Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/88897
標題: Yann Martel's Life of Pi as a Bildungsroman: A Journey Towards Ecological Consciousness
論揚.馬泰爾小說《少年Pi的奇幻漂流》為成長小說: 一趟前往生態意識的旅程
作者: Sheng-Hong Huang
黃聖宏
關鍵字: 成長小說
揚.馬泰爾
《少年Pi的奇幻漂流》
Bildungsroman
Yann Martel
Life of Pi
引用: Alfaro, Maria Jesus Martinez. 'Intertextuality: Origin and Development of the Concept.' Atlantis 18. 1/2 (1996): 268-285. Project Muse. Web 8 Jan. 2014. Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin. Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures. 2th ed. New York: Routledge, 1989. Print. Baratay, Eric, Elizabeth Hardouim-Fugier, ed. A History of Zoological Gardens in the West. New York: U of Chicago P, 2007. Print. Becket, Fiona, Terry Gifford, ed. 'Postcolonialism, Ecocriticism, and the Animal in Recent Canadian Fiction.' Culture, Creativity and Environment. New York: Rodopi, 2007. 161-180. Electronic Source. NCHU. Web. June 17. Berger, John. 'Why Look at Animals?' About Looking. New York: Vintage International, 1991. 2-28. Print. ---. Ways of Seeing. London: British Broadcasting Corporation,1972. Print. Borrell, Sally. Challenging Humanism: Human-Animal Relations in Recent Postcolonial Novels. Diss. Middlesex University, 2009. Print. Cloete, Elsie. 'Heroes and Tigers.' Journal of Literary Studies 23.3 (2007): 314-22. Electronic Resource. Cole, Stewart. 'Believing in Tigers: Anthropomorphism and Incredulity in Yann Martel's Life of Pi.' Studies in Canadian Literature 29.2 (2004): 22-36. Print. Daston, Lorraine, Gregg Mitman, ed. Thinking with Animals: New Perspective on Anthropomorphism. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005. Print. Defoe, Daniel. Robison Crusoe. New York: Chelsea House, 1988. Print. Dubied, Annik. 'True/Genuine? Growing Zoocentrism or Dogged Anthropocentrism? The Personification of Animal Figures in the News.' Humanimalia 3.1 (2011): 77-100. Print. Dwyer, June. 'Yann Martel's Life of Pi and the Evolution of the Shipwreck Narrative.' Modern Language Studies 35.2 (2005): 9-21. Print. Project Muse. Web 8 Jan. 2014. Eliot, T. S. The Sacred Wood. London: Methuen, 1920. Print. Fudge, Erica. Animal. New York: U of Chicago P, 2002. Print Gennep, Arnold Van. The Rites of Passage. Chicago: University of Chicago P, 1960. Print. Genette, Gerard. Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation. Cambridge of University Press, 1997. Print. Gupta, S. M. 'Ecocritical Reading of Yann Martel's Life of Pi.' Ecological Criticism for Our Time: Literature, Nature, and Critical Inquiry. Ed. Murali Sivaramakrishnan and Ujjwal Jana. Delhi: Authors P, 2011. Print. Haraway, Donna J. When Species Meet. Minneapolis : U of Minnesota P, 2008. Print. Hemingway, Ernest. The Old Man and the Sea. New York: Scribner, 1952. Print. Huggan, Grahma, Helen Tiffin. 'Zoocriticism and Postcolonial.' Postcolonial Ecocriticism: Literature, Animals, Environment. London: Routledge, 2010. 134-140. Print. Hutcheon, Linda. 'The Politics of Parody.' The Politics of Postmodernism. New York: Routledge, 1989. 93-117. Print. Jeffers, Thomas L. Apprenticeships: The Bildungsroman from Goethe to Santayana. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Print. Koenigsberger, Kurt. The Novel and the Menagerie: Totality, Englishness, and Empire. The Ohio State U P, 2007. Print. Kristeva, Julia. 'Word, Dialogue and Novel.' The Kristeva Reader. Ed. Toril Moi. Oxford: Columbia UP, 1986. Print. Krist, Gary. 