源,將NH4+與NO2-反應形成N2,進而去除水中氮化物。然而,無氧氨氧化微生物生長緩慢,應用於實際廢水處理所需之啟動時間冗長,甚至常有污泥wash-out問題,導致實場化應用仍相當困難。 本研究嘗試以薄膜生物反應器啟動無氧氨氧化系統,藉由適當的植種源選擇、反應槽設計及操作條件控制,期望能夠有效縮短啟動時間。研究結果顯示此反應槽可於3個月內達到穩定除氮效果,氨氮及亞硝酸鹽氮之總去除率於穩定操作下可達95%以上,無機總氮(氨氮、亞硝酸鹽氮及硝酸鹽氮)去除率達60%以上,除氮速率約為0.510 kg-N/m3/day。由系統氮平衡及菌群結構分析可知,系統除氮機制以無氧氨氧化作用為主,脫硝作用及硝化作用則表現不顯著。系統中存在之除氮菌群以無氧氨氧化微生物Candidatus Brocadia sp.及脫硝菌Uncultured Thauera sp.為主,無氧氨氧化微生物數量穩定約為105 ~ 107 copies/μg DNA/ml sample。 長期觀察菌群結構分析顯示,系統操作試驗期間微生物菌相及無氧氨氧化微生物數量穩定,無明顯變化,有助於系統除氮效能提升且穩定系統除氮表現。另外,針對無氧氨氧化微生物功能性基因HZO基因分析之結果顯示,不同氮負荷測試下,此基因之多樣性出現變動,建議可以作為無氧氨氧化系統操作分析之微生物指標之一。由不同水質負荷下之分析結果顯示,氨氮濃度為63.14 mg-N/L,亞硝酸鹽氮濃度為86.42 mg-N/L,為本系統之最佳操作參數。 本研究以薄膜生物反應器啟動無氧氨氧化系統,並以微生物生長代謝特性作為系統操作控制指標,成功建立一套快速啟動無氧氨氧化系統之操作策略,對於未來無氧氨氧化技術應用於實場廢污水處理提供一可行之操作控制技術。
In recent years, the impact of nitrogen related pollutants which produced by industrial usage and agricultural fertilizer overuse raises significant concerns. These pollutants are often discharged to the environment without proper treatment. It may affect the ecological environment and human health as well. The traditional wastewater treatments of nitrogen compounds are through the nitrification and denitrification processes. These treatments need advanced operational techniques and could need expensive investigaments. Therefore, the development of alternative nitrogen removing technique such as anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) process draws tons of attentions to the academic research field. ANAMMOX is an important mechanism of the nitrogen cycle in nature. ANAMMOX bacteria (AMX), a group of the autotrophic microorganism, use CO2 as the carbon source and could metabolize NH4+ and NO2- to form N2. However, there are still many challenges in the application of ANAMMOX system. For example, due the extremely slow growth rate of AMX, start-up of ANAMMOX system requires a lengthly time and needs to avoid biomass wash-out problem as well. The main objective of this study is to start an ANAMMOX system with MBR (membrane bioreactor) design in attempt to shorten the startup time as well as testing appropriate sludge seeding, reactor design and operation parameters. Results showed that the reactor could achieve a stable nitrogen remove in just three months after startup. Efficiency of ammonia and nitrite removal reaches 95% and the removal of inorganic nitrogen (ammonia, nitrite and nitrate) is around 60%. Nitrogen removal rate of the system is about 0.510 kg-N/m3/day. Based on nitrogen balance calculation and microbial community structure analysis, the main mechanism of nitrogen removal in the system is ANAMMOX as the initial proposal. Nitrification and denitrification reaction in the reactor are insignificant. Candidatus Brocadia sp. and Uncultured Thauera sp. are the main bacteria responsible for nitrogen removing in the system. The cell count of AMX is stably maintained at 105 ~ 107 copies/μg DNA/ml sample. Long-term observation of microbial community structure shows that microbial community and the number of AMX are stable throughout the study. Besides regular AMX community analysis, results from testing HZO, one of the AMX functional genes shows that the diversity of HZO gene changed as the nitrogen loading changed. This HZO analysis could be used as the molecular biomarker of the future operational analysis of ANAMMOX system. Ammonia concentration of 63.14 mg-N/L and nitrite concentration of 86.42 mg-N/L are the optimal operation setting of this particular system. In conclusion, using MBR design setup and monitoring the bacterial community could successfully shorten the startup time need for ANAMMOX system. The techniques applied in this study provide an ideal strategy for operation control of ANAMMOX system for wastewater treatment.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5789
其他識別: U0005-2007201217314900
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2007201217314900
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