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標題: Error estimations of dry deposition velocities of air pollutants using bulk sea surface temperature under common assumptions
作者: Lan, Y.Y.
Tsuang, B.J.
Keenlyside, N.
Wang, S.L.
Chen, C.T.A.
Wang, B.J.
Liu, T.H.
關鍵字: South China sea
Deposition resistance
Henry constant
enhancement factor
Dry deposition
south china sea
co2 fluxes
satellite retrievals
mixed layer
期刊/報告no:: Atmospheric Environment, Volume 44, Issue 21-22, Page(s) 2532-2542.
摘要: It is well known that skin sea surface temperature (SSST) is different from bulk sea surface temperature (BSST) by a few tenths of a degree Celsius. However, the extent of the error associated with dry deposition (or uptake) estimation by using BSST is not well known. This study tries to conduct such an evaluation using the on-board observation data over the South China Sea in the summers of 2004 and 2006. It was found that when a warm layer occurred, the deposition velocities using BSST were underestimated within the range of 0.8-4.3%, and the absorbed sea surface heat flux was overestimated by 21 W m(-2). In contrast, under cool skin only conditions, the deposition velocities using BSST were overestimated within the range of 0.5-2.0%, varying with pollutants and the absorbed sea surface heat flux was underestimated also by 21 W m(-2). Scale analysis shows that for a slightly soluble gas (e.g., NO(2), NO and CO), the error in the solubility estimation using BSST is the major source of the error in dry deposition estimation. For a highly soluble gas (e.g.. SO(2)), the error in the estimation of turbulent heat fluxes and, consequently, aerodynamic resistance and gas-phase film resistance using BSST is the major source of the total error. In contrast, for a medium soluble gas (e.g., O(3) and CO(2)) both the errors from the estimations of the solubility and aerodynamic resistance are important. In addition, deposition estimations using various assumptions are discussed. The largest uncertainty is from the parameterizations for chemical enhancement factors. Other important areas of uncertainty include: (1) various parameterizations for gas-transfer velocity: (2) neutral-atmosphere assumption: (3) using BSST as SST, and (4) constant pH value assumption. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1352-2310
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