Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6640
標題: 論石黑一雄《別讓我走》中克隆人的認同危機與倫理議題
Identity Crisis and Ethics of Human Cloning in Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go
作者: 蔡郁宏
Tsai, Yu-Hung
關鍵字: 複製人
Replicant
倫理
認同
ethics
identity
出版社: 外國語文學系所
引用: Adams, Carol J. “An Animal Manifesto: Gender, Identity, and Vegan-Feminism in the Twenty-First Century.” Parallax 12.1 (2006): 120-28. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 April 2012. Agamben, Giorgio. The Open. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2004. Print. Trans. of L’uomo e l’animale. n.p.: Bollati Boringhieri, 2002. Print. Ariew, Roger. “Descartes and Pascal.” Perspectives and Science 15.4 (2007): 397-409. MIT Press. Web. 25 April 2012. Atwood, Margaret. Oryx and Crake. New York: Anchor-Random, 2003. Print. Bacigalupi, Paolo. The Windup Girl. Ed. Juliet Ulman. San Francisco: Night Shade, 2011. Print. Black, Shameem. “Ishiguro’s Inhuman Aesthetics.” MFS Modern Fiction Studies 55.4 (2009): 785-807. Project Muse. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Blade Runner. Dir. Ridley Scott. Perf. Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, and Sean Young. Warner Brothers Pictures, 1982. Film. Carroll, Rachel. “Imitations of Life: Cloning, Heterosexuality and the Human in Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go.” Journal of Gender Studies 19.1 (2010): 57-71. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Clark, David. “On Being ‘The Last Kantian in Nazi Germany’: Dwelling with Animals after Levinas.” Animal Acts: Configuring the Human in Western History. Ed. Jennifer Ham and Matthew Senior. New York: Routledge, 1997. 165-98. Print. Creed, Barbara. “Horror and the Monstrous-feminine: An Imaginary Abjection.” Screen 27.1 (1986): 44-71. Project Muse. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Dauphinee, Elizabeth, and Masters, Cristina. “Introduction: Living, Dying, Surviving I.” The Logics of Biopower and the War on Terror: Living, Dying, Surviving. Ed. Elizabeth Dauphinee and Cristina Masters. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2007. Print. vii-xix. Deleuze, Gilles. Pure Immanence: Essays on A Life. Intro. John Rajchman. Trans. Anne Boyman. New York: Zone, 2001. Print. Donovan, Josephine. “Feminism and the Treatment of Animals: From Care to Dialogue.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 31.2 (2006): 305-29. The University of Chicago Press. Web. 4 April 2012. Eatough, Matthew. “The Time that Remains: Organ Donation, Temporal Duration, and Bildung in Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go.” Literature and Medicine 29.1 (2011): 132-60. Project Muse. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Eberl, Jason T. “I, Clone: Human Cloning is (Mis)Portrayed in Contemporary Cinema.” Film & History 40.2 (2010): 27-40. Project Muse. Web. 4 April 2012. Fitzpatrick, Peter. “Bare Sovereignty: Homo Sacer and the Insistence of Law.” Politics, Metaphysics, and Death: Essays on Giorgio Agamben’s Homo Sacer. Ed. Andrew Norris. Durham: Duke UP, 2005. Print. 49-73. Fluet, Lisa. “Immaterial Labors: Ishiguro, Class, and Affect.” Novel: A Form on Fiction 40.3 (2007): 265-88. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Foucault, Michel. “Part Five: Right of Death and Power over Life.” Trans. Robert Hurley. The History of Sexuality, Volume I: An Introduction. New York: Vintage-Random, 1990. Print. 133-59. Fukuyama, Francis. Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York: Picador, 2002. Print. Griffin, Gabriele. “Science and The Cultural Imaginary: The Case of Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go.” Textual Practice 23.4 (2009): 645-63. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Guberman, Ross Mitchell, ed. Interview. “Avant-Garde Practice.” Julia Kristeva Interviews. By Vassiliki Kolocotroni. New York: Columbia UP, 1996. Print. Haraway, Donna J. “A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century.” Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge, 1991. Print. 149-81. ---. The Companion Species Manifesto: Dogs, People, and Significant Otherness. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm P, 2003. Print. ---. “Cyborgs to Companion Species: Reconfiguring Kinship in Technoscience.” The Haraway Reader. New York: Routledge, 2004. 295-320. Print. ---. When Species Meet. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2008. Print. Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World. New York: Harper Perennial-HarperCollins, 1932. Print. Ishiguro, Kazuo. An Artist of the Floating World. New York: Vintage-Random, 1986. Print. ---. “A Conversation about Life and Art with Kazuo Ishiguro.” Conversations with Kazuo Ishiguro. By Cynthia F. Wong and Grace Crummett. Eds. Brian W. Shaffer and Cynthia F. Wong. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 204-20. Print. ---. “An Interview with Kazuo Ishiguro.” Conversations with Kazuo Ishiguro. By Gregory Mason. Eds. Brian W. Shaffer and Cynthia F. Wong. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 3-14. Print. ---. “An Interview with Kazuo Ishiguro.” Conversations with Kazuo Ishiguro. By Allan Vorda and Kim Herzinger. Eds. Brian W. Shaffer and Cynthia F. Wong. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 66-109. Print. ---. A Pale View of Hills. New York: Vintage-Random, 1982. Print. ---. Introduction. Conversations with Kazuo Ishiguro. By Brian W. Shaffer and Cynthia F. Wong. Eds. Brian W. Shaffer and Cynthia F. Wong. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. vii-xii. Print. ---. “Kazuo Ishiguro with Maya Jaggi.” Conversations with Kazuo Ishiguro. By Maya Jaggi. Eds. Brian W. Shaffer and Cynthia F. Wong. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 110-19. Print. ---. Never Let Me Go. New York: Vintage-Random, 2005. Print. ---. “Never Let Me Go: A Profile of Kazuo Ishiguro.” Conversations with Kazuo Ishiguro. By John Freeman. Eds. Brian W. Shaffer and Cynthia F. Wong. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 194-98. Print. ---. Nocturnes: Five Stories of Music and Nightfall. New York: Vintage-Random, 2009. Print. ---. “The Novelist in Today’s World: A Conversation.” Conversations with Kazuo Ishiguro. By Kenzaburo Oe. Eds. Brian W. Shaffer and Cynthia F. Wong. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 52-65. Print. ---. The Remains of the Day. New York: Vintage-Random, 1988. Print. ---. The Unconsoled. New York: Vintage-Random, 1995. Print. ---. When We were Orphans. New York: Vintage-Random, 2000. Print. Isin, Engin F., and Rygiel, Kim. “Abject Spaces: Frontiers, Zones, Camps.” The Logics of Biopower and the War on Terror: Living, Dying, Surviving. Ed. Elizabeth Dauphinee and Cristina Masters. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2007. Print. 181-204. Jarenski, Shelly. “Invisibility embraced: The Abject as a State of Agency in Ellison’s Invisible Man.” Melus 35.4 (2010): 85-109. Academic Search Premier. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. Jerng, Mark. “Giving Form to Life: Cloning and Narrative Expectations of the Human.” Partial Answers: Journal of Literature and the History of Ideas 6.2 (2008): 369-93. Project Muse Humanities Collection. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Kunkel, Benjamin. “Dystopia and the End of Politics.” Dissent 55.4 (2008): 89-98. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Lechte, John. “Horror, Love, Melancholy.” Julia Kristeva. London: Routledge, 1990. Print. 157-98. Levinas, Emmanuel. Interview. Ethics and Infinity. By Philippe Nemo. Trans. Richard A. Cohen. Pittsburgh: Duquesne UP, 1985. Print. Trans. of Ethique et infini. n.p.: Librairie Artheme Fayard, 1982. Radio. ---. “The Paradox of Morality: an Interview with Emmanuel Levinas.” The Provocation of Levinas: Rethinking the Other. By Tamra Wright, Peter Hughes, and Alison Ainley. Trans. Andrew Benjamin and Tamra Wright. Eds. Robert Bernasconi and David Wood. London: Routledge, 1988. 168-80. Print. ---. Totality and Infinity: An Essay on Exteriority. Trans. Alphonso Lingis. 18th ed. Pittsburgh: Duquesne UP, 2004. Print. Trans. of Totaite et Infini. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1961. ---. “Useless Suffering.” The Provocation of Levinas: Rethinking the Other. Trans. Richard Cohen. Eds. Robert Bernasconi and David Wood. London: Routledge, 1988. 156-67. Print. Trans. of “La Souffrance inutile.” Giornale di Metafisica 4 (1982): 13-26. Levy, Titus. “Human Rights Storytelling and Trauma Narrative in Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go.” Journal of Human Rights 10.1 (2011): 1-16. Routledge. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Lewis, Barry. Kazuo Ishiguro. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2000. Print. McAfree, Noelle. Julia Kristeva. London: Routledge, 2004. Print. McDonald, Keith. “Days of Past Futures: Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go as ‘Speculative Memoir.’” Biography: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly 30.1 (2007): 74-83. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Mills, Catherine. “Linguistic Survival and Ethicality: Biopolitics, Subjectification, and Testimony in Remnants in Auschwitz.” Politics, Metaphysics, and Death: Essays on Giorgio Agamben’s Homo Sacer. Ed. Andrew Norris. Durham: Duke UP, 2005. Print. 198-221. Murray, Jeffrey W. Preface. Face to Face in Dialogue: Emmanuel Levinas and (the) Communication (of) Ethics. By Murray. Maryland: UP of America, 2003. vii-xiv. Print. Mutimer, David. “Sovereign Contradictions: Maher Arar and the Indefinite Future.” The Logics of Biopower and the War on Terror: Living, Dying, Surviving. Ed. Elizabeth Dauphinee and Cristina Masters. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2007. Print. 159-79. Norris, Andrew. “Introduction: Giorgio Agamben and the Politics of the Living Dead.” Politics, Metaphysics, and Death: Essays on Giorgio Agamben’s Homo Sacer. Ed. Andrew Norris. Durham: Duke UP, 2005. Print. 1-30. Oliver, Kelly, ed. “Revolution in Poetic Language: Prolegomenon.” The Portable Kristeva. New York: Columbia UP, 2002. Print. 27-31. ---. “Revolution in Poetic Language: The Semiotic and the Symbolic.” The Portable Kristeva. New York: Columbia UP, 2002. Print. 32-70. ---. “Powers of Horror: Approaching Abjection (abridged).” The Portable Kristeva. New York: Columbia UP, 2002. Print. 229-47. ---. “Powers of Horror: From Filth to Defilement (abridged).” The Portable Kristeva. New York: Columbia UP, 2002. Print. 248-63. Oliver, Kelly. Introduction. Powers of Horror. By Julia Kristeva. New York: Columbia UP, 2002. Print. 225-27. Orwell, George. 1984. Afterword. Erich Fromm. New York: Signet-Penguin, 1950. Print. Peperzak, Adriaan Theodoor. To the Other: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas. West Lafayette: Purdue UP, 1993. Print. Porter, Roy. Introduction. Rewriting the Self: Histories from the Renaissance to the Present. By Porter. Ed. Roy Porter. London: Routledge, 1997. Print. 1-14. Puchner, Martin. “When We were Clones.” Raritan 27.4 (2008): 34-49. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Robbins, Bruce. “Cruelty is Bad: Banality and Proximity in Never Let Me Go.” Novel: A Forum on Fiction 40.3 (2007): 289-302. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Seaman, Myra J. “Becoming More (than) Human: Affective Posthumanisms, Past and Future.” Journal of Narrative Theory 37.2 (2007): 246-75. Project Muse. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Schehr, Lawrence R. Introduction. The Parasite. By Michel Serres. Trans. Lawrence R. Schehr. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1982. ix-x. Print. Scholtmeijer, Marian. “What is ‘Human’? Metaphysics and Zoontology in Flaubert and Kafka.” Animal Acts: Configuring the Human in Western History. New York: Routledge, 1997. 127-43. Print. Shaffer, Brian W. Understanding Kazuo Ishiguro. South Carolina: U of South Carolina P, 1998. Print. Smuts, Barbara. “Between Species: Science and Subjectivity.” Configurations 14.12 (2006): 115-26. Project Muse. Web. 4 April 2012. The Island. Dir. Michael Bay. Perf. Ewan McGregor, Scarlett Johansson, and Albert Laurent. Dream Works SKG, 2005. Film. The 6th Day. Dir. Roger Spottiswoode. Perf. Arnold Schwarzenegger, Michael Rapaport, and Tony Goldwyn. Sony Pictures, 2000. Film. Toker, Leona, and Chertoff, Daniel. “Reader Response and the Recycling of Topoi in Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go.” Partial Answers: Journal of Literature and the History of Ideas 6.1 (2008): 163-80. Project Muse. Web. 4 April 2012. Vanderwees, Chris. “Companion Species under Fire: A Defense of Donna Haraway’s The Companion Species Manifesto.” NEBULA 6.2 (2009): 73-81. DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals. Web. 4 April 2012. Vint, Sherryl. “Gwyneth Jones: The World of the Body and the Body of the World.” Bodies of Tomorrow: Technology, Subjectivity, Science Fiction. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 2007. Print. 27-55. Waldenfels, Bernhard. “Levinas and the Face of the Other.” The Cambridge Companion of Levinas. Eds. Simon Critchley and Robert Bernasconi. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. 63-81. Print. Walkowitz, Rebecca L. “Unimaginable Largeness: Kazuo Ishiguro, Translation, and the New World Literature.” Novel: A Forum on Fiction 40.3 (2007): 216-39. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Wilkie-Stibbs, Christine. “Borderland Children: Reflection on Narratives of Abjection.” The Lion and the Unicorn 30.3 (2006): 316-36. Project Muse. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Wong, Cynthia F. Kazuo Ishiguro. Devon: Northcote House, 2000. Print.
