Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5792
標題: Pt/TiO2-xNx/SrTiO3光觸媒以提升太陽能光解水產氫速率
Enhancement of solar light induced water splitting for hydrogen production over Pt/TiO2-xNx/SrTiO3 photocatalysts
作者: 黃柄橓
Huang, Bing-Shun
關鍵字: 再生能源
Renewable energy
太陽能
產氫
光催化
二氧化鈦
Solar energy
H2 production
Photocatalysis
TiO2
出版社: 環境工程學系所
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摘要: 由於自然資源被廣泛地使用而造成能源枯竭,因此再生能源成為具有發展性的替代能源。光催化產氫以太陽能為能量來源、水為原料,是相當有發展性的綠能科技。此外,光催化產氫的過程中幾乎沒有污染產生。因此,藉由光觸媒進行光催化產氫為非常具有潛力來解決環境及能源問題之技術。藉由彙整文獻得知欲提升太陽能光解水之產氫速率,必須要提升光催化活性及光觸媒之光能吸收範圍。 本研究實驗方法為液相光催化產氫,將光觸媒至水溶液中經由光源照射產生氫氣並計算其產氫速率。於觸媒改質研究前,首先探討操作條件對產氫速率之影響,其操作條件主要包含犧牲劑濃度、反應溫度、固液比、反應pH值及操作時間。經由實驗分析結果找到最佳的反應條件,其結果顯示產氫速率強烈地受到這些參數之影響,因此,選擇適合的反應參數可使觸媒有效地進行光催化產氫反應及降低操作成本。 為了延緩電子-電洞對之再結合速率, Pt/TiO2光觸媒被合成並探討氧化/還原處理對觸媒特性及產氫速率之影響。研究結果顯示其產氫速率以氧化處理之光觸媒較還原處理具有更佳之成效。還原處理之光觸媒,其Pt型態為金屬態Pt(0),此造成TiO2晶相更容易由銳鈦礦轉為金紅石型態,導致其比表面積低於氧化處理之光觸媒。綜合化學型態及光學分析研究,結果發現PtO/TiO2比Pt(0)/TiO2具有更大的能階,且氧化處理之PtO/TiO2光觸媒具備Pt均勻分佈、較低之晶相轉移比例、高比表面積之特性,因此可以有效地提升光催化產氫速率。 為了提升光觸媒之光能吸收範圍及增加活性基位,本研究探討鍛燒溫度對Pt/N-doped TiO2觸媒之特性及產氫速率的影響。結果顯示鍛燒溫度強烈地影響Pt/N-doped TiO2的結構、型態、氮摻雜量、比表面積、晶相及光能吸收率。除此之外,鍛燒溫度亦強烈地影響N-doped TiO2的孔洞尺寸。在鍛燒溫度為400 oC時,等溫吸脫附曲線顯示該觸媒為中孔洞型態。經由場發射-穿透式電子顯微鏡分析指出中孔洞的N-doped TiO2為顆粒組成的網狀結構。然而,在高的鍛燒溫度,使得N-doped TiO2的氮摻雜效果變差,進而導致其可見光吸收範圍降低。本研究藉由改變鍛燒環境,在不影響N-doped TiO2之孔洞結構、觸媒晶相、化學組態的情況下,可以有效地改良N-doped TiO2之光學性質,因此具有較佳的可見光吸收範圍並使得太陽能水解產氫之速率提升。 為了更進一步提升光催化產氫速率,設計Pt/TiO2-XNx/SrTiO3三接面複合材料以同時提升太陽能利用率及光催化活性。首先藉由溶膠凝膠法將N-doped TiO2長成於SrTiO3並探討SrTiO3與N-doped TiO2的關係與影響。由X光射線繞射儀和X光射線光電子能譜儀結果證實N-doped TiO2成功地被製造並與SrTiO3結合。當N-doped TiO2長成於SrTiO3可避免顆粒團聚,因此不同比例的複合半導體之比表面積分析,其結果皆大於理論值。此外,SrTiO3與N-doped TiO2結合,可提升其可見光吸收範圍。產氫結果顯示SrTiO3與N-doped TiO2結合可有效地提升產氫速率,被歸因於此複合半導體可避免顆粒聚集及使得電子-電洞分離並轉移至表面。製備完成的TiO2-xNx/SrTiO3複合半導體進一步經由光沉積法將Pt披覆於複合半導體以形成Pt/TiO2-xNx/SrTiO3三接面複合材料,其產氫速率於模擬太陽光下可更進一步被提升。根據SrTiO3、N-doped TiO2及Pt能階位置,產氫速率提升之原因可被歸因於光激發產生的電子與電洞對能由複合材料內層轉移至外層,因此促進氧化還原反應並延緩再結合速率,其研究結果顯示Pt/TiO2-xNx/SrTiO3三接面光觸媒能有效地於模擬太陽光下進行光解水產氫,其產氫速率約為1733 μmolg-1h-1。
As natural resources are rapidly exhausted, renewable energy sources show promise as alternative resources. Photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) production, one of attractive green technologies, uses solar energy and water as material source. In addition, the technology produces very few pollutants during photocatalysis. Therefore, photocatalytic H2 production via photocatalysts has great potential for solving environmental and energy issues. To enhance H2 production from solar light induced water splitting, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of photocatalysis and the light adsorption range of photocatalyst. In order to increase the efficiency of photocatalytic H2 production, the influence of the following operational parameters, namely initial sacrificial reagent concentration, reaction temperature, photocatalyst concentration, initial solution pH, and irradiation time, was the main focus. The hydrogen evolution was experimentally found to be strongly affected by the above parameters. The optimum values of initial solution pH, photocatalyst concentration, and sacrificial reagent concentration were obtained. The results showed that the utilization of the photocatalyst with the proper operational conditions could lead to considerably high efficiency of photocatalytic hydrogen production. To reduce the recombination rate of e-/h+ pairs, oxidation /reduction-treated Pt/TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized and the influences of redox-treated Pt/TiO2 photocatalysts on H2 production were investigated. In terms of H2 production rate, the oxidation treatment showed higher reactivity than the reduction treatment. The reduction treatment allowed the formation of metallic Pt(0), which more easily catalyzed the transition of TiO2 from the anatase to the rutile phases. Reduction-treated Pt/TiO2 