Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89172
標題: 嘉義縣農塘紅冠水雞棲地適宜性評估
Assessing Habitat Suitability for Common Moorhen in the Farm Ponds of Chiayi County
作者: Chia-Yi Tsai
蔡佳怡
關鍵字: 棲地適宜性
矩陣分析
總體經確度驗證
Habitat suitability
Matrix Analysis
Overall Accuracy
引用: [專書] 1. 王嘉雄、吳森雄、黃光瀛、楊秀英、蔡仲晃、蔡牧起、蕭慶亮。1991。台灣野鳥圖鑑。亞舍圖書有限公司。台灣野鳥資訊社。台灣。 2. 甘俊二、王萬邦。2005。台灣的古圳道。遠足文化。台灣。 3. 廖本興。2012。台灣野鳥圖鑑-水鳥篇。晨星出版有限公司。台中。 4. 劉小如、丁宗蘇、方偉宏、林文宏、蔡牧起、顏重威。2012。台灣鳥類誌-第二版(上)。行政院農業委員會林務局。台灣。 5. 雲林縣政府。2011。雲嘉南散落型農塘文化園區計畫成果報告書。台灣造園景觀學會編印。 6. 嘉義縣環境保護局。2012。101年度嘉義縣農塘環境資源調查技術服務案。社團法人台灣景觀環境學會編印。 7. 行政院農業委員會水土保持局。2008。坡地生態水池規劃參考手冊。水土保持局編印。 [中文] 1. 王小璘、何友鋒、黃晏淨、吳靜宜。2011。生態城市評估指標體系之研究—以台中市為例。建築學報。75:115-134。 2. 王晴薇。2003。非法定保育地之永續性研究-以桃園沿海鳥類棲息地為例。碩士論文。國立臺灣師範大學地理學系。 3. 方偉達、董德波、張尊國,2004。桃園埤塘農地重劃鳥類生態環境影響評估,中華民國環境工程學會年會論文集,中華民國環境工程學會。 4. 古昌杰、汪靜明。1984。河川生態敏感地區劃定架構之研究。規劃與設計學報。2(3):9-26。 5. 江彥政。2004。景觀生態中塊區結構指數與鳥類物種歧異度相關性之研究。興大園藝。29(4):97-109。 6. 何敬之、藍筱蘋、劉仁智。1995。多評準則決策-分析層級程序法尺度之研究。管理科學學報。12(1):127-152。 7. 李明儒。2004。頭汴坑溪環境生態評估指數之研究。博士論文。國立中興大學水土保持學系。 8. 李梧桐、簡傳彬、方文村、陳淑貞。2007。埤塘與灌溉水圳生態功能重塑評估準則之研究-以桃園縣龍潭地區為例。水利會訊。10:93-113。 9. 李蕙宇。2001。生態園之水棲生物棲地營造。碩士論文。台灣大學園藝學研究所。 10. 周彥瑜。2005。以景觀生態觀點探討台灣鄉村地區樹籬廊道與鳥類族群相關性之研究-以竹北地區為例。碩士論文。國立中興大學園藝學系。 11. 官至青。2009。生態水池周邊生物環境調查與規劃應用之研究。碩士論文。國立中興大學水土保持學系。 12. 林文隆、蔡顯修、吳雪如。2007。水圳水泥化對期間生物數量變動之影響。中華水土保持學報。38(1):31-42。 13. 林璇姿。2006。都市公園綠地連接度之探討-以台北市大安區為例。碩士論文。東海大學景觀學系。 14. 卓雯雯。2014。雲林縣農塘保存價值評估及策略之研究。博士論文。國立成功大學建築學系。 15. 胡申瑜。2013。雲林地區農塘價值及其與地方依附、農塘未來利用形式關係之研究。碩士論文。國立中興大學園藝學系。 16. 郭瓊瑩,1999,河川廊道之生態規劃與設計,水資源管理與生態河川研討會,台中中興大學。 17. 柳雅瀞。2002。模糊德爾菲層級分析法應用於岩體分類之研究。碩士論文。國立成功大學資源工程學系。 18. 侯錦雄、陳宏宇、林文毅。2005。農村水環境的景觀復育與生態設計。中華水土保持學報。36(4):401-412 19. 高一弘。2013。桃園埤塘鳥類多樣性與埤塘周圍景觀關聯性分析之研究。碩士論文。中華大學營建管理學系。 20. 陳坤佐。2001。以景觀生態觀點建立河川廊道評估方法之研究。碩士論文。國立中興大學園藝學系。 21. 陳其澎。2003。桃園大圳及光復圳系統埤塘調查研究。行政院客家委員會委託研究報告。 22. 陳育甄。2002。模糊層級分析法應用於城際運具選擇模式之研究。碩士論文。國立成功大學都市計畫研究所。 23. 陳瀅茹。2008。泥岩地區農塘景觀結構與生物群聚關係之研究。碩士論文。國立中興大學水土保持學系。 24. 翁婉茹。2007。水圳從自然、文化、休閒角度再利用。農政與農情。184。78-80。 25. 張高雯。2000。以景觀生態結構與鳥類多樣性之研究。碩士論文。國立中興大學園藝學系。 26. 馮正一、劉怡安。2007。農塘改建為滯洪設施效益評估之研擬。臺灣水土保持。59:8-15。 27. 蔡志偉、張世倉、李明儒。2009。台灣中部筏子溪魚類豐度及歧異度與水質關係之研究。特有生物研究。11(2):47-61。 28. 鄧振源、曾國雄。1989。層級分析法(AHP)的內涵特性與應用(上)。中國統計學報。27(6):5-22。 29. 鄧振源、曾國雄。1989。層級分析法(AHP)的內涵特性與應用(下)。中國統計學報。27(7):1-15。 30. 黃仲霙。2008。宜蘭縣水田地景與紅冠水雞生殖生態學。碩士論文。國立宜蘭大學。 31. 黃國鋒。2012。農塘、蓄水池及滯洪池之功效。水土保持技術。7(1):63-65 32. 鄭亞嵐、林晏州。2003。都市公園綠地連接度與鳥類群聚關係之研究。中國園藝。49(4):395-406。 33. 鄭滄濱。1996。軟體組織提升人員能力之成熟度模糊評估模式。碩士論文。國立台灣科技大學。 34. 廖英琦。2006。壽豐養殖區內常見水鳥選擇埤塘之探討。碩士論文。國立東華大學自然資源管理研究所。 35. 衛萬里、張文智。2005。應用模糊德爾菲與分析網路程序法選擇最佳產品設計方案之研究。設計學報。10(3):59-80。 36. 盧惠敏、陳炤杰。2006。鳥類多樣性與地景多樣性研究-以屏東縣五溝村水圳地景為例。建築學報。57:123-141。 [英文] 1. Bartodziej, W., and G. Weymouth. 1995.Water bird abundance and activity on water hyacinth and egeria in the St. Marks River, Florida. Journal Aquatic Plant Management. 33:19-22. 2. Benton,T.G.,J.A.Vickery,and J.D.Wilson.2003.Farmland biodiversity:is habitat heterogeneity the key?Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18:182-188 3. Bennett, A. F., J. Q. Radford, and A. Haslem. 2006. Properties of land mosaics:implications for nature conservation in agriculture environments. BiologicalConservation 133:250-264. 4. Bridle,K.,M.Fitzgerald,D.Green,J.Smith,P.McQuillan,andT.Lefroy.2009. 5. Relationships between site characteristics,farming system and biodiversity on Australian mixed farms. Animal Production Science 49:869-882. 6. Brotons, L., A. Wolff, G. Paulus, and J.-L. Martin. 2005. Effect of adjacent agricultural habitat on the distribution of passerines in natural grasslands. Biological Conservation 124:407-414. 