Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89111
DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor楊曼妙zh_TW
dc.contributorMan-Miao Yangen_US
dc.contributor.author邱俊禕zh_TW
dc.contributor.authorChun-I Chiuen_US
dc.contributor.other昆蟲學系所zh_TW
dc.date2014zh_TW
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-01T06:55:20Z-
dc.identifierU0005-1201201423225800zh_TW
dc.identifier.citationAbe, T. 1987. Evolution of life types in termites, pp. 125-148. In S. Kawano, J. H. Connell and T. Hidaka (eds.), Evolution and Coadaptation in Biotic Communities. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo. Akibo-Betts, D. T., and S. A. Raymundo. 1978. Aphids as rice pests in Sierra Leone. International Rice Research Newsletter 3: 15-16. Araujo, R. L. 1970. Termites of the Neotropical region, pp. 527-576. In K. Krishna and F. M. Weesner (eds.), The Biology of Termites, vol. 2. Academic Press, New York. Behr, E. A., C. T. Behr, and L. F. Wilson. 1972. Influence of wood hardness on feeding by the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitadae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 65: 457-460. Bonkowski, M., C. Villenave, and B. Griffiths. 2009. Rhizosphere fauna: the functional and structural diversity of intimate interactions of soil fauna with plant roots. Plant and Soil 321: 213-233. Bourguignon, T., J. Sobotnik, G. 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dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11455/89111-
dc.description.abstractSoil-feeding termites is a highly diverse feeding group among Isoptera. They forage and feed organic matter in soil. Previous studies hypothesized that niche differentiation of soil-feeding termites are contributed by foraging different carbon sources. Life type classification of soil-feeding termites was thought to be separate type, but a few studies indicated that some species are one-piece or intermediate type. To find the foraging target and understand the life type, subterranean gallery systems of two only known soil-feeding termites of Taiwan, Pericapritermes nitobei (Shiraki) and Sinocapritermes mushae (Oshima et Maki), were excavated at five and seven locations, respectively, for studying the structures and functions, and for analyzing the soil property. In gallery systems, termites were found in the flat, narrow and irregular space beneath or surrounded with underground objects, such as wood pieces, stones, thick roots (primary and secondary tree roots), and fibrous roots (tertiary tree roots and grass roots). These termite harboring space in gallery system is called 'nodes' herein. In total, 90 nodes of P. nitobei and 64 nodes of S. mushae were observed. To investigate the function of nodes, termite caste composition and proportion of foraging workers were examined in each node. Forager proportion of P. nitobei was highest in nodes adjacent to fibrous roots, and it was never observed underneath wood. In contrast, the highest forager proportion of S. mushae was found in nodes adjacent to wood. Hence, soil around fibrous roots and woods were the potential food sources of P. nitobei and S. mushae, respectively. This result supports that two soil-feeding termites forage different carbon sources. Occurrence of larva, egg, and royal castes were correlated with