Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/66005
標題: 疏伐作業對大葉桃花心木林分結構變化與更新之影響
Thinning Effect on the Stand Structure Development and Regeneration of Swietenia macrophylla Plantation
作者: 張鈞媛
Chang, Jun-Yuan
關鍵字: Weibull pdf
Weibull pdf
Percentile
Schnute growth model
Ingrowth
Shin-Hua Forest Experimental Station
百分數
Schnute 生長模式
晉級生長
新化林場
出版社: 森林學系所
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摘要: 為了達到大葉桃花心木的永續經營,森林、林分與林木層級等三層級的現況、功能與變遷及生物生態量化資料的收集和推估是必須的,而生長收穫正是林分、林木層級量化不可或缺的資料,故本研究針對三層級的變遷加以探討,尤其是疏伐作業對大葉桃花心木人工林生長與更新之影響進行探討,以利未來永續經營之規劃與評估。 一、森林層級,以瞭解興大實驗林新化林場1993-2002年土地利用型之地景變遷情況,將1993年與2002年之土地利用型以FRAGSTATS程式分別計算一般性面積指標、形狀性指標及地景多樣性指標之地景結構指數,比較造林地在1993年及2002年的土地利用類型的地景變遷情形。研究結果顯示,面積指標指出大葉桃花心木的面積有明顯的增加,大葉桃花心木純林為64.3ha,佔林場範圍505ha的12.73%、佔林場屬地374ha的17.19%;而大葉桃花心木之混淆林為167.76ha佔林場範圍33.22%、佔林場屬地44.86%;與大葉桃花心木有關之林型面積佔林場範圍45.95%、佔林場屬地62.05%。在形狀指數方面,顯示了與桃花心木有關之林型已具有擴展趨勢。由地景多樣性指標顯著的增加,說明林相組成在2002年較1993年的地景更多樣。竹類、柚木、相思樹等純林漸為大葉桃花心木之混淆林所取代,說明大葉桃花心木可以與其他樹種一起生長良好,因此大葉桃花心木非常適合在台灣南部如新化林場栽植生長。 二、林分層級,則在新化林場第二林班1978年造林及1999年疏伐之21年生大葉桃花心木設立對照組、10%、20%和30%的斷面積疏伐等四種處理樣區,而每種處理三個重複,共計12個20m×25m的疏伐樣區,分別於1999年、2001年和2008年進行疏伐後的樣區調查。透過Weibull機率密度函數二參數b、c值來描述直徑分佈,並透過與K-S適合度測驗(K-S goodness of fit test)進行檢測。更針對小苗株樹、苗齡、苗高和地徑進行調查分析,並藉由苗高探討苗齡,由苗齡來探討苗木的更新問題。研究結果顯示, Weibull參數b值有隨著林齡增加而增加,又以對照組增加的趨勢最為緩慢。隨著疏伐強度的增加,各林分結構之Weibull參數b值都有增加之趨勢,10%疏伐度的Weibull參數b值從21年生的27.46-29.75增加為30年生的32.12-37.23;20%疏伐度的Weibull參數b值從21年生的26.61-34.90增加為30年生的31.81-42.10;30%疏伐度的Weibull參數b值從21年生的23.49-33.61增加為30年生的34.78-43.75,顯示疏伐有助於林分直徑階的生長、結構歧異度的增加。各疏伐樣區之Weibull參數c值在疏伐後明顯的大於3.6,而呈現右偏分布。而疏伐樣區由2001年-2008年兩次調查分析中得知,晉級林木的林木在10%和20%疏伐處理時株樹為最多,在包含晉級林木的生長下,10%和20%疏伐度之樣區,其c值最小分別為1.87和1.76,明顯的呈現左偏分布,亦說明樣區內已有小林木之出現。在疏伐樣區小苗更新調查中,結果顯示以冪次關係最能解釋苗齡、苗高和地徑間之相關性,顯示在第3年已出現天然更新現象,而10%疏伐處理在小苗更新株數上高達9300Nt/ha,明顯地高於對照組之4200Nt/ha、20%疏伐處理的6000Nt/ha和30%疏伐處理的5300Nt/ha,本研究顯示10%疏伐處理有利於大葉桃花心木幼齡木之更新生長。 三、林木層級,針對樣區內百分數Xp.24、Xp.63和Xp.93之樣木進行樹蕊鑽取,用以獲得每年之年輪資料,並利用Schnute生長模式來建構此3個百分數樣木的生長曲線;透過此3個百分數法來求得不同時期描述林分結構的Weibull參數,進而探討疏伐後林分結構之變化。研究結果顯示,1999年疏伐後百分數Xp.24、Xp.63和Xp.93樣木在2007年調查時以30%疏伐度之胸高直徑絕對生長量為最多;利用Schnute生長模式配合百分數法進行疏伐後林分Weibull參數b、c值的求解,結果顯示疏伐樣區之Weibull參數b值有隨著林齡的增加而增加,b參數隨著疏伐強度的增加而增加,說明疏伐作業可促進林木之直徑階生長;而參數c值的變化介於0.58-2.62,呈現左偏分布。 綜合以上各點,大葉桃花心木在新化林場的生長情形非常良好,若能適度的給予撫育措施,則能促進該林木的小苗更新與林分生長,因此若要針對大葉桃花心木進行疏伐作業時,除了決定疏伐處理的強度外,亦應考量各林木位置的配置與選疏伐木的標準,以及將各疏伐樣區間之環境因子一併列入考量,如此才會得到較為明顯的生長效果。
In order to achieves the sustainable management of Swietenia macrophylla. It is necessary to collect and predict the status, functions and changes which in the forest level, stand level and tree level. The growth and yield are indispensable data in stand level and tree level. Therefore this study discussed the changes of three levels, in particular in thinning effect on the stand structure development and regeneration of Swietenia macrophylla plantation. 1. In the forest level, this study concerned about the landscape change of land-use in the Shin-Hua Forest Experimental Station in the year of 1993-2002. FRAGSTATS formula was used to analyze landscape structure index of land-use map in year 1993 and year 2002. We selected landscape index such as the general area index, the shape index and the landscape diversity index and landscape changes were discussed. The results showed that: 64.3ha (12.73%) of the Shin-Hua Forest Experimental Station was occupied by pure forest of Swietenia macrophylla, and 167.76ha (33.22%) occupied by Swietenia macrophylla mixed forest landscape area under the boundary of 505ha in the Shin-Hua Forest Experimental Station (there is 62.05% under the NCHU ownership of 374ha in the Shin-Hua Forest Experimental Station). From the results, we found that the 1993-2002 change of mean shape index (MSI) different forest type in Shin-Hua. The results showed Swietenia macrophylla related mixed forest types have expanded. The information revealed the increasing tendency of Swietenia macrophylla by the landscape diversity index. We could explain the forest types were more diverse in year 2002 than year 1993. It's showed that the Swietenia macrophylla be adaptive to regenerate and grow in that area. Swietenia macrophylla is growing well. Because the pure forests of bamboo, Tectona grandis and Acacia confusa were substituted by Swietenia macrophylla mixed forests. 