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標題: 玉山箭竹繁殖生物學之探討
Studies on Reproductive Biology of Yushania niitakayamensis (Hay.) Keng f.
作者: 廖敏君
Liao, Min-Chun
關鍵字: Yushania niitakayamensis
flowering phenology
Clonal plant
出版社: 森林學系
摘要: 雪山東峰於2001年2月18日發生火燒,致玉山箭竹及其他高山植物遭受火燒之干擾。於該年8月底初步調查發現,玉山箭竹有開花現象。本研究針對玉山箭竹的物候、開花習性,加以深入研究。另一方面,一般認為玉山箭竹係以地下莖拓展其範圍,很難利用外部形態來確定營養系大小、結構以及遺傳變異,本研究亦利用ISSR分子標記方法判定玉山箭竹營養系大小及分布情形。經由以上兩項研究,期能對玉山箭竹的繁殖特性有進一步瞭解。 玉山箭竹物候觀察時間從2001年8月起至2003年10月止,共26個月。每年5∼11月為開花期,成熟花序為紫紅色,果熟期從10月開始,至翌年1月;然2003年之開花未見結實。2002年發現部分的玉山箭竹從已開花之部位繼續長出花芽,但花序在未完全抽出之前即已開花,隨即乾枯。果實為穎果,一小花可結一果實,平均百粒重約0.74 g;開花、結實情形以2001年最好,逐年下降;於現場未發現種子苗。2002年5月調查發現有177個樣株存活,其中開花樣株有133個,直至2003年10月18日只剩11個樣株存活,但已無開花。另外在2003年發現有假小穗(pseudospikelets)的構造,其內部不具有雄蕊及雌蕊等生殖器官,小穗形狀如同真正花序;於玉山箭竹地下莖亦發現有花序抽出。營養系判定實驗方面,在20 m × 20 m矩形樣區中,以網格點採樣方式,每2 m為一採樣點,共121個樣本,利用ISSR分子標記方式,判定其營養系的大小及組成情形。本實驗選用10個ISSR引子,共得到164個條帶,其中多型性條帶有126個(76.38%),單型性條帶有38個(23.17%)。結果顯示,在所有樣本中產生出106個基因型(營養系),有100個樣本皆為不同的營養系,其餘21個樣本分別組成6個具有連續性的營養系,最大營養系有8 m之遠。
The Mt. Sheishan East Peak was burned on 18 February 2001 and resulted in alpine plants destroyed. In preliminary investigation, we observed Yushania niitakayamensis had flowering phenomenon in August, 2001. The present study investigates the phenology and flowering habitat of Y. niitakayamensis. In addition, Y. niitakayamensis is generally thought to be spreaded mainly by rhizomes. It is difficult to identify the demography of Y. niitakayamensis. Clonal diversity of Y. niitakayamensis from the Mt. Sheishan East Peak was investigated using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. These studies were conducted in order to shed light on the reproductive biology of Y. niitakayamensis. The period of observation was from August 2001 to October 2003 and took approximately 26 months. The phase of flowering is from May to November every year. Seed production occurs from October to January. In 2003 we didn't observe see production. We discovered some of individuals continued to flower at the same buds, but the inflorescences would dry soon. A floret can be resulted in one seed, mean of one hundred seeds weight about 0.74 g. The amount of flowering and seed production were the best in 2001 and decreasing year by years. No seedlings were founded. In October 2003, only 11 individuals were still alive. Some of them had pseudospikelets which look like real inflorescences and we observed one of the inflorescences comes from a rhizome. Clonal structure was examined by the ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) assay in 121 individuals of Y. niitakayamensis. Ten of the 125 primers screened were used in the study because they produced reproducibly amplified polymorphisms. Using these primers 164 DNA fragments were generated with 126 (76.38%) being polymorphic. One hundred and six genotypes were determined, 100 clones of them were all different individuals. Remaining 21 individuals were composed of 6 continuing clones; the largest clone covered a distance of 8 m.
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