Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6771
標題: Ethics, Subject and Big Other in Georg Bchner's Danton's Death
倫理、主體、大他者:畢希納歷史劇《丹頓之死》之研究
作者: 吳宜瑾
Chin, Wu Yi
關鍵字: the Big Other
Array真實感 道德觀 政治家 大革命 倫理學
Ethics
French Revolution
Ideology
Büchner
Danton's Death
出版社: 外國語文學系
摘要: Georg Büchner, in his well-known historical drama Danton's Death, makes vivid descriptions of the legendary statesmen Georges Danton and Maximilien Robespierre. Although many people studied the French Revolution from a historical point of view, Büchner was unique in that he started another art form. In this play, excerpts of recent, widely known, historical facts were interwoven with a fictional play to give it an enhanced sense of reality. In this thesis, I will discuss the main problem in this play—the question of ethics. First of all, I will utilize ancient concepts of Epicureanism and Stoicism to discuss the different moral and ethic viewpoints of Danton and Robespierre. Secondly, I will employ Foucault's idea of ethics to explain why Robespierre's narrow minded assertion about morality and ideology results in serious ethical and moral problems in the play as well as in the historical backgrounds. Then I would shift the focus to Lacan's theory of ethics and continue to discuss why Robespierre failed to achieve his dream of fulfilling the requirement of virtues for his fatherland. Lacan's theory would help us to understand the subject of ethics means a subject free to desire for desires rather than the subject controlled and dominated by ideological ideas—like the figure Robespierre who always obsessed with ideas of freedom, justice and other virtues. Last but not least, from Žižek's further study of Lacan's theory of big Other, one can easily realize how these revolutionary ideas—freedom, equality and fraternity—function as the ideological big Other that dominate, control and persecute people's mind rather than save them from unfreedom, injustice and poverty. Through these researches on this thesis, one can unravel the myth of the problematic term ethics as well as understand the inevitable result in this play. That is, to learn a lesson and understand how the making of a revolution for ideals is transformed into a hell for persecution and killing—a historical play that is replayed and rehearsed repeatedly from hundred of years ago to the present.
喬治.畢希納在他著名的劇本--《丹頓之死》中栩栩如生刻劃出喬治.丹頓和馬克西米連•羅伯斯庇爾這兩位傳奇的政治家。雖然很多人從歷史的角度來研讀法國大革命,但畢希納卻獨特地開啟了另一種藝術風格。在《丹》劇中,作者摘錄現今熟知的歷史史實交雜在虛構的情節中,使劇本多了一份真實感。論文將探討劇中主要的問題--「倫理的問題」。首先,本論文利用希臘羅馬時期的兩個主要倫理學派--「享樂主義(伊比鳩魯)和禁慾主義(斯多葛)學派」來探討《丹》劇中兩位主角--丹頓和羅伯斯比爾的倫理道德觀。接著利用傅軻的倫理道德觀來解釋為何羅伯斯比爾在劇中或歷史背景中會懷有狹窄胸襟而且擁有偏見的道德主張和意識形態,終而導致嚴重的倫理和道德問題。接下來本文將重點轉移至拉岡的「倫理學」理論,探討羅伯斯比爾為何無法利用他的道德理念來完成社會革命,他總是被自由、公平正義和其他德行所迷惑;從拉岡的理論可以幫助我們了解倫理的主體是一個自由慾望的主體,而不是一個被意識形態控制和主宰的主體。最終,從紀傑克進一步研究拉岡--大他者的理論,可以很容易地了解這些革命的信念--自由、平等、博愛,就如同大他者的意識型態能掌控且迫害人們心智,但非救贖他們免於不自由、不平等和貧窮的意念。透過此論文的研究,就可以解開這個複雜且難以定義的詞語「倫理道德」的迷思,也能了解該劇最後何以悲劇收場。換句話說,人們應從數百年前到現在不斷地重演排練的歷史劇中得到啟示,進而了解偉大崇高的革命信念也會變成迫害扼殺的手段。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6771
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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