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標題: 番荔枝科花苞位置之探討及日長和葉片數對鳳梨釋迦開花之影響
Study of Flower Bud Position of Annonaceae and the Effects of Day Length and Leaf Number on Flowering of Atemoya (Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa)
作者: Pei-Ju Lin
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摘要: Textbook descriptions of Annonaceae state that it produces a lateral flower bud, but careful observation shows Annonaceae buds to be not located in the leaf axil. The first experiment investigated the position of Annonaceae flower bud. For the second experiment, there was a paper suggesting that percentage of floral buds of sugar apple increased under night break treatment in autumn and winter. It suggested that sugar apple may be a long-day plant. However, the second experiment used the opposite approach with short-day treatment during September and October to confirm the effects of day length upon flowering. The purpose of the third experiment was to see if the number of leaves present would affect flowering of Annona buds. The external appearance observation and internal pattern of the Annona flower bud was observed in 'si-lin' sugar apple, 'purple' sugar apple and atemoya to determine the position of the bud. The results showed that the flower buds of atemoya and sugar apple weren't located in the leaf axils. The node flower lied was different from leaves. Additionally, vegetative bud lay between flower bud and leaf, similar to axillary bud. It was also observed in 'purple' sugar apple that flower initiation occurred in terminal buds. Annonaceae flower buds can be inferred as terminal buds rather than lateral buds. After flower initiation occurs, shoot stops growing. Without apical dominance axillary bud sprouts and quickly takes the position of terminal bud. In light period experiment, Atemoya was tip-pruned; the top two leaves were removed, then under went 100% shading for a seven or nine hour day length. Selected branches were stripped of all leaves and girdled to eliminate its capacity to accept light. The results showed that short-day treatment didn't obviously affect the first day of flower budding, the percentage of floral buds, number of flowers per branch or number of flowers per bud of atemoya. It only made number of flower per plant of atemoya decrease. The percentage of floral buds and number of flowers per bud of branches without leaves were lower during the late stage of treatment. Overall, Atemoya plant can blossom under short-day and leafless conditions. It may be insensitive to photoperiodic. Thirdly to determine the effect of the number of leaves on atemoya flowering, the atemoya plants was tip-pruned, the top two leaves of each branch were removed. One, two, three or four leaves were left on each branch, and then girdled below. Branches with one and two leaf treatment sprouted earlier than other treatments, and had highest percentage of floral buds at an early stage, but branches with one and two leaf treatment experienced serious flower drop in the later stages. Thirty-three days after treatment, branches with three leaves had highest percentage of floral buds. In contrast, branches with one leaf had the lowest percentage of floral buds and number of flowers per bud. Branches with three leaves are better for flower development. Finally, though branches with one or two leaves still blossom, flowers of those treatments have severe drop off.
教科書中對番荔枝科花之敘述皆為側芽,但經觀察可發現其位置不在葉腋上,本試驗第一部份便在探討番荔枝科作物花苞位置。另外,有文獻指出番荔枝於秋冬季實施暗期中斷,可顯著提升開花率。根據上述研究結果,番荔枝可能為長日開花作物,本試驗第二部分乃利用反證方式,於 9 月及 10 月以遮陰方式進行短日處理,探討日長對鳳梨釋迦開花之影響。第三個部分則在調查葉片數對鳳梨釋迦開花之影響,以釐清供源與開花之相關性。 由外觀及芽內部型態觀察'細鱗種'、'紫色種'番荔枝及鳳梨釋迦之花苞位置。結果顯示 3 種番荔枝科作物之花苞位置不位於葉腋,不與葉片在同樣節位上,反而是營養芽位於類似腋芽之位置。另外,部分'紫色種'番荔枝芽體頂端因分化花芽而停止生長枝葉。推測番荔枝科花實為頂芽而非側芽,當芽體頂端分化形成花芽後,即停止生長,在無頂芽優勢下,腋芽抽出、快速生長並取代頂芽位置。 鳳梨釋迦經去頂和摘除頂端 2 葉後 利用 100%遮光處理短日 7 及 9 小時日長,,挑選部分枝條全部除葉,並於基部環剝,調查後續開花情形。結果顯示,短日處理對鳳梨釋迦花苞萌出時間、花芽率、枝條平均花數及每芽花數等開花表現皆無顯著影響,僅全株總花數會下降。除葉枝條仍會開花,但後期開花率和每芽花數會顯著較低。整體而言,短日和除葉處理鳳梨釋迦仍可開花,顯示鳳梨釋迦對光週期不敏感。 鳳梨釋迦經去頂除葉後,留 1、2、3 及 4 葉片,並於基部環剝。以 1 片及 2片葉枝條最早有花苞萌出,且於處理初期有較高之花芽率,但後期嚴重落花導致花芽率持續下降。處理後第 33 天,以留 3 葉枝條有最高之花芽率,留 1 片葉枝條花芽率和每芽花數皆最低,可得知枝條留 3 片葉較有利於後期花之發育,留 1 或 2片葉仍可開花,但落花嚴重。
其他識別: U0005-0406201516583700
文章公開時間: 2018-07-15
Appears in Collections:園藝學系



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