Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: 栽植密度對樟樹苗木生長及生理反應之影響
Effects of different densities on the growth and physiological responses of Cinnamomum camphora seedlings
作者: 鍾欣芸
Chung, Hsin-Yun
關鍵字: Seedling density
Cinnamomum camphora
出版社: 森林學系所
引用: 李芳胤、陳世賢(2007)土壤分析實驗手冊。新文京開發出版股份有限公司。共394頁。 沈慈安、陳岫女(1992)苗床密度對紅檜1-0幼苗在穴植管中生長的影響。中華林學季刊25(1):3-15。 卓家榮(2005)柑桔土壤肥力檢測及營養診斷技術。農業試驗所特刊121:177-191。 徐善德、廖玉婉(2006)植物生理學。偉明圖書有限公司。共602頁。 陳忠義、廖天賜(2007)構樹苗木對光度之生理反應。林業研究季刊29(3):15-26。 廖天賜、張安邦和翁仁憲(2002)遮陰對大葉楠及香楠苗木光合作用及生理之影響。林業研究季刊24(1):1-10。 廖玉琬、徐善德(2002)植物生理學。啟英文化事業有限公司。共581頁 劉業經、呂福原、歐辰雄(1994)臺灣樹木誌。國立中興大學農學院叢書。共925頁。 Allen., S. E., H. M. Grimshaw, and A.P. Rowland. (1986) Chemical analysis. In: Moore, P.D., and S. B. Chapman (eds.) Methods in plant ecology. Blackwell Scientific, Palo Alto, California, USA. p.285-337. Brahim, M. B., D. Loustau, J. P. Gaudillère and E. Saur (1996) Effects of phosphate deficiency on photosynthesis and accumulation of starch and soluble sugars in 1-year-old seedlings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait). Annals of Forest Science 53:801-810. Brandford, M.M. (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72:248–254. Brissette, J. C. and W. C. Carlson(1987)Effects of nursery density on shortleaf pine. IN: Landis, T. D., technical coordinator. Proceedings, Intermontain Forest Nursery Association. Burgess, D. and S. Wetzel (2000) Nutrient availability and regeneration response after partial cutting and site preparation in eastern white pine. Forest Ecology and Management 138:249-261. Cakmak, I., C. Hengeler and H. Marschner (1994a) Partitioning of shoot and root dry matter and carbohydrates in bean plants suffering froom phosphorus, potassium and magnesium deficiency. Journal of Experimental Botany 45(278):1245-1250. Cakmak, I., C. Hengeler and H. Marschner (1994b) Changes in phloem export of sucrose in leaves in response to phosphorus otassium and magnesium deficiency in bean plants. Journal of Experimental Botany 45(278):1251-1257. Cannell, M. G.R. and J. Grace (1993) Competition for light: detection, measurement, and quantification. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23:1969-1979. Cheng, L. and L. H. Fuchigami (2002) Growth of young apple trees in relation to reserve nitrogen and carbohydrates. Tree Physiology 22: 1297-1303. Cicek, E., N. Cicek and N. Billir (2007) Effects of seedbed density on one-year-old Fraxinus angustifolia seedling characteristics and outplanting performance. New Forests 33:81-91. Cipollini, D. F. and J. Bergelson(2001)Plant density and nutrient availability constrain constitutive and wound-induced expression of trypsin inhibitors in Brassica napus. Journal of Chemical Ecology 27(3):593-610. Davis, A. and D. F. Jacobs (2005) Quantifying root system quality of nursery seedlings and relationship to outplanting performance. New Forests 30: 295-311. Dubois, M., K.A. Gilles, J.K. Hamilton, P.A. Rebers and F. Smith (1956) Colorimeteric method for determination of sugars and related substance. Analytical Chemistry 28:350-356. Ericsson, T., L. Rytter and E. Bapaavuori (1996) Physiology of carbon allocation in trees. Biomass and Bioenergy 11:115-127. Florentine, S. K. and J. E. D. Fox (2003) Competition between eucalyptus victrix seedlings and grass species. Ecological Research 18:25-39. Ghosh, S. K(1979)Effect of bottlegourd mosaic virus on reducing sugar and starch contents of leaves of Lagenaria vulgaris. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 95:250-253. Gómez-aparicio, L., F. Valladares and R. Zamora (2006) Differential light responses of Mediterranean tree saplings: linking ecophysiology with regeneration niche in four co-occurring species. Tree Physiology 26:947-958. Grace, J. B. and D. Tilman (1990) Perspectives on plant competition. Academic Press. PP165. Hart, J. W. (1988) Light and plant growth. Unwin Hyman Ltd. Hawkins, B. J., G. Henry and S. B. R. Kiiskila (1998) Biomass and nutrient allocation in Douglas-fir and Amabilis-fir seedling: influence of growth rate and nutrition. Tree Physiology 18:803-810. Herms, D.A. and W. J. Mattson (1992) The dilemma of plants: To grow or defend. Quarterly Review of Biology 67: 283-335. Jinks, R. and B. Mason (1998) Effects of seedling density on the growth of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. marititma Melv.), and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) in containers. Annals of Science Foresty 55:407-423. Jose, S., S. Merritt and C. L. Ramsey (2003) Growth, nutrition, phtosynthesis and transpiration responses of longleaf pine seedlings to light, water and nitrogen. Forest ecology and Management 180:335-344. Kabeya, D. and S. Sakai (2005) The relative importance of carbohydrate and nitrogen for the resprouting ability of Quercus crispula seedlings. Annals of Botany 96:479-788. Kennedy, HE Jr (1988) Effects of seedbed