Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/66142
標題: 惠蓀林場台灣榕開花物候與授粉生態之研究
Flowering phenology and pollination ecology of Ficus formosana Maxim. at Hue-Sun Forest Station
作者: 曾麗蓉
Tseng, Li-Jung
關鍵字: Ficus formosana Maxim.
台灣榕
flowering phenology
fig wasp
fig morphology
interspecific relationship
SEM
開花物候
榕果小蜂
榕果形態
種間關係
掃描式電子顯微鏡
出版社: 森林學系
摘要: 本研究由1996年9月至1998年12月,調查南投縣惠蓀林場的台灣榕(Ficus formosana Maxim.)之開花物候、榕果發育、授粉生態及其他非小蜂種類昆蟲對榕果的影響。台灣榕雌雄異株,雌榕果每年有2個花季,3∼6月為主要花季,7∼12月為次要花季,1∼3月間幾乎無榕果;主要花季產生的榕果量較多,株間花期同步性較高。雄榕果整年皆有,大致可分為兩個花季,主要花季產生榕果較多,株間花期同步性較高,C期榕果整年可見。主要花季的雌榕果較雄榕果早出現,兩者間隔4∼6週;雌雄榕果次要花季同時出現。D期雄榕果與B期雌、雄榕果於1996∼1997年的配合良好;但1998年主要花季配合不良,其可能原因為越冬榕果受1998年2月大量降雨影響而提早成熟。 多數雄榕果發育時間較雌榕果長,雌、雄榕果發育時間在不同季節間有顯著差異。雌雄榕果在榕果外部形態相似幾乎無法區別,僅其大小及果壁氣孔斑數量略有差異。雌雄榕果內部形態明顯分化,種子只在雌榕果產生,蟲癭只在雄榕果產生。雌雄榕果內部形態明顯分化,種子只在雌榕果產生,蟲癭只在雄榕果產生。雌榕果內總小花數約40∼50朵,包括中性花10∼20朵及種子花25∼40朵,種子率約70%;雄榕果內總小花數約300∼500朵,包括蟲癭花100∼200朵,雄花約80∼110朵,蟲癭率約為50%。 在台灣榕出現的小蜂種類包括一種授粉蜂即台灣榕小蜂(Blastophaga taiwanensis)及一種寄生蜂(Sycoscapter sp.)。雌寄生蜂的產卵管鞘長度可區分為長短,各約5.0㎜及2.0㎜;寄生蜂可能是以授粉蜂幼蟲為食的寄生者(parasite)。其他出現榕果上的昆蟲會取食榕果或造成榕果紫化落果;2種蠅類及一種象鼻蟲的幼蟲需在榕果內發育,以完成生活史。
The study investigated the morphology and development of syconium, the relationship between pollinator and non-pollinator and other species of insects that effect the fig of the dioecious fig species Ficus formosana Maxim. from September 1996 to December 1998 at Hun-Sun forest station in Nan-Tou county. Female trees have two crops, main crop was during March to June, secondary crop was during July to December, and figs were rare during January to March. Main crop produces more figs than secondary crop, and within tree flowering synchrony. Male figs were produce continually, on the whole there were two crops, main crop produce more figs and synchrony. C phase figs maintain whole year. Female and male trees initiated their main crops at different time, female figs appear earlier about 4 to 6 weeks. The secondary crop initiated at the same time. From 1996 to 1997, the male and female figs at the B phase and the D phase male figs coexistence, but in 1998 because of the big rainfall in February 1998, the D phase male figs appear earlier than B phase figs. Male figs need longer development time than females, and both have different development length in different season. The outside morphology of female and male figs is similar, but the fig size and the stomata of the fig wall are a little difference. Inside the fig, female and male fig are absolutely different, the long style female flowers become seeds in the female figs; the short style female flowers become galls in the male figs. The average number of floret is 40 to 50 in the female fig, about 10 to 20 are neutral flower, 25 to 40 are seed female flower, and seed ratio is about 70%. In the male fig, the floret number is about 300 to 500, includes gall flower 100 to 200, and male flower 80 to 110, gall ratio is about 50%. Two species of wasps were discovered on F. formosana, a species Blastophaga taiwenensis was the pollinator, a species Sycoscapter sp. was the non-pollinator. The female non-pollinator‘s ovipositor length could be divided into two groups, one group was about 2.0㎜, and the others were about 5.0㎜. The larvae of Sycoscapter sp. directly feed on the developing larvae of Blastophaga taiwenensis. Besides fig wasp, other species of insects eat fig or breeding on fig and result in figs fall off. Two species of drosophilids and one species of weevil was fig breeding insects.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/66142
Appears in Collections:森林學系

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