photocatalysts had lower SBET values than oxidation-treated Pt/TiO2 photocatalysts due to the higher percentage of TiO2 in the rutile phase. Combining the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and optical analyses, PtO/TiO2 showed a higher energy band gap than metallic Pt(0)/TiO2, indicating that oxidation-treated Pt/TiO2 was more capable of achieving water splitting for H2 production. According to the results of this study, the oxidation treatment of Pt/TiO2 photocatalysts could significantly enhance the reactivity of photocatalytic H2 production because of their homogenous distribution, lower phase transition, higher SBET, and higher energy band gap. To enhance the light adsorption range and the reactive sites of photocatalyst, the effects of calcination temperature on the properties and H2 production ability of nitrogen-doped (N-doped) TiO2 photodeposited with 0.2 wt% Pt (platinum) were studied. The results showed that the calcination temperature of Pt/Ndoped TiO2 obviously affected the structure, morphology and N atomic content, resulting in different TiO2 phases, SBET values, and visible light absorption abilities. Besides, the SBET results indicated the pore size of N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was significantly affected by calcination temperature. When the N-doped TiO2 calcined at 400 oC, the adsorption hysteresis of the isotherm was close to the Type H4. Field-emission-transmission electron microscopy analysis (FE-TEM) showed the mesoporous structure was composed of nanoparticles. However, high clacination temperature resulted in less visible light absorption region of the N-doped TiO2. In this study, the effect of calcination atmosphere on the properties of N-doped TiO2 was discussed. The results showed that the visible light absorption region of the N-doped TiO2 was significantly improved by calcination atmosphere (N2 and NH3 atmospheres). Moreover, the pore size, crystalline phase, and chemical state were not changed under this calcination condition. Therefore, the H2 production of modified N-doped TiO2 raised effitiency three times than no modified one. To further increase solar light induced H2 production rate, the Pt/TiO2-xNx/SrTiO3 triplejunction was designed. First, N-doped TiO2 was grown on the surface of the SrTiO3 via sol-gel process and the effect of SrTiO3 on the heterojunction was studied by various ratios of SrTiO3/N-doped TiO2. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and XPS analyses showed that the N-doped TiO2 was successfully fabricated and then combined with SrTiO3. N-doped TiO2 coupled with SrTiO3 prevented particle agglomeration and thus the heterojunction materials had higher specific surface areas than the theoretical values. In addition, SrTiO3 coupled with N-doped TiO2 enhanced the visible light absorption range. The photocatalytic H2 production rates of the heterojunction were significantly increased, especially at 5%, which could be ascribed to the enhancement of e-/h+ separation, charge migration from the photocatalyst interior to the surface, and the prevention of particle agglomeration. Then, the triplejunction was prepared by coating Pt on the TiO2-xNx/SrTiO3. The solar light induced H2 production rate was much enhanced by the triplejunction. Based on the energy levels of SrTiO3, N-doped TiO2, and Pt, it was deduced that the photogenerated charges of the triplejunction migrates from the interior of the material to the surface, thus promoting the redox reaction and reducing the e-/h+ recombination rate. Therefore, the triplejuncion effectively split H2O to produce H2 under solar light irradiation.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5792
其他識別: U0005-0108201212280200
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-0108201212280200
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