7. Clergeau, P., J. Jokimaki, and J.-P. L. Savard. 2001. Are urban bird communities influenced by the bird diversity of adjacent landscapes? Journal of Applied Ecology 38:1122-1134. 8. Cramp,S.,and K.E.L. Simmons.1980. The birds of the weaternPalearctic, Univ,Oxford Press,Oxford. 9. Forman,R. T. T. and M. Godron 1986. Landscape Ecology.New York:John Wiley &sons Publishers. 10. Forman, R. T. T., and S. K. Collinage, 1995. The 'spatial solution' to conserving biodiversity in landscapes and regions. In R. M. DeGraaf & R. I. Miller, eds. Conservation of Faunal Diversity in Forested Landscapes. Chapman & Hall, London. In press. 11. Fulton, G. R., M. Smith, C. M. Na, and S. Takahashi. 2008. Road ecology from a road-side assemblage of forest birds in south-western Australia. Ornithological Science 7:45-57. 12. Galbraith, H. 1988. Effects of agriculture on the breeding ecology of lapwings Vanellus vanellus. Journal of Applied Ecology 25:487-503 13. Garson, Justin, Aggarwal, Anshu and Sarkar, Sahotra, 2002, 'Birds as surrogates for biodiversity: ananalysis of a data set from southern Quebec,' Journal Biosciences 27:347-360, Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore, Indian. 14. Gibbons,D.W.1989. Juvenile helping in the moorhen,Gallinula chloropus.Anim.Behav.35:170-181 15. Giuliano,W.M. and S.E. Daves.2002.Avian response to warm-season grass use in pasture and hayfield management.Biol Cons.106:1-9 16. Hutto,R. L. 1985.Habitat selsction by nonbreeding ,migratory landbirds .In Cody, M.L.(ed) Habitat selection in birds. Academic Pres,New Yourk USA. 17. Herkenrath, Peter, 2002, 'Birds and the convention on biological diversity: can ornithologists and bird conservationists make a difference? ' Bird Conservation International, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. 18. Ishikawa, A., Amagasa T.S., Tomizawa G., Tatsuta R. and Mieno H. 1993 .The Max-Min Delphi method and fuzzy Deliph method viafuzzy in tegration, Fuzzy Sets and System. 55(24):1-253 19. Johnson,D. H. 1980. The comparison of usage and availability measurements for evaluating resource preference.Ecology 61:65-71 20. Langevelde,F.,A.Schotman,F.Claassen,and G. Sparenburg.2000.Competing land use in the reserve site selection problem.Landscape Ecology 15:243-256 21. Lee, P.-F., T.-S. Ding, F.-H. Hsu, and S. Geng, 2004. 'Breeding Bird Species Richness in Taiwan: Distribution on Gradients of Evaluation, Primary Productivity and Urbanization,' Journal of Biogeography, 31:307-314 22. Maeda, T. 2005. Bird use of rice field strips of varying width in the Kanto Plain of central Japan. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 105:347-351. 23. Martin,L.C.1985.Habitat selection in birds.pp.5-81,253-258. Academic Press.California 24. Morrison, M. L., B. G. Marcot, and R. W. Mannan. 1992. Wildlife-habitat relations: concepts and applications. University of Wisconsin Press. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. 25. Murray, T.J., Pipino, L.L., Gigch, J.P. van, 1985, A pilot study of fuzzy set modification of Delphi, Human Systems Management 5:76-80. 26. O'Connor,R.J.,and M. Shrubb. 1986. Farming and Birds. Cambridge University Press.Cambridge, UK. 27. Pennings, S. C., and R. M. Callaway. 1992. Salt marsh plant zonation:the relative importance of competition and physical factors. Ecology. 73:681-690. 