occurrence of thick roots and stones in P. nitobei, so these two underground objects are possible nesting sites. Feeding and nesting sites of P. nitobei are significantly different on their spatial distributions, and it shows that this species is separate life type. In contrast, nesting sites of S. mushae were not distinguished by castes and spatial distribution. This result shows S. mushae is one-piece or intermediate life type. In summary, current study indicates that soil-feeding termites forage for specific carbon source, and one-piece or intermediate life type may occur in soil-feeding termites.en_US
dc.description.abstract食土白蟻 (soil-feeding termite) 以土壤中的有機質為食,為等翅目中物種多樣性最高的攝食群 (feeding group)。過去研究推測,不同物種的食土白蟻可能搜尋不同的碳源,因而造成攝食區位 (trophic niche) 之差異,此外對於其蟻巢之形式 (life type classification),許多研究將食土白蟻視為巢食分離型 (separate type),而部分學者認為亦有巢食共處型 (one-piece type) 或巢食連結型 (intermediate type) 的種類,但尚未被驗證。我以台灣現有的兩種食土白蟻,新渡戶歪白蟻 (Pericapritermes nitobei (Shiraki)),以及台華歪白蟻 (Sinocapritermes mushae (Oshima et Maki)) 為材料,探究其地下網絡系統之結構與功能,並進行巢區土壤成分分析,以釐清上述假說。共挖掘5個新渡戶歪白蟻及7個台華歪白蟻之地下網絡系統進行觀察與採集,記錄白蟻各階級所處位置,及其所具有的地下物件。同時首度以各樣區之採食工蟻 (forager) 的進食狀態,判斷白蟻在地下網絡系統中的取食位置。結果顯示,白蟻會停棲於地下網絡系統中非通道的空腔中,我將這些空腔定名為「節點 (node) 」,共記錄90個新渡戶歪白蟻的節點,以及64個台華歪白蟻的節點,這些節點通常出現在地下物件(石頭、木塊、粗根、鬚根)下方。新渡戶歪白蟻在具鬚根的節點有最高取食率,台華歪白蟻則是在具木塊的節點有最高取食率,由此推測新渡戶歪白蟻取食鬚根旁的土壤,而台華歪白蟻取食木塊旁的土壤,此結果顯示這兩種食土白蟻會搜尋不同的碳源。具有新渡戶歪白蟻之被撫育階級(蟻王、蟻后、幼蟲及卵)的節點出現率與粗根及石頭的出現率有顯著關聯,因此推測新渡戶歪白蟻會於粗根或石頭旁建立巢區 (nesting site)。由於新渡戶歪白蟻巢區及取食區 (feeding site) 的位置在空間分布上有顯著差異,故判定其為巢食分離型白蟻。台華歪白蟻之被撫育階級與物件的出現沒有關聯,無法辨識其巢區位置,且取食區的空間分布與其他類型的節點沒有顯著差異,故推測其為巢食共處型或巢食連結型的白蟻。本研究結果支持不同種的食土白蟻搜尋不同的碳源,造成攝食區位之差異,且部分食土白蟻可能具有巢食共處型或巢食連結型之生活型態。zh_TW
dc.description.tableofcontents摘 要..........i ABSTRACT..........iii TABLE OF CONTENTS..........v LIST OF TABLES..........vi LIST OF FIGURES..........vii INTRODUCTION..........1 BACKGROUND..........3 1. Foraging behavior and subterranean gallery system..........3 2. Feeding niche of soil-feeding termite..........4 3. Nest structure of termite..........5 4. Feeding and nesting site, and life type classification..........6 5. Soil-feeding termites in Taiwan..........7 MATERIALS AND METHODS..........9 1. Study sites and gallery systems..........9 2. Termite sampling..........10 3. Forager proportion..........11 4. Soil sampling and analysis of water and organic matter content..........11 5. Data analysis..........12 RESULTS..........15 1. Occurrence of underground object..........16 2. Occurrence of castes and plastered wall..........16 3. Forager proportion and vertical distribution..........17 4. Soil organic matter and water content..........18 DISCUSSION..........19 CONCLUSIONS..........25 REFERENCES..........26zh_TW
dc.language.isoen_USzh_TW
dc.rights同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2015-01-16起公開。zh_TW
dc.subjectNest structureen_US
dc.subjectFunctional groupen_US
dc.subjectTrophic nicheen_US
dc.subjectSocial evolutionen_US
dc.subject蟻巢結構zh_TW
dc.subject功能群zh_TW
dc.subject攝食區位zh_TW
dc.subject社會演化zh_TW
dc.titleStructures and functions of subterranean gallery systems of two soil-feeding termitesen_US
dc.title兩種食土白蟻地下網絡系統之結構及功能zh_TW
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationen_US
dc.date.paperformatopenaccess2015-01-16zh_TW
dc.date.openaccess2015-01-16-
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