density and row spacing on growth and nutrient concentrations of nuttall oak and green ash seedlings. USDA Forestry Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Reseach Note, SO-349. Lim, M.T. and J.E. Cousens (1986) The internal transfer of nutrients in Scot pine stand. I. Biomass components, current growth and their nutrient contents. Forestry 59:1-16. Lodhiyal, L.S. and N. Lodhiyal (1997) Nutrient cycling and nutrient use efficiency in short rotation, high density central Himalayan Tarai poplar plantation. Annals of botany 76:191-199. Lodhiyal, N., L. S. Lodhiyal and Y. P. S. Pangtey (2002) Structure and function of shisham forests in central Himalaya, india: nutrient dynamics. Annals of Botany 89:55-65. Lópex-Serrano, F. R., J. de las Heras, A.I. González-Ochoa and F.A. García-Morote (2005) Effects of silvicultural treatments and seasonal patterns on foliar nutrients in young post-fire Pinus halepensis forest stands. Forest ecology and management 210:321-336. López-Bellido, L., M. Fuentes and J. E. Castillo (2000) Growth and yield of white lupin under Mediterranean conditions: effect of plant density. Agronomy Journal 92:200-205. Lucero, D.W., P. Grieu and A. Guckert (2002) Water deficit and plant competition effects on 14C assimilate partitioning in the plant-soil system of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.). Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34:1-11. Mack, R. N. and J. L. Harper (1977) Interference in dune annuals: spatial pattern and neighbourhood effects. Journal of ecology 65:345-363. Malik, B. and V. R.Timmer (1998) Biomass partitioning and nitrogen retranslocation in black spruce seedlings on competition of nutrient-loaded black spruce seedlings on a boreal mixed wood site. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26:1651-1659. Marshall, J. D. (1985) Carbohydrate status as a measure of seedling quality. Evaluating seedling quality: In: Duryea M. L. (ed.), Evaluating Seedling Quality: Principles, Procedures and Predictive Ability of Major Tests. Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon Stte University, Corvallis, pp. 49-58. Nobel, P. S., L. J. Zaragoza and W. K. Smith (1975) Relation between mesophyll surface area, photosynthetic rate, and illumination level during development for leaves of Plectranthus parviflorus Henckel. Plant Physiology 55:1067-1070. Noland, T. L., G. H. Mohammed and R. G. Wagner (2001) Morphological characteristics associated with tolerance to competition from hervaceous vegetation for seedlings of jack pine, black spruce and white pine. New Forest 21:199-215. Rajcan, I, L. M. Dwyer and M. Tollenaar (1999) Note on relationship between leaf soluble carbohydrate and chlorophyll concentrations in maize during leaf senescence. Field Crops Research 63:13-17. Richards, N. A., A. L. Leaf and D. H. Bickelhaupt (1973) Growth and nutrient uptake of coniferous seedlings:comparison among 10 species at various seedbed densites. Plant and Soil 38:125-143. Ritchie, G. A., J. Keeley and B. J. Bond (2007) The density effect: red/fer red signaling and Douglas-fir seedling growth in a variable density field test. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-50:38-45. Rohla, C.T., M. W. Smith and N. O. Maness (2007) Influence of cluster thinning on return bloom, nut quality and concentrations of potassium, nitrogenm and non-structural carbohydrates. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 132(2):158-165. Salifu, K. F. and V. R. Timmer (2001) Nutrient retranslocation response of Picea mariana seedlings to nitrogen supply. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65:905-913. Simpson, D. G. (1991) Growing density and container volume affect nursery and field growth of interior spruce seedlings. North Journal of Applied Forestry 8:160-165. Sipman, R. D. (1964) Low seedbed densities can improve early height growth of planted slash and loblolly pine seedlings. Journal of Forestry 62:814-817. Switzer, G. L., and L. E. Nelson (1963) Effects of nursery fertility and density on seedling characteristics, yield, and field performance of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) Soil Science Society of America 27:461-464. Taiz, L. and E. Zeiger. (2006) Plant physiology. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Wang, J. R., S. W. Simard and J.P. Kimmins (1995) Physiological responses of paper birch to thinning in British Columbia. Forest ecology and Management 79:177-184. Westoby, M. (1984) The self- thinning rule. Advances in Ecological Research 14:167-225. Wichman, J. R. and M. V. Coggeshall (1983) The effects of seedbed density and fertilization on 1-0 white oak nursery stock. Tree Planters’ Notes 34(4):13-16 Wichman, J. R. and M. V. Coggeshall (1984) Effects of seedbed density and fertilization on root-pruned 2-0 white oak nursery stock. Tree Planters’ Notes 35(4):22-24.