28. Pierluissi,S. 2006. Breeding waterbird use of rice fields in southwestern Louisiana. Master thesis. University of Illinois,USA. 29. Piha,M.,J. Tiainen,J. Holopainen,and V. Vepsalainen.2007. Effects of land-use and landscape characteristics on avian diversity and abundance in a boreal agricultural landscape with organic and conventional farms. Biological Conservation 140 :50-61. 30. Ritter,M.W. and J.A.Savidge.1993.Rapid colonization of a human-made wetland by Mariana Common Moorhen on Guam. WilsonBull., 105(4):685-687 31. Ritter,M.W. and J.A.Savidge.1999.A predictive model of wetland habitat use on Guam by endangered Mariana common moorhens. Condor 101:282-287 32. Ripley,D.S.1997.Rails of the word.Am. Sci.64(6):628-635 33. Saaty,T. L..1971.How to make a decision:The analytic hierarchy process,European Journal of Operation Research.40:9-10。 34. Savard, J. P. L., P. Clergeau, and G. Mennechez.2000.Biodiversity concepts and urban Planning .Landscape and Urban Planning(48):131-142 35. Skowno, A. L., and W. J. Bond. 2003. Bird community composition in an actively managed savanna reserve, importance of vegetation structure and vegetation composition. Biodiversity and Conservation 12:2279-2294. 36. Traut,A.H. &Hostetler,M.E.2004.Urban lakes and waterbirds:effects of soreline delelopment on avian distribution.Landscape and Urban Planning,69:69-85 37. Taylor,K. 1984. The influence of water course management on moorhen breeding biology.Brit.Birds 77:144-148 38. Tworek, S. 2002. Different bird strategies and their responses to habitat changes in an agricultural landscape. Ecological Research 17:339-359. 39. Vielliard, Jacques M. E., 2000, 'Bird community as an indicator of biodiversity: results from quantitative surveys in Brazil,' Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 72(3):323-330,Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil. [網路資料] 1. http://blog.xuite.net/leechungmo/twblog/119806388 2. http://blog.xuite.net/lkdesignkimo/twblog/119898144 3. http://blog.xuite.net/tea0913/blog/69321240
摘要: Agriculture is the basis in Taiwan that irrigation water is primary for agricultural development. In addition to providing water retention for agricultural use, farm ponds present the functions of ecological conservation, habitat environment, water retention and detention, ground water recharge, water purification, and land subsidence mitigation. Nevertheless, the urban economic development reduces agricultural planting areas so that the irrigation function of farm ponds is disappearing by being filled and neglected. The habitat environments are relatively sharply reduced. Aiming at understanding the suitability of farm ponds being bird habitats, Common Moorhen is studied. The environments at 75 farm ponds in Chiayi County and the number of Common Moorhen are investigated. Multivariate Analysis is used for analyzing the correlation between the quantity and environmental factors in farm ponds; Fuzzy Delphi Method is applied to establish the evaluation structure of the suitability of farm pond habitats for Common Moorhen and the factor weights. Such farm ponds are graded based on the evaluation factors and calculated the total accuracy; and, Kappa Method is used for testing the reliability. Finally, Matrix Analysis of the habitat environment grading and the total number of Common Moorhen in four seasons is preceded to propose the representative farm pond habitat improvement strategies in four matrix quadrants. The farm pond field investigation results show that the largest number appears in winter, with the most quantity (50) at Lucao-Machouhou-03, followed by merely one pond at Taibao-Bihsiang-01 (50); 10 birds appear at Dalin-Datang-03 in spring, and the least quantity (8) appears at Lucao-Machouhou-03 in summer, excluding farm ponds without any birds. In the investigation of four seasons, the most Common Moorhen appear at Lucao-Machouhou-03. Fuzzy Delphi Method is utilized for calculating the weights of factors in habitat environments. At the first layer, the importance of 'farm pond internal environmental factors' (0.543) is larger than it of 'farm pond external environmental factor' (0.457); at the second layer, the factor weight analyses reveal that 'farm pond aquatic plant coverage' in 'farm pond internal environmental factors' presents higher importance, followed by 'drought period', 'embankment high, low, short bush coverage', 'type of embankment', and 'water depth'. In regard to 'farm pond external environmental factors', 'pond area' shows the highest importance, followed by 'farm area rate within 200m' and 'pond circumference'. The habitat grading shows the highest 4.689, the lowest 2.051, the average 3.148. Accordingly, habitats graded higher than 3.147 present the favorable habitat environments and are suitable for the habitats of Common Moorhen. On the contrary, those graded lower than 3.147 are unsuitable for the habitats of Common Moorhen. Besides, the Overall accuracy and the Kappa value, 0.8 and 0.6 respectively, are calculated according to the habitat grading and the number of Common Moorhen, revealing the high reliability of the evaluation structure and method. Taking the means of the farm pond habitat environment grading and the total number of Common Moorhen in four seasons as the datum, the Matrix Analysis results show that the first quadrant presents natural and favorable farm pond habitat environments with the most quantity of Common Moorhen, total 14 (19%) ponds. Such environments are excellent environments for the habitats of Common Moorhen that they should be preserved. The second quadrant presents low grading of farm pond habitat environments, merely 1 (1%) pond, but high total number of Common Moorhen in four seasons. Such a farm pond habitat environment is not suitable for Common Moorhen, but some of them still appear. The environment therefore should be improved to enhance the habitat quality for birds. Total 37 (49.3%) farm ponds appear in the third quadrant with unfavorable habitat environment grading and few numbers of Common Moorhen in four seasons. They could be developed for leisure, recreation, water retention and flood protection, and other functions. Total 23 (30.7%) farm ponds in the fourth quadrant show the highest grading on the habitats, but no Common Moorhen appears at such farm ponds. It is suggested to adjust specific items, according to the preferred habitat characteristics of Common Moorhen, to propose the possibilities of the appearance of Common Moorhen. Overall speaking, the location and number of Common Moorhen at farm pond habitats are realized through field investigation and Multivariate Analysis in this study. Meanwhile, the habitat suitability evaluation structure is constructed and tested with high reliability. Besides, Matrix Analysis is combined to propose improvement suggestions for different types of habitats. Academically, this study contributes to propose the suitability evaluation of farm pond habitats for Common Moorhen; practically, it contributes to classify farm ponds and plan different development directions and habitat improvement for various types of farm ponds.