'Taming the Tiger.' The New York Times Book Review. 7 July 2002. 202. Print. Lacan, Jacques. 'Some Reflections on the Ego.' International Journal of Psychoanalysis 34.1 (1953): 11-17. Electronic Resource. Lakff, George, and Mark Tuner. More than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1989. Print. Leslie, Esther. Hollywood Flatlands: Animation, Critical Theory and the Avant-Garde. New York: Verso, 2002. Print. Lincoln, Margarette. 'Shipwreck Narratives of the Eighteenth and early Nineteenth Century: Indicators of Culture and Identity.' Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 20.2 (1997): 155-172. Wiley Online Library. Web 8 Jan. 2014. Martel, Yann. The Fact Behind the Helsinki Roccamatios. Knopf: Canada, 1993. Print. ---. Life of Pi: A Novel. Random House of Canada: Harcout, 2001. Print. ---. Self. Alfred A. Knopf: Canada, 1996. Print. Mcfarland, Sarah E. 'Animal Studies, Literary Animals, and Yann Martel's Life of Pi.' Ed. Louise Westling. The Cambridge Companion to Literature and the Environment. London: Cambridge UP, 2013. 152-166. Print. Mcinelly, Brett C. 'Expanding Empires, Expanding Selves: Colonialism, the Novel, and Robinson Crusoe.' Studies in the Novel 35.1 (2003): 1-21. Print. Mensch, James. 'The Intertwining of Incommensurables: Yann Martel's Life of Pi.' Phenomenology and the Non-Human Animal: At the Limits of Experience. Ed. Corinne Painter and Christian Lotz. New York: Springer, 2007. 135-148. Print. Moore, Bryan L. Ecology and Literature: Ecocentric Personification from Antiquity to the Twenty-first Century. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Print. Morris, Desmond. The Human Zoo. New York: London, 1969. Print. Mukherjee, Pabol. Postcolonial Environment: Nature, Culture, and the Contemporary Indian Novel in English. New York: Palgrave Macmillan/Arts & Humanities Research Council, 2010. 144. Electronic Resource. Oliver, Kelly. Animal Lesson: How They Teach Us to Be Human. New York: Columbia UP, 2009. Print. Oppermann, Serpil. 'Seeking Environmental Awareness in Postmodern Fictions.' Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction. London: Routledge, 2008, Print. Poe, Edgar Allan. The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket. Charlottesville, VA: U of Virginia, 2002. 243-253. Electronic Resource. 'The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century 1660-1785.' Period Introduction Overview. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed. Stephen Greenblatt. 8th ed. 1 vols. New York: W. W. Norton, 2006. Print. Scliar, Moacyr. Max and the Cat. Trans. Eloah E Giacomelli. New York: Plume, 1981. Print. Sielke, Sabine. ''The Empathetic Imagination': An Interview with Yann Martel.' Canadian Literature, 2003: 12-32. Print. EBSCO. Web 8 Jan. 2014. Singer, Peter. ed. In Defense of Animals: The Second Wave. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2006. Print. Slapkauskaite, Ruta. 'Investigating Intertextuality in Yann Martel's Life of Pi.' Ed. Anna Branach-Kallas and Piotr Sadkowski. Dialogues with Traditions in Canadian Literature, 2005. 139-51. Print. Stephens, Gregory. 'Feeding Tiger, Finding God: Science, Religion, and 'the Better Story' in Life of Pi.' Intertexts 14.1 (2010): 41-59. Print. Project Muse. Web 8 Jan. 2014. Stratton, Florence. ''Hollow at the core': Deconstructing Yann Martel's Life of Pi.' Studies in Canadian Literature 29.2 (2004): 22-36. Print. Thomas, Bindu Annie. 