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標題: 活性碳高分子複合薄膜之製備、結構特性與水處理操作性能之研究
The preparation, structural properties and operation characteristics of activated carbon polymer composite membranes for water treatment
作者: 黃立綸
Hwang, Li-Luen
關鍵字: 活性碳
Activated carbon
Composite membrane
Permeation flux
Humic acid
Fouling mechanisms
出版社: 環境工程學系所
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摘要: 薄膜技術已廣泛應用於廢水高級處理與水回收處理程序,為改善傳統單一高分子薄膜於應用操作上所面臨問題,不同高分子混合薄膜與複合薄膜已逐漸發展。高分子組成比例和複合材料含量影響混合薄膜和複合薄膜之孔洞分佈、孔洞大小、孔隙率、親/疏水性質、粗糙度、以及孔洞結構,並會影響混合薄膜和複合薄膜之過濾特性、反洗效果以及積垢特性,因此本研究為改善單一有機高分子薄膜應用在水和廢水處理中之過濾效率和滲透性,創新製備活性碳高分子複合薄膜,探討薄膜表面和結構孔洞分佈以及表面親水性和粗糙度對純水通量、滲透通量和腐植酸去除效率之影響,藉由場發式電子顯微鏡、原子力學顯微鏡及接觸角分析儀,分別量測活性碳高分子複合薄膜的表面型態、表面粗糙度、及親疏水性特性,並探討活性碳複合薄膜過濾腐植酸之操作特性、積垢機制、及反洗效果,製備出同時具有高過濾通量、去除效率和反洗通量回復率之複合薄膜,以利後續水處理與回收之應用發展。 本研究利用濕式相轉換方法製備聚苯砜(Polyphenylsulfone, PPSU)/聚醚亞醯胺(Polyetherimide, PEI)/聚乙二醇(Polyethlene glycol, PEG)/活性碳(Activated carbon, AC)複合薄膜,混合不同比例之親水性PEI和PEG以及活性碳微粒進行PPSU高分子薄膜改質,可明顯增加高分子複合薄膜之結構孔隙率、表面親水性、化學特性和表面粗糙度,進而提高過濾通量,有效減少高分子複合薄膜本身過濾阻抗。此外,增加活性碳含量,可以有效提高AC/PPSU/PEI/PEG複合薄膜過濾通量和滲透率,而增加親水性多孔形成劑PEG之混合比例,有助於提高AC/PPSU/PEI/PEG複合薄膜表面親水性和孔隙率,有效減少複合薄膜本身阻抗。本研究並測試不同過濾壓力、不同反洗壓力和反洗頻率,探討活性碳複合薄膜之過濾特性、反洗效率和積垢機制,證實活性碳複合薄膜能有效增加純水通量、減緩薄膜積垢與滲透通量衰減、提高薄膜反洗效率與通量回復率,降低薄膜不可逆積垢的形成,並且能防止高分子複合薄膜發生形變。
The membrane techniques have been widely applied in the advanced wastewater treatments and water reuse processes. To overcome the problems and constraints on the application of single organic membranes, the development of different polymer blend membranes and composite membranes have become a mainstream of membrane technology nowadays. The polymer compositions and materials of the polymer composite membranes significantly affect the pore distributions, pore size, porosity, hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity, surface roughness, and structure morphology. These characteristics can also affect the filtration properties, backwashing efficiencies, and fouling mechanisms of the blend and composite membranes. Therefore, this study tries to prepare the novel activated carbon (AC) polymer composite membranes and explores their characteristics of the pore distribution, structure morphology, hydrophilicity, and roughness as well as their performances on the pure water flux, permeation flux, and humic acid (HAs) removal efficiency. The surface morphology, roughness, hydrophilicity, and hydrophobicity of the AC composite membranes were measured by the field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and contact angle analyzer. The filtration properties, fouling mechanisms and backwashing efficiencies of the AC polymer composite membranes were also investigated. The AC polymer composite membranes with high filtration flux, removal efficiency, and flux recovery rates were successfully developed for the future application in the wastewater treatment and water reuse processes. The polyphenylsulfone (PPSU)/polyetherimide (PEI)/polyethylene glycol (PEG)/activated carbon (AC) composite membranes were prepared by using the wet phase inversion method, and modified by the addition of different ratios of hydrophilic PEI, PEG, and AC particles. The structure porosity, hydrophilicity, chemical properties, and surface roughness of the AC composite membranes were significantly improved, and the filtration flux was increased and the intrinsic membrane resistances were decreased. With the increased contents of AC particles, the filtration flux and permeability of the AC/PPSU/PEI/PEG composite membranes were improved. The addition of hydrophilic pore-formation agent PEG helped to increase the surface hydrophilicity and porosity as well as decrease the intrinsic membrane resistances of the AC/PPSU/PEI/PEG composite membranes. The filtration performance, backwashing properties and fouling mechanisms of the AC composite membranes were also investigated by operating at different filtration pressures, backwashing pressures, and backwashing frequency. The results illustrate that the AC polymer composite membranes can effectively increase the pure water flux (PWF), mitigate the decline of permeation flux (PF), increase the backwashing efficiency and flux recovery rate (FRR), reduce the formation of irreversible fouling, and prevent the polymer composite membranes deformed.
其他識別: U0005-2008201301424500
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