2. In the stand level, we established the thinning treatment of 10%, 20%, 30% thinning degree and control site by the parameter diameter basal area of Swietenia macrophylla which located at 2nd forest compartment of Shin-Hua Forest Experimental Station and planting in year 1978 and thinning in year 1999. Each thinning treatment has three duplicates and has 12 thinning plots which was 20m×25m. We carried out plots inventory after thinning separately in year 1999, 2001 and 2008. Finally, we used the parameter b and c value of Weibull probability density function to describe the diameter distribution. K-S goodness of fit test were used to test the observation data and predictvalue. We also inventoried and analysis the number of seedlings, age, height and ground- diameter. The thinning effect on the development of stand structure and regeneration of Swietenia macrophylla were discussed in the paper. The results showed that: Weibull parameter b value has increase along with age. The b value from 27.46-29.75 in age 21 to 32.12-37.23 in age 30 of 10% thinning degree. The b value from 26.61-34.90 in age 21 to 31.81-42.10 in age 30 of 20% thinning degree. The b value from 23.49-33.61 in age 21 to 34.78-43.75 in age 30 of 30% thinning degree. The thinning treatments were useful to diameter growth in stand. Weibull parameter c value was bigger than 3.6 after thinning and present negatively skewed. From the inventory in year 2001 and year 2008, we knew that the ingrowth number in 10% and 20% thinning degree was better. In consider of ingrowth, the c value in 10% and 20% thinning stand were 1.87 and 1.76.The regeneration inventory of seedling in the thinning plot, it was high relationship in power low in seedling's age, height and place- diameter. The number of seedlings in 10% thinning degree is 9,300stems/ha. It was high than 4,200stems/ha of control, 6,000stems/ha of 20% thinning degree and 5,300stems/ha of 30% thinning degree. In this study, the 10% thinning treatment seemed useful to regeneration and growth in seedling of Swietenia macrophylla. 3. In the tree level, we investigated the tree core of percentile Xp.24, Xp.63 and Xp.93 sampling tree in each thinning plots and got the tree ring data. We used Schnute growth model to estimate the 3 percentiles in different time. Finally, we used percentile estimators to got Weibull parameter in different time. The changes of stand structure after thinning were detected. The results showed that: the absolute DBH growth of each percentile shared the same tendency, and the 30% thinning degree was the most. We used Schnute growth model and percentile estimators to calculate Weibull parameter b and c value. The result showed that Weibull parameter b value increased with age, and also increased with thinning degree. The c value was between 0.58-2.62 and present positively skewed. Above all, Swietenia macrophylla was adaptive to regenerate and grow in Shin-Hua Forest Experimental Station. If we could give some tending operations, it will promote the seedling regeneration and stand growth. Therefore, if we want to apply thinning on the Swietenia macrophylla, it is necessary to decide the thinning intensity and consider the tree position, choose standard and environment factor, also.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/66005
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