'Territory and Power: Towards A Biocentric Reading of Yann Martel's Life of Pi.' Essays in Criticism. Ed. Nirmal Selvamony, Nirmaldasan, and Rayson K. Alex. New Delhi, India: Sarup and Sons, 2007. 182-88. Electronic Resource. Wright, Laura. 'Safari, Zoo and Dog Pound: Vegetarianism, Extinction, and the Place of Animals in the Postcolonial Environment.' Wilderness into Civilized Shapes: Reading the Postcolonial Environment. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1970. 56-102. Print. Whittaker, Peter. Rev. of Life of Pi, by Yann Martel. New Internationalist, 2002. Print. Wood, James. 'Credulity.' London Review of Books 24.22 (2002):10. 2004. Print. Yadav, Deepali. 'Ecocritical Reading of Yann Martel's Life of Pi.' Ed. Vishwanath Bite. The Criterion: An International Journal in English 4.2 (2013): 1-6. Print. 蔡淑芬。<《少年Pi的奇幻漂流》中人與自然的關係>。《生態文學概論》。 蔡振興主編。臺北: 書林,2013。
摘要: The thesis aims to read Yann Martel's Life of Pi as an example of the Bildungsroman, examining how Pi changes from an anthropocentric view to one which takes interest of zoo animals, in particular, the tiger Richard Parker. In early part of Life of Pi, Pi told narrator how he lived by the Pondicherry zoo. Because of his personal background living together with the zoo animals, he perceives animals in terms of an anthropocentric view. I see that the view Pi initially looks at zoo animals is akin to the view the colonizer see the colonized. The statement which he argues the keeping of wild animals in captivity generates and corresponds with the racism/speciesism ideologies of imperialism. It is, however, important to note that after his interactions with Richard Parker, Pi considers Richard Parker as individual to be respected rather than an object to be confined. He treats Richard Parker as one of his companions and promises to keep Richard Parker alive. The transformation demonstrates Pi's ecological negotiation with Richard Parker. I point out that by training Richard Parker while Richard Parker resists Pi, Pi reconsiders his initial perspective of zoo animals as objects in terms of his anthropocentric view. Pi starts to care, love, and compassionate for Richard Parker, privileging Richard Parker's needs over his. Significantly, Pi's negotiation with Richard Parker offers him an opportunity to criticize the anthropocentric view. More interesting is to see that the device of anthropomorphism in Life of Pi is the means by which Pi reconnects to and appreciates for Richard Parker and animals. At last, in the last part of the novel, Pi's two versions of the survival tale is his critique of anthropocentricism.
本論文以生態成長的角度來看加拿大作家揚.馬泰爾( Yann Martel) 的小說《少年Pi的奇幻漂流》中主角Pi如何在透過與老虎的互動中,對動物園裡動物的看法有著慢慢成長和變化。小說的第一部分Pi提到了他小時在朋迪榭裡動物園的成長故事,他獨特的動物園觀是他以人類為中心去看動物園的動物,然而,筆者發現Pi在看待動物時,認為它們需要居住在動物園裡且被圈禁和馴養的想法是和帝國主義中看待他者和管理人種問題上不謀而合,但往後的漂流旅程中,筆者又發現了Pi在對待老虎理查.帕克時有著不同於他之前的動物園觀,Pi卻視老虎為同伴,認為老虎有必要和他一起生存下去。這種轉變是Pi跨越了他以往以人類為中心看待他者(the other)的世界觀,對於動物的生命有著不一樣的體悟,Pi藉由訓練理查.帕克老虎而抵抗的同時,調整和修正他原先以人類為中心的觀點去看待動物園的動物,此刻,Pi視老虎為個體並以老虎的需求為優先,這成長觀以他者需要為優先給予他日後對於人類為中心的論述做為批判。值得注意的是小說中的擬人化技巧是Pi重新建立起他與老虎共感和欣賞動物的做法,而在Pi最後的兩個版本故事中,筆者認為動物版本的故事是Pi對人類為中心的世界中屏除動物世界觀的批判。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/88897
其他識別: U0005-0302201513245600
文章公開時間: 2018-08-18
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.