請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/67413
標題: 加強生物防治資源調查、開發利用研究
Survey, Exploitation and Application of Biocontrol Agent Resources for Management of Plant Pests
作者: 黃振文
關鍵字: 應用研究
Biocontrol
植物保護類
生物防治
拮抗微生物
生物農藥
核多角體病毒
微孢子蟲
黑角舞蛾
入侵紅火蟻
Antagonist Microorganism
Biopesticide
Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV)
Microsporidia
Lymantria xylina
Solenopsis invicta
摘要: 由Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucum引起的萵苣萎凋病,已成為台灣萵苣生產的重大病害問題。萵苣萎凋病會引起萵苣幼苗死亡與缺株,也會引起萵苣成株矮化與萎凋等現象。因此,它造成萵苣的產量損失,已成為農友關注的焦點問題。土壤添加物可以改變土壤物理與化學特性,也可以影響植株的生育與土媒病害的發生,故土壤添加物是防治土媒病害的重要方法之一。一種添加物是否有助於土媒病害的生物防治,須考量它對於土壤條件、肥力及微生物間交互作用的影響,因此本計畫的目的在於研發微生物製劑與土壤添加物綜合防治萵苣萎凋病,祈有助於推動有機農業的植物保護工作。本研究旨在探討本土性枯草桿菌益生菌資源在柑橘潰瘍病防治上之應用性,上年度計畫工作中所產製枯草桿菌(WG6-14)內生孢子製劑100倍稀釋液噴灑處理溫室種植臍橙植株葉片,24小時後接種X. axonopodis pv. citri type A strain,證實以WG6-14前處理抑病效果可達94%,同法於田間測試亦證實對病原菌有極明顯的抑制效果。試驗中並發現接種高病原菌濃度(10<sup>7</sup> ml以上),供試枯草桿菌製劑處理之防治效果明顯優於對照化學藥劑波爾多液。另外WG-14製劑處理下對潰瘍病菌族群消長之影響,則已證實WG-14處理下,病原菌於接種部位直到7-10天後才有小幅增殖之情形,顯示供試製劑在本病防治上之應用確具潛力。本年度將延續上述之成果,進一步利用溫室與田間評估系統,檢討供試生物製劑之施用技術。在病害防治應用效果田間試驗驗證上,於中南部柑橘栽培田間挑選適當之果園進行田間防治試驗,於5-6月間先行調查病原菌濃度及選定適合植株進行防治應用測試,並於7、8月份調查葉面病斑病害指數,驗證實際防治成效。同時測試供試製劑對感染場及周遭環境微生物相影響評估,以上述試驗植株按時序採樣,一方面以熱處理配合稀釋平板法,檢視枯草桿菌存活情形;另以稀釋平板配合選擇性培養基(SX medium)的應用,檢視病原菌在接種部位存活與增殖情形。其他微生物族群的消長分析則以慣行稀釋平板法加以評估。為確知所檢測得病原族群之變化確為所接種之菌株,試驗中擬仿王氏方法另篩選帶rifampicin抗藥性標幟基因之突變菌株同法進行瞭解。最後在供試製劑應用上,開發栽培業者自助式增量技術,目前已建立之技術初步證實可在1-2週內增量達10-100倍,達10<sup>9</sup> -10<sup>10</sup> cfu/ml,其於CBC防治之應用性將在本年度計畫中併以溫室與田間試驗加以檢討,相關之結果可做未來增量技術配方調整之重要資訊。本計畫之目的在於篩選有效的天然植物抽出液,用於防治重要的植物線蟲病害,以便提供有機栽培者病害防治之參考。執行本計畫時可明瞭天然植物抽出液對於植物線蟲卵孵化率及二齡幼蟲致死率的抑制效果,抽出液抑制病害的效能,及抑菌機制的種類。預期完成本計畫後,可增進植物病理學者對天然植物防治病害的認識,提供另類的作物病害防治方法。擬開發螢光假單胞菌Pseudomonas菌株之植物保護用途,研擬微生物製劑之型式及建立菌株生物防治特性之基本資料。比較不同載體對菌株存活、植物保護效果的影響,探討菌株之生物防治特性。擬比較不同載體對菌株存活、對菌株促進植物生長之影響及對菌株植物保護效果之影響。擬進行轉位子誘變,篩選失去生物防治活性之突變株,分析其平板抑菌能力、根系群聚能力等。預期可知適用作為螢光假單胞菌菌株載體之種類及菌株存活率、促進植物生育之效果及植物保護之效果。獲得失去生物防治活性之誘變株及初步瞭解誘變株之誘變特性。萎凋病是目前栽培長豇豆的重要限制因子之一,本計畫目標在篩選適當土壤添加物做植前處理,降低土壤微生物族群量,再篩選有用的拮抗微生物或無病原性鐮孢菌,配合育苗介質混菌等方法,將拮抗微生物導入耕作系統內,以降低田間病害的發生率。研究工作包括調查長豇豆萎凋病的抑病土壤,自根圈、根表及土壤分離與篩選真菌、螢光細菌及放線菌等微生物,以及對長豇豆無病原性之鐮孢菌菌株,做為拮抗菌,並且配合篩選土壤添加物,並測試添加物對土壤微生物相與萎凋病菌菌相的影響,最後再以拮抗微生物配合土壤添加物,嘗試配合種子粉衣、剪胚軸接種或育苗介質混菌等方法,將拮抗微生物導入長豇豆幼苗,供農友田間防治之用。本年度預期完成篩選土壤添加物及分離拮抗微生物等工作,並初步測試拮抗微生物的拮抗能力,俾為未來田間防治試驗之參考。台灣地處熱帶與亞熱帶地區,氣候高溫多濕,作物病害種類因而繁多;以園藝作物而言,其主要病害即包括有立枯絲核菌(Rhizoctonia spp.)、腐霉菌(Pythium spp.)、鐮刀菌(Fusarium spp.)、疫病菌(Phytoph
A new wilt disease of lettuce caused by <i>Fusarium oxysporum</i> f.sp. <i>lactucum</i> is severe in Taiwan. The disease is characterized by the death of same plants in the seedling stage. Older affected plants severly stunted and wilted. The yield loss of lettuce has been concerned by the farmers. Soil amendment may alter soil physical and chemical condition and it may have important consequences on growth of plants and occurrence of soilborne diseases. Whether an amendment works favorably or unfavorably in the establishment of a biological control system depends upon its influences on soil conditions, fertilization, and microbial interaction. Therefore, the purposes of the study are to develop the strategy of microbial agents and soil amendment for integrated control of lettuce fusarial wilt. The major objective of this investigation was to explore the