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標題: 數種公認安全(GRAS)化合物對控制香蕉軸腐病與成熟度及1-MCP對'北蕉'香蕉採後品質之影響
Effects of Some Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) Compounds on Controlling the Crown Rot of Banana Fruits and Maturity and 1-MCP on Postharvest Quality of 'Pei-Chiao' Banana (Musa spp., Giant Cavendish, AAA Group) Fruits
作者: Chien-Chun Chan
關鍵字: 香蕉
crown rot
sodium metabisulfite
sorbic acid
sodium hypochlorite
chlorine dioxide
hot water treatment
senescence spot
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摘要: 'Pei-Chiao'('Giant Cavendish') banana is major variety for export in Taiwan, but it is also a perishable fruit and fruit quality deteriorates very rapidly after harvest. The short storage life is the major problem associated with the export of banana over long distances. Especially postharvest diseases crown rot caused by complex pathogen. Moreover senescent spots of banana is a physiological disorder which occur during ripening and senescence. However, shelf life of banana depends on the appearance of senescent spot. But 'Pei-Chiao' has a serious problem about early senescent spotting, which affecting on the competitiveness in the international market. The materials of this experiment were 'Giant Cavendish' banana fruits. In the first experiment, were to study effect of sodium metabisulfit, sorbic acid, ethanol, acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, hot water and aminoethoxyvinylglycine(ReTain®) treated on decay index and color index of banana fruit after 15℃ storage for 21 day and 0, 2, 4 days after ripening with ethylene. The result show that, application of sodium metabisulfit (0.4-0.5%), acetic acid (0.4-0.5%), sodium hypochlorite (0.1%), chlorine dioxide(5-10 min) and hot water (50℃) can cause a significant delay of crown deacy. Sorbic acid (3-5%) exhibited 100% inhibition of crown deacy in cold storage and after ripening with ethylene. The fruit stem sections were dipped with sodium metabisulfite, sorbic acid, ethanol, acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, for 5 minutes, to observe the browning and decay. The result show that, the optimum treatment was sodium metabisulfite which could inhibit the growth of hypha, could also reduce the browning. In the second experiment were to investigate the effect of fruit maturity on delay the ripening and shelf life of bananas. Four bunches of unripe 'Pei-Chiao' banana fruit of different maturity, days after shooting 86, 79, 72 and 65 days in summer, and three bunches of different maturity, days after shooting 160, 146 and 132 days in winter from bunch emergence, were harvested. Fruit from the middle hands two hand ripened with 1000 ppm ethylene. Recored color index of peel and tested fruit carbohydrate content of 'Pei-Chiao' banana fruit during ripening with ethylene. The result show that, summer banana fruit ages (days after shooting) 72 days and winter banana fruit 146 days could be a good candidate for extending shelf life. In fruit quality there was no significant effect on fruit carbohydrate content of 'Pei-Chiao' banana fruit. In the third experiment were to investigate the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene treatment (fumigated 24 hr) to delay on bananas at ripeness stage 4 the action mechanism of senescent spotting of 'Pei-Chiao' banana. After 3 days, control treated fruits were appearance of senescent spots, while 1- methylcyclopropene treated fruits were still showing yellow no appearance of brown spots. Senescent spotting is evidenced by the browning of peel and it is one of oxidation teation, such as preoxidase and polyphenol oxidase etc. After 1-MCP treated apparently delay the peak of acorbic acid and ethylene production. Moreover, in previous research 1-MCP treated could delay ethylene production high peak. Thus, the data support that different GRAS, different maturity and 1-MCP can effectively increase fruit quality of 'Pei-Chiao' banana, enhance it′s low temperature storage ability, and reduce losses during overeas transportation.
'北蕉'(Giant cavendish)香蕉為臺灣外銷的主要品種,但也是一種易腐的水果,採後果實品質惡化非常迅速。貯藏壽命短的主要問題與香蕉出口長距離的運輸有關。尤其是因複合病原菌所引起的採後病害軸腐病。此外,生理斑點為香蕉後熟老化期間發生之生理障礙。而香蕉之櫥架壽命取決於生理斑點出現之早晚,且'北蕉'較早出現生理斑點,此影響'北蕉'於國際市場之競爭力。本研究以北蕉為材料。 在第一個實驗中,主要探討以焦亞硫酸鈉、山梨酸、酒精、醋酸、次氯酸鈉、二氧化氯、過氧化氫、溫湯及艾維激素處理對香蕉果實於15℃貯藏21天和催熟後果軸腐爛及果皮轉色的影響。結果顯示,經焦亞硫酸鈉(0.4-0.5%)、醋酸(0.4-0.5%)、次氯酸鈉(0.1%)、二氧化氯(5-10分鐘)及溫湯(50℃)處理可明顯延緩果軸腐爛。山梨酸(3-5%)可抑制在低溫貯藏期間及催熟後之果軸腐爛。將果軸切片以焦亞硫酸鈉、山梨酸、酒精、醋酸、次氯酸鈉、二氧化氯、過氧化氫及煙燻水浸泡5分鐘,觀察其褐化腐爛現象。結果顯示,焦亞硫酸鈉3%及5%效果最佳,除可抑制菌絲生長外,還可抑制褐化徵狀。 在第二個實驗中,探討不同成熟度對延遲香蕉後熟及櫥架壽命的影響。採收綠熟果果房,夏季四種不同成熟度,抽穗後86、79、72及65天和冬季三種不同成熟度,抽穗後160、146及132天。取果房中段2個果手使用1000 ppm 乙烯進行催熟。紀錄催熟期間和催熟後果皮轉色及果實碳水化合物含量。結果顯示,夏蕉日齡(抽穗後日數)72天和冬蕉146天可延遲櫥架壽命。在果實品質方面,碳水化合物含量無明顯影響。 在第三個試驗中,探討1-甲基環丙烯處理(燻蒸24小時)後,延遲催熟至第4級香蕉生理斑點之機制。3天後,對照組處理果實已出現生理斑點,而1-甲基環丙烯處理果實仍為黃色未出現褐斑。而生理斑點為果皮褐化之現象,褐化為氧化反應,如過氧化酶及多酚氧化酶。1-甲基環丙烯處理後延緩抗壞血酸及乙烯釋放率高峰出現。 上述實驗之處理可有效提升'北蕉'香蕉果實品質及低溫貯運能力,改善外銷貯運之果實品質,降低損耗。
其他識別: U0005-0308201519014700
文章公開時間: 2018-08-04
Appears in Collections:園藝學系



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