摘要: 本試驗目的在於瞭解生長於不同栽植間距下之苗木,會如何改變其生理現象,以適應不同的生存空間。試驗材料為樟樹(Cinnamomum camphora)苗木,栽植間距分別是單株苗木與其鄰近苗木距離5.0、7.5及10.0 cm;試驗期間共3個月,每月量測苗高、地徑,數算葉片數、芽數及節間數;試驗結束後取樣量測其總葉面積、生物量累積、養分濃度及碳水化合物濃度。外觀形態上,平均苗高淨生長量是以栽植間距為7.5 cm之17.29 cm較高;平均地徑淨生長方面則是栽植間距為7.5 cm及10.0 cm顯著高於5.0 cm者;葉片數淨增加量是以栽植間距為10.0 cm之32片顯著高於其他處理。在生物量方面,以栽植間距為10.0 cm之每株平均總生物量5.54 g DW顯著高於5.0 cm者之3.95 g DW,而栽植間距7.5 cm之每株平均總生物量為5.22 g DW,則與10.0 cm者無顯著差異。葉部的養分濃度,除了鈣以外,氮、磷、鉀、鎂會隨栽植間距增加而下降,一般以栽植間距為5.0 cm者會顯著高於10.0 cm者,而7.5 cm者在鉀、鎂濃度方面和5.0 cm者無顯著差異,氮、磷則與10.0 cm無顯著差異。碳水化合物的濃度則隨栽植間距增加而增加,栽植間距由低到高分別為133.05、151.36及154.90 mg g-1DW,且以間距為10.0 cm者顯著高於5.0 cm者。整體而言,栽植間距為7.5和10 cm於苗高、地徑、生物量及碳水化合物濃度皆未有顯著之差異,如此結果可推測對樟樹苗木而言,7.5 cm之栽植間距已足夠提供6個月大樟樹苗木生長3個月所需之空間。
The purpose of this study is to understand how the seedlings change their physiology to adapt the survival spaces. The material is Cinnamomum camphora seedlings. We planted 6 months' seedling in three kinds of distances (5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 cm between two seedlings) for three months. During this period, we measured the seedling height, basal diameter, and counted the numbers of leaf , bud and node every month. At the end of this experiment, we measured the leaf areas, biomass, nutrient and carbohydrate concentration. In the morphylogy, average seedling net height increment of the planting distance between two seedlings in 7.5 cm was 17.29 cm. The basel diameter increment of the planting distance between two seedlings in 7.5 and 10.0 cm are significantly higher than 5.0 cm. The net leaf number increment of the planting distance between two seedlings in 10.0 cm is significantly higher than the others. In tern of biomass, the total biomass of the seedlings under the planting distance in 10.0 cm is 5.54 g plant-1. That is significantly higher than 5.0 cm (i.e. 3.95 g plant-1), and there is no different with 7.5 cm (i.e. 5.22 g plant-1). The concentration of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and magnesium decreased in the leaf coincided with planting distance increased, expect calcium. The concentration of nutrient in the leaf under the planting distance with 5.0 cm is significantly higher than 10.0 cm. The concentration of nutrient in the leaf under 7.5 cm is the same with 5.0 cm in potassium and magnesium, and no significant under 10.0 cm in nitrogen and phosphorous. The carbohydrate concentration increased with planting distance increased , from 5.0 cm to 10.0 cm is 133.05, 151.36 and 154.90 mg g-1, respectively. Overview, there are no significance in seedling height, basal diameter, biomass and carbohydrate concentrate under planting distance in 7.5 and 10.0 cm. According to this result, we could conjecture that the space under 7.5 cm distance is enough for the 6 months' Cinnamomum camphora seedling to grow for 3 months.
Appears in Collections:森林學系



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.