antagonistic <i>Bacillus</i> resources as microbial fungicide for the control of citrus bacterial canker (CBC)-the most notorious bacterial disease on citrus in Taiwan and worldwide. On Navel orange (<i>Citrus sinensis</i>) tested, the pretreatment by foliar spray a 100X diluted <i>B. subtilis</i> WG6-14 endospore formulation (2 10<sup>9</sup> endospores/ml) 24 hours before artificial inoculation of the prevalent CBC pathogen strain Xac01 (3.2 10<sup>6</sup> cfu/ml) resulted in 94% inhibition of the disease incidence. The efficacy of disease control was further shown may exceed that by Bordeaux mixture (BM) application when inoculum potential of the challenging pathogen was at 10<sup>7</sup> cfu/ml high level. The results obtained clearly indicated the developed endospore formulation of WG6-14 a useful microbial fungicide for the control of CBC. In the continued works herein proposed, greenhouse and field trials at an expanded scale will be conducted further to illustrate the efficacy of disease control observed. Citrus orchard located at Da-Lin, Chia-Yi Prefecture where that CBC infection was severe will be chosen as the experimental plot for the trial biofungicide application. The field trial will be conducted from May to September when the prevailing warm and humid weather favors the disease progression. The tested biofungicide formulation will be applied by a weekly schedule by foliar spray and the effect of the applied antagonists on the survival and the infection of XAC01 will be examined by a time course. A rifampicin resistant XAC01 mutant will be screened and applied for the artificial inoculation in this study to illustrate the specific effect of the antagonist on the applied pathogen inocula. Also to facilitate the commercialized use of the developed biofungicide, a grower DIY system for culture amplification was developed. The system amplified the antagonistic microbial inoculants by 10-100X (approximately 10<sup>9</sup>-10<sup>10</sup> cfu/ml) in 1-2 weeks; its potential application in disease management will be also explored in the continued works. The major purpose of this project is to screen plant extracts that collected from vegetable crops or Chinese medicines for control of plant-parasitic nematode diseases. Under researching this project, the effect of plant extracts to plant-parasitic nematodes will be verified and which diseases reduced by plant extracts will be carried out. Moreover, the mechanisms of disease control will be understood and suggested. After finishing this project, the knowledges and understandings using plant extracts to control crop diseases for plant pathologists will be improved. The alternative methods for disease control will be erected. The main goal of this project is to develop the plant p
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/67413
其他識別: 94農科-13.2.1-檢-B6
文章連結: http://grbsearch.stpi.narl.org.tw/GRB/result.jsp?id=1162340&plan_no=94%E8%BE%B2%E7%A7%91-13.2.1-%E6%AA%A2-B6&plan_year=94&projkey=PG9410-2400&target=plan&highStr=*&check=0&pnchDesc=%E5%8A%A0%E5%BC%B7%E7%94%9F%E7%89%A9%E9%98%B2%E6%B2%BB%E8%B3%87%E6%BA%90%E8%AA%BF%E6%9F%A5%E3%80%81%E9%96%8B%E7%99%BC%E5%88%A9%E7%94%A8%E7%A0%94%E7%A9%B6
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