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Effect of drying beads on drying seeds of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
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|摘要:||In order to maintain the vitality of seeds during storage, seeds need to be dried to the critical moisture content before storage. As a new desiccant drying technology, seed drying beads are modified ceramic materials (aluminum silicates or zeolites) that can absorb and hold water molecules very tightly in their microscopic pores. The beads continue to absorb water until all of their pores are filled, and can be regenerated for repeated use. When seeds are placed in a seal container with the drying beads, the beads remove water from the air, creating and maintaining a very low humidity environment. This leads to the seedsimmediately losing water due to absorbance by the drying beads until they come to a state of equilibrium. This study, examined the effects of this new drying technique on the germination rate and physiological activity of harvested sweet pepper 'Blue Star' and cucumber 'Wanji' seeds. It aimed to establish the optimal condition for the seeds with respect to the drying beads ratio and temperature during the drying process for sweet pepper and cucumber seeds.
The moisture content of all three particle sizes of drying beads tested increased by more than 6% after 2 hours of absorbance in a 100% relative humidity environment. The particle size and ambient temperature affected the initial water absorption capacity of the drying beads. Large and small drying beads had good water absorption capacities in the early stage of drying at 15℃ and 25℃. In addition, the particle size and temperature gad no significant effects on the moisture content of the drying beads at three different temperatures after 72 hours of drying.
For sweet pepper seeds, small drying beads of 3 and 5 times the weight of the seed were used and their effects on the seed vigor after drying at 25℃ were examined. With drying beads 3 times the weight of the seed, mean germination day, mean emergence day were decreased and the physiological activities, such as electrical conductance and MDA content, were significantly increased. The respiration rate and CAT activity of the seeds dried with drying beads that were 3 times the seed weight were also greater than those of the seed dried using beads that were 5 times the seed weight. For seeds that underwent accelerated aging treatment, the drying beads that were 3 times the seed weight reduced the seed moisture content from 43% to 10% within 18 hours at 25℃, and the seed respiration the ratio of dtying beads reduced the drying time, while with the drying beads of 5times the seed weight, the seed electrical conductance increase. After 6 months of storage, the seed electrical conductance decreased and the germination percentage was over 85.6% for seeds dried with drying beads of 3 times the seed weight at 25℃.
For cucumber seeds, large drying beads of 3 and 5 times the seed weight were used and their effects on the seed characteristics after drying were examined. Drying beads of both sizes reduced the seed moisture content from 33% to 10% within 2 hours and had no significant impacts on the seed vigor or seed physiological activity. For seeds that underwent accelerated aging treatment, different ratios of drying beads to seeds had no significant correlation with seed vigor, but the drying temperature significantly affected the germination rate and physiological activity. With drying beads 3 times the seed weight, the seed germination percentage increased to 91% under drying at 25℃. Increasing the amount of drying beads to 5 times the seed weight reduced the drying time ny one hour, and had no significant impacts on the seed vigor but decreased the seed respiration rate. In addition, after 6 months of storage, the mean germination duration was shorter and the germination percentage was maintained at greater than 85% for seed dried with drying beads 5 times the weight of the seed at 25℃.|
採收後種子於貯藏前需將種子乾燥至安全含水量，乾燥豆(drying beads)是由氧化矽和氧化鋁所形成的結晶性矽鋁酸鹽，具有高度吸水能力與能重複使用之特性，可作為種子乾燥之用。本研究以甜椒'藍星'及胡瓜'萬吉'種子為材料，研究乾燥過程中乾燥豆與種子混合之最適比例及溫度與乾燥倍數對種子品質及貯藏性之影響，以確定乾燥豆進行甜椒與胡瓜種子乾燥之最佳條件。三種粒徑之乾燥豆經2小時吸水後能使乾燥豆水分含量上升到6 %以上，粒徑與環境溫度會影響初期乾燥豆吸水能力，於15及25℃下，大粒徑與小粒徑乾燥豆吸水能力佳，於吸水72小時後，粒徑與溫度對乾燥豆水分含量無顯著之影響。 以3倍與5倍(重量比)小粒徑乾燥豆於15、25及35℃乾燥甜椒種子時，乾燥豆混合倍數會影響乾燥後種子活力，以3倍混合倍數乾燥的種子，平均發芽天數與平均萌芽天數較短，且生理表現如電導度與MDA含量低，呼吸率與CAT活性較5倍混合倍數者高。乾燥後種子經加速老化處理，於25℃下以3倍乾燥豆與甜椒種子混合進行乾燥，可在18小時內將種子水分含量從43 %降低至安全含水量10 %，且提高種子呼吸率，縮短種子平均萌芽天數至8.3天。提高乾燥豆混合倍數可以縮短乾燥的時間，但在5倍混合比例下造成種子滲漏電導度上升。乾燥後種子經過6個月貯藏試驗，於25℃下以3倍乾燥豆乾燥的種子電導度較低，可維持種子發芽率達85.6 %以上。 利用大粒徑乾燥豆進行胡瓜種子乾燥，於25℃以3倍或5倍(重量比)乾燥豆混合胡瓜種子進行乾燥，皆可在2小時內將種子水分含量從33 %降低至安全含水量10 %，對種子活力與生理活性表現無顯著之影響。乾燥種子經加速老化處理後，乾燥豆混合倍數對種子發芽活力無顯著影響，乾燥溫度顯著影響種子發芽率及生理表現，於3倍25℃下乾燥胡瓜種子發芽率達91 %，增加乾燥倍數至5倍時可以縮短1小時乾燥時間，種子的發芽活力無顯著影響，但造成種子呼吸率下降。經過6個月貯藏試驗後，於25℃下5倍乾燥豆混合的種子，平均發芽天數較短且種子仍可維持85 %以上的發芽率。
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