臺灣以農業為本,灌溉水源對於農業發展相當重,農塘除了蓄水提供農業使用外,同時兼具生態保育、生物棲息環境、蓄水滯洪、補充地下水、淨化水源、減緩地層下陷等功能;但是隨著都市經濟發展,農業種植面積縮減,使得農塘灌溉功能逐漸喪失,開始被填平、荒廢,使得物種棲息環境銳減。本研究目的在於瞭解農塘作為鳥類棲息地之適宜性,以紅冠水雞為研究對象,進行嘉義縣75口農塘環境及紅冠水雞數量調查,以多變量分析數量與農塘環境因子相關性,以模糊德爾菲法建立紅冠水雞之農塘棲地適宜性評估架構與因子權重,依此評估因子進行農塘現地評分,並計算總體經確度與Kappa法驗證此方法之信賴度。最後進行棲地環境得分與紅冠水雞四季調查總隻數之矩陣分析,分別提出位於四個矩陣象限之代表性農塘棲地改善策略。 農塘現地調查結果發現,四個季節中數量最多的為冬季,隻數最多的為「鹿草-馬稠後03」 (50隻)。其次為秋季,數量最多僅1口,為「太保-埤鄉01」口共50隻,而春季則是「大林-大糖-03」,共10隻,夏季調查的隻數最少,排除完全沒有的農塘,最多的為「鹿草-馬稠後-03」共8隻。在四季調查中,其中以鹿草-馬稠後-03四個季節出現的紅冠水季最多共80隻。 模糊德爾菲法計算各影響棲地環境因子權重結果顯示,第一層的「農塘內部環境因子」(0.543)重要性大於「農塘外部環境因子」(0.457);第二層因子權重分析結果顯示「農塘內部環境因子」中,以「農塘水面植物覆蓋度」重要性較高,其次是「乾枯期」、「堤岸高低矮灌木覆蓋度」、「堤岸型態」、「水深」;「農塘外部環境因子」部分則是以「埤塘面積」最重要,其次是「200m範圍內農田面積比例」、「埤塘周長」。在棲地分數方面,最高分4.689,最低分2.051,平均值3.148,指標分數3.147;因此棲地得分高於3.147為棲地環境良好且適合紅冠水雞棲息的環境;反之,低於3.147則不適合紅冠水雞棲息;且依照棲地得分與紅冠水雞調查隻數,進行總體精確度與Kappa值計算,分別是0.8與0.6,顯示此評估架構與方法具有高度的信度。 以農塘棲地環境得分與紅冠水雞四季出現總隻數隻平均數為劃分基準,進行矩陣分析結果顯示,第一象限屬於農塘棲地環境自然良好且紅冠水雞隻數多者,共14口(19%),此環境是適合紅冠水雞棲地的優良環境,應予保存。第二象限為農塘棲地環境得分低但紅冠水雞四季調查總隻數高的農塘,共1口(1%),此類農塘棲地環境條件並不十分適合紅冠水雞生存,但其仍有出現的狀況,應進行農塘棲地環境改善提高鳥類棲地品質。第三象限的農塘共37(49.3%),其棲地環境得分不高,且紅冠水雞隻數四季調查總隻數也低,應可發展為休憩、遊樂、蓄水防洪或其他功能使用。第四象限的農塘屬於棲地評估得分高,但卻無紅冠水雞出現的農塘,共23口(30.7%),建議依照紅冠水雞喜愛的棲地特性,針對特定項目進行調整,提出紅冠水雞出現的可能性。 整體而言,本研究透過現地調查與多變量分析了解紅冠水雞於農塘棲地的位置與數量,同時建構棲地適宜性評估架構並驗證其具有高度信度,另結合矩陣分析法,可針對不同類型提出棲地改善之建議。本研究學術貢獻在於提出紅冠水雞之農塘棲地適宜性評估方法,實務上貢獻則是對農塘進行分類,針對不同類型農塘規劃不同的發展方向及棲地改善項目。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89172
其他識別: U0005-2608201514074100
文章公開時間: 2018-08-27
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.