Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/7241
標題: 白的色差:史考特.費茲傑羅的《大亨小傳》中白人身分結構內的差異與霸權
The Different Colorings of Whiteness: The Intra-Structural Difference and Hegemony of White Identity in F. Scott Fitzgerald''s The Great Gatsby
作者: 蘇奕丞
Su, Joey
關鍵字: difference
差異
hegemony
white identity
whiteness
power
ethnicity
class
霸權
白人身分
白人性
權力
族裔性
階級
出版社: 外國語文學系所
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摘要: 本論文所探究的是史考特.費茲傑羅的《大亨小傳》中白人身分結構內的差異與霸權。《大亨小傳》是一本適合用來探討此議題的小說,因為書中僅有四位短暫出現的黑人角色,其他角色皆為白人。小說中的白人角色有分別來自於上層階級、小康家庭與勞工階級的舊移民,有希臘裔、猶太裔與芬蘭裔的新移民,還有一位白手起家的暴發戶。雖然與黑人角色相比,上述角色都稱得上是白人,但他們擁有的權力、享有的社會利益、甚至於他們的白人性(whiteness)都是不對等的。本論文的目的不是在於將白人性妖魔化,而是將它去神聖化,以便於審視白人身分如何被建構,追溯白人權力在美國歷史中扮演的角色,分析白人霸權如何在《大亨小傳》中被再現、挑戰與鞏固,以及探究小說中白人性的再現與作者的文學想像(literary imagination)之間的相互關聯。本論文將證明白人性既非生理特徵,亦不純然是個虛幻、對歷史演進毫無影響力的意識形態造作物,而是個在美國社會中權力的符徵(signifier)與該社會中權力分配的準則。《大亨小傳》裡眾多不同的白人身分分別是該角色的族裔性、政治信念、宗教信仰、性別、階級與經濟利益多元決定(overdetermination)的產物,而這些身分間的差異象徵著權力的分配不均。
As an inquiry into the intra-structural difference and hegemony of white identity in F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby, it is the objective of this thesis not to vilify whiteness, but to reify it—to hack it out of its unquestioned and unquestionable status of transcendence so as to scrutinize how white identity is constructed, to trace the workings of white power through the span of U.S. history, to analyze how the regime of whiteness is represented, contested, but reconsolidated within the novel, and to examine how the novel's representations of whiteness correlate with the author's literary imagination. The Great Gatsby is a suitable text for such an inquiry because all but the four black characters who only appear briefly in the novel are white. There are the leisure-class, “old money,” Anglo-American characters, Tom, Daisy, and Jordan; there is the well-to-do, middle-class character, Nick; there are the new European immigrants, Michaelis, Wolfshiem, Stella, and the Finnish woman; there are the working-class characters, George and Myrtle; and there is Gatsby, a representative of the newly rich. Although all of these characters can be considered white, especially when collectively viewed against the black characters in the novel, they are by no means equal in terms of power, privilege, or even whiteness. It will be argued that whiteness is neither a biologically determined trait of racial identity, nor purely an illusory fabrication that has no bearing on the material processes of history, but a function that acts both as a criterion according to which power is organized and distributed in the United States and as a sociopolitical signifier of that power. The plurality of variegated white identities in The Great Gatsby, as signifiers of varying measures of power, are each overdetermined by such parameters as the given character's ethnicity, political conviction, religion, gender, class, and economic interest.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/7241
其他識別: U0005-2207201016273500
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2207201016273500
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