請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/88909
標題: Visions of Animism: Anime, Environment,Cyborgs
萬物泛靈論的視野:日本動畫、環境、賽博格
作者: Tsai-Di Hung
洪彩荻
關鍵字: 萬物泛靈論
日本動畫
神道
生態批評
後人類主義
神靈
混種
animism
anime
Shinto
ecocriticism
post-humanism
spirits
hybridity
引用: Asma, Stenphen T. 'The New Atheists' Narrow Worldview.' The Chronicle of Higher Education 21 January 2011. Print. Carson, Rachel. Silent Spring. Penguin Group, 1965. Print. Cavallaro, Dani. The Anime Art of Hayao Miyazaki. MacFarland & Company, 2006. Print. Clark, Andy. Natural-born Cyborgs. Oxford UP, 2003. Print. Garrard, Greg. Ecocriticism. New York: Routledge, 2004. Print. Franke, Anselm. 'Much Trouble in the Transportation of Souls, or: The Sudden Disorganization of Boundaries.' ed. Animism Volume I. Ed. Anselm Franke, New York: Sternberg Press, 2010. Print. Haraway, Donna. 'A Manifesto for Cyborgs.' Socialist Review. New York: Routledge, 1985. Print. Harvey, Graham. Animism: Respecting the Living World. New York: Cambridge UP, 2006. Print. Hayles, N. Katherine. How We Became Post Humanism. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1999. Print. Heinlein, Robert A. Stranger in a Strange Land. New York: the Penguin Group, 1961. Print. Hu, Tze-Yue G. Frames of Anime. Hong Kong University Press, 2010. Groleau, Amy B. 'Special Finds: Locating Animism in the Archaeological Record.' Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 19, pp 398-406 doi: 10.1017/S0959774309000584, 2009. Print. McCarthy, Helen. Hayao Miyazaki Master of Japanese Animation: films, themes, artistry. The United States: Stone Bridge Press, 1999. McDonald, Keiko I. Reading a Japanese Film. University of Hawai'i Press, 2006. Miyazaki, Hayao, dir. Princess Mononoke. Japan: Studio Ghibli, 1997, Film. Morton, Timothy. 'Thinking Ecology: The Mesh, The Strange Stranger, and the Beautiful Soul.' Collapse VI. Ed. Robin Mackay, 2010. Print. Nakamura, Kenji, dir. Mononoke. Japan: Toei Animation, 2007. Television. Napier, Susan J. Anime: from Akira to Howl's Moving Castle. US: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001. Print. Odell, Colin, and Michelle Le Blanc. Studio Ghibli: The Films of Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata. UK: Kemera Books, 2009. Print. 'Scientific Dictatorship—Post-humanism' https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rbpu7_nrU34. YouTube, 2011. Oshii, Mamoru, dir. Ghost in the Shell. Japan: Bandai Visual Company, 1995. Film. Tylor, Edward. Primitive Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1958. Print. Updike, J. (2001), Shinto. The Yale Review, 89: 22. doi: 10.1111/0044-0124.00500 Wang, Cheng-yuan. Cultural Cyborgs. Taiwan: Bookman Press, 2003. 'What is a Watershed?' Water.epa.gov/type/watersheds/whatis.cfm. EPA United States Environment Protection Agency, 6 March 2012. Web. 30 July 2012.
摘要: This thesis examines the vision of animism in viewing Japanese anime works, our environment, and our new identity as post-human cyborgs. It is believed in animism that non-human objects possess their spiritual beings. Each object in this world is believed to have its own souls or spirits. Be it a tree, a river, a pen, an animal, they share this traits of holding the agency of their own: they are not merely physical objects but those with spirits as human beings with souls. In this thesis I am going to take the concept of animism as a pair of binoculars that links our view to a world of animated spiritual beings, and I will analyze several brilliant anime works in Japan and seek to connect their relation to animism. Hayao Miyazaki and Mamoru Oshii have both brought audience great animation films that are intrinsically related to Japan's Shinto and Buddhism traditions, both of which are in part animistic and pantheistic. Their internationally-acclaimed works I will examine in this thesis include My Neighbor Totoro (1988), Spirited Away (2001), Princess Mononoke (1997) and Ghost in the Shell (1995). These anime works have their connection to Shinto, ecocrticism, and post-humanism. In Shinto, we come to a scope of八百万の神 (yaoyorozu-no-kami), literally meaning 'eight million spirits.' Spirits and humans have never separated from each other, as long as one holds a belief in it. In ecocriticism, we see the close but tense interrelation among humans, the earth, and other living beings. Human greed of exploiting nature resources has planted the seed of destruction for our race. In post-humanism, we see the boundary between humans and machines is getting erased in the process of machinery's ability to 'think' and human's hybridity into a cyborg. In the end, human beings create inventions that recreate who and what we are.
這篇論文探討的是從萬物泛靈論的視野來看日本的動畫作品、我們的環境、和我們身為後人類時代的賽博格(機械化有機體)的身分,在萬物泛靈論的世界中,非人類的物體是有靈魂的主體,在世界上的每一個物件據信都是有靈或魂的本質。無論是一棵樹、一條河、一枝筆、一個動物都享有這樣的共同特質,持有自己的主體/權:他們不僅僅是一項物件,而是和人類一樣有靈魂的個體。在這篇論文中,我將以萬物泛靈論的概念,當作一副雙筒望遠鏡,將我們人類的視野連結到一個充滿生動靈魂主體的世界,同時我會分析幾部傑出的日本動畫作品,並尋找這些作品和萬物泛靈論之間的關係和連結。 宮崎駿和押井守兩位導演都為觀眾帶來精彩偉大的動畫作品,這些作品在本質上都和神道以及佛教有所關連,在某種程度上,這兩個宗教都偏向萬物泛靈論和泛神論的本質。在這篇論文中,我將分析兩位導演享譽國際的作品,包含龍貓(1988)、神隱少女(2001)、魔法公主(1997)、攻殼機動隊(1995)。這些動畫作品分別和神道、生態批評、後人類主義產生連結。從神道的角度,我們直接看到萬物皆有靈(八百万の神)的視野,按照字面的解釋「八百万の神」意為八百萬位神靈,只要你持有這樣的信仰,神靈和人類從來未曾分開彼此。從生態批評的角度,我們可以看到人類、地球、其他生命體之間一種緊密卻又緊張的相互關係,人類的貪婪正剝削濫用著自然資源,這樣的舉動已經埋下人類種族自我毀滅的種子。從後人類主義的角度,我們看到人類和機器之間的界線正在逐漸模糊,在這個過程中,機器發展出思考的能力,人類也成了混種的賽博格(機械化有機體),最後,人類終將因為自己創造出的發明物,重新塑造自己的身分。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/88909
其他識別: U0005-2001201401054700
文章公開時間: 2014-01-27
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