摘要: 石黑一雄的《別讓我走》描述一個複製人身處於以人類為中心的社會,懷抱著不幸與渴望苟延殘喘地活著次等的人生。作家將這虛構世界建築在二十世紀初,那是一個對複製人充滿敵意、厭惡、複雜情緒的想像世界。當我們從敘事者也是複製人的角度閱讀她的回憶錄,亦即小說本身,作者提供給讀者的是針對人類複製與歧視複製人的犀利批判,特別在《別讓我走》作為捏造的歷史事件相對於現實中的歷史。透過凱西深陷於捐贈者計畫的個體敘述,我們可以遇見一個過度理性化的世界相對帶來的是個冷酷無情的文明社會。將此虛構世界與現實社會做交叉比對,我們能看見的不只是一個想像的過去和可預見的未來,更有的是隨複製人的普遍使用可能產生的問題,包括複製人如何在這個自私自利的社會中形塑自我認知、生命意義、以及個體定位。因此,本論文主旨在探討石黑一雄《別讓我走》中人類和複製人彼此之間的自我認同危機,經由思索利用複製人的正當性、使複製人成為人類從屬物的合理性、和開創富有同理心的新關係的可能性,試圖去刻劃人類與複製人之間不同以往的友善關係。換言之,石黑一雄透過《別讓我走》想像一個充滿複製人的世界,而我們將從它非正常的社會結構、佈滿歧視的群眾意識、和針對新事物習慣產生敵意等三點去窺探這個看似理想的世界。我們由衷的認為作者筆下這群複製人不只是人類執行生物醫療的必要工具,他們更可以是在複製科技與種族監禁的瘋狂世界中最新創造出來的伴侶生物。
Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go delineates a human clone’s misery and anxiety to live a secondary life in a human-centric society that is flooded with conspiracy, antipathy, and hypocrisy against replicants. Ishiguro constructs an alternative history of the employment of human clones in the late twentieth century. Regarding Never Let Me Go as an invented source of a historical event in comparison with incidents happening in the real world, we find that the narrator’s memoir offers a biting criticism of the practice of human cloning and the ethnic discrimination against replicants from a clone’s viewpoint. Through Kathy’s narration of her personal experiences under oppression of the donor’s project, we behold an overly rationalized society and consequently a mercilessly cruel civilization in an imaginary past and an expected future. From a continuous cross match between Ishiguro’s fictional world and the concrete reality, we observe foreseeable questions about replicants’s self-identity, purposes of life, and positions in an egocentric society. This thesis aims to solve identity issues about human clones in Never Let Me Go, and to envisage different outcomes of human-clone relationships through a study of ethical problems about the validity of the manipulation of these replicants, the rationality of their supposed-to-be subordination to human beings, and the possibility of creating unprecedented and sympathetic relations between ordinary people and their biogenetically altered clones. The novel helps readers envision a world that is full of human clones. We read Ishiguro’s version of a dystopian world from its dysfunctional social system, biased group consciousness, and customary hostility toward the newcomer. In the end, we propose that Ishiguro’s clones are more than biomedical appliances for human beings. They are the latest invention of companion species in a mad world of cloning technology and racial confinement.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6640
其他識別: U0005-1712201222403700
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-1712201222403700
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.