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標題: The Dying Patriarchy: A Feminist Reading of Caryl Churchill''s Cloud Nine
岌岌可危的父權體制: 卡爾.邱琪爾《九重天》之女性閱讀
作者: 劉慧君
Liu, Hui-chun
關鍵字: 九重天
Cloud Nine
Caryl Churchill
出版社: 外國語文學系
摘要: 中文摘要 依據傳統的觀念,男性總是以主體角色自居;相對之下,女性則淪為受壓迫的客體。佛洛伊德認為本我(id)及自我(ego)是我們的本質,同時認為女人必須犧牲自己,撫育小孩。克里絲斯蒂娃接受佛洛伊德的觀點,並由佛洛伊德發展出符號式(semiotic)和象徵式(symbolic)的觀念。佛洛伊德的本我和自我之關係相當於克里絲斯蒂娃的符號式和象徵式的關係。進一步而言,男性對女性的壓迫造成男人自語性的說話方式。男人成為拉康理論下只能反映男性影像的鏡子;然而,被壓抑的部分只是暫時被壓抑,卻不曾消失。佛洛伊德所謂壓抑的部分,即克里絲斯蒂娃棄絕(abject)的部分,黑暗、隱諱的存在,終究會再回來。伊麗葛瑞解讀佛洛伊德及拉康,同時並解構了他們的理論。重點是要喚醒女性意識。首先伊麗葛瑞希望重建母女關係,其次,女性若能有布萊希特的疏離(alienation)自覺,女性即擁有陽具,甚至女性就是陽具。第三,女人可藉由挪用男性的語言,進一步重建自己的語言;甚至,女性的身體即是她的語言。其他諸如女同性戀理論及後殖民理論,不啻是對傳統父權系統的另一次檢驗。 本論文共五章。第一章緒論。第二章聯結佛洛伊德、拉康及布萊希特的理論與克里絲斯蒂娃及伊麗葛瑞的理論。第三章則由前述的理論出發,加上表演藝術的問題,進而討論劇本中角色扮演、反串及Betty、Clive兩個人物。第四章則是討論劇本中有關同性戀及後殖民方面的主題,並且由此二主題的討論反思岌岌可危的父權體制。第五章結論。
ABSTRACT This thesis is an attempt to interpret Caryl Churchill''s Cloud Nine in terms of re-cent feminist ideas. In traditional point of view, man is always the subject while woman is the object. Freud thinks that id and ego are the very constituents of our nature and it is necessary for woman to sacrifice herself to nourish her children. Kristeva accepts Freud''s theory and develops her own conception of the semiotic and the symbolic. In general, Freud's id and ego are similar to Kristeva''s semiotic and symbolic. Furthermore, the result of man's oppression on woman also brings out man''s monologue: man speaks to himself. Man remains in what Lacan calls "the mirror stage," only able to see his own reflection wherever he looks. However, the repressed never disappears. The repressed and what Kristeva terms "the abject," dark and obscure, eventually come back. Irigaray goes further to appropriate and, at the same time, deconstruct Lacan's and Freud's theories. She makes great efforts to awaken woman's consciousness. First of all, Irigaray probes into the ambivalent relationship between mother and daughter to enhance woman''s subjectivity. Next, with the help of Brecht's alienation-effect, woman may possess certain phallus and even become the phallus. Thirdly, woman may well appropriate man's language to reconstruct her own; furthermore, woman's body is her very language. Likewise, lesbianism and post-colonialism are also declarations to reassess the traditional patri-archy. This thesis consists of five chapters. Chapter One is an introduction. Chapter Two is a survey on some feminist concepts respectively discussed by Kristeva and Irigaray. Chapter Three focuses on the topics of role-playing, transvestitism in per-formance, and discussion on the two central characters of Cloud Nine, Betty and Clive. Ideas related to lesbianism and postcolonialism are discussed in Chapter Four: through analysis of several couples in the play, it is easy to see the dying patriarchy. Finally, Chapter Five, the conclusion, is a structural analysis of the two parts of the play.
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所



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