Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89207
標題: 紅龍果肉質莖礦物營養調查、花芽誘導與抗莖潰瘍病品系篩選
Mineral Elements Concentrations in Cladodes, Floral Bud Induction and Screening Lines for Canker Disease-resistance in Pitaya (Hylocereus spp.)
作者: Jia Hui Lee
李家輝
關鍵字: 紅龍果
肉質莖營養
花芽誘導
抗莖潰瘍病品系
Pitaya
Mineral elements in cladodes
Floral bud induction
Canker disease-resistance lines
引用: 毛青樺。2008。蟹爪蘭X病毒與紅龍果X病毒之分子特性與偵測。國立台灣大學植物病理與微生物學研究所碩士論文。105pp。 王茗慧。2006。帝王番石榴無機養分週年變化果實後熟生理及貯藏之研究。國立中興大學園藝研究所碩士論文。臺灣臺中。 王智立、林正忠。2005。紅龍果果腐及仙人掌莖腐病。植物病理學會刊14(4): 269-274。 石巧月。2014。植物生長調節劑對長實金柑無子化及果實品質之影響。國立中興大學園藝學系碩士論文。臺灣臺中。102pp。 江一蘆。2005。攀附性仙人掌果品系分類,開花著果習性與修剪。國立台灣大學園藝學研究所碩士論文。臺灣臺北。102pp。 江一蘆。2012。紅龍果花期調節之研究。國立台灣大學園藝研究所博士論文。臺灣臺北。 李芃函。2010。溫度與光週期對'桃園三號'草莓花芽形成之影響。國立臺灣大學園藝系碩士 論文。臺灣臺北。 李金龍、李紅曦、黃子彬。2002。我國園藝產業發展現況與未來展望。林宗賢主編。知己知彼迎WTO剖析WTO之內涵。耕耘台灣果品。國立台灣大學。P. 1-41。 沈百奎,1988,葡萄休眠及萌芽與氮素之關係。國立中興大學園藝研究所碩士 論文。臺灣臺中。 易潤華、甘羅軍、晏冬華、吳澤菁、童依婷、吳鳳發。2013。火龍果潰瘍病病原菌鑑定及生物學特性。植物保護學報 40(2): 102-108。 林秀澄。1992。鐵對番木瓜幼株生理及無機養分濃度之影響。國立中興大學碩士論文。臺灣臺中。76pp。 林孟璇、楊純明。2011。植物賀爾蒙介紹及對其改善逆境之應用。農業試驗所技術服務86: 24-26。 林景和。2005。果樹殘枝的回田利用。高雄區農情月刊92: 4-5。 林嘉興。1988。葡萄休眠與催芽技術。葡萄生長技術特刊14: 189-196。 范忠宇。2010。紅龍果產期調節與貯藏之研究。國立屏東科技大學農園生產系碩士論文。臺灣:屏東。 倪蕙芳、黃巧雯、許淑麗、賴素玉、楊宏仁。2013。紅龍果莖潰瘍病之病原特性及防治藥劑篩選。台灣農業研究62(3): 225-234。 徐萬德。2004。Hylocereus spp. 仙人掌紅龍果之栽培、生育習性及物後調查。國立台灣大學園藝學研究所碩士論文。臺灣臺北。167pp。 徐麗霞、裴琨、徐韋法。1999。園藝作物鈣素功能。北方園藝 126: 15-17。 荊樹英。1992。營養缺乏與過量對非洲菊生理及瓶插壽命之影響。國立中興大學園藝研究所碩士論文。臺灣臺中。204pp。 張鳳如、顏昌瑞。1997。仙人掌果(Hylocereus undatus Britt. & Rose)之開花及果實生長。中國園藝 43(4):314-321。 張騰維。2003。產期調節對紅龍果產量及果實品質的影響。國立中興大學農藝學系碩士論文。臺灣臺中。 莊作權、譚鎮中。1989。植物營養學。國立編譯館。臺灣臺北。308pp。 陳敏祥。1977。香蕉抗病品種育成之研究-親本抗性測定,生育特性調查及雜交。中國園藝23(6): 287-294。 陳清義。1988。植物營養學。國立中興大學。臺灣臺中。261pp。 陸景陵。1994。植物營養學(上冊)。北京農業大學出版社。中國北京。204pp。 黃士晃、吳雅芳。2011。紅龍果栽培改善措施(上)。臺南區農業專訊77期。8pp。 黃士晃。2011。紅龍果栽培改善措施(下)。臺南區農業專訊78期。7pp。 黃琇亭。2008。紅龍果果實生長期間果實和肉質莖組成份變化及對套袋、環剝和砷酸鉛之反 應。國立中興大學園藝系碩士論文。臺灣臺中。 葉文彬、張致盛、劉惠菱、張林仁。2014。不同夜間電照光源對'巨峰'葡萄新梢生育、著果率與品質之影響。臺中區農業改良場研究彙報122: 33-45。 葉洹瑜。2012。台灣紅龍果莖部潰瘍病之研究。國立台灣大學植物病理與微生物學研究所碩士論文。84pp。 廖玉琬、徐善德。1999。植物與無機養分。植物生理學。?英文化。臺灣臺北。p79-97。 劉命如、洪建龍、劉瑞芳。2004。引起紅龍果斑駁病徵之Cactus virus X的鑑定與免疫檢測。植病會刊13: 27-34. 劉碧鵑。2010。台灣紅龍果的栽培。行政院農業委員會農業試驗所鳳山熱帶園藝試驗分所編印。pp.32。 劉銘峰。1993。芒果整枝修剪。台南區農業專訊4: 14-16。 蔡志濃、安寶貞、林俊義、吳雅芳、彭淑貞。2001。楊桃細菌性斑點病之發生、品種抗病性和藥劑防治。植物病理學會刊10: 139-145。 蔡怡芳。2004。紅龍果莖腐病病因之探討。國立屏東科技大學植物保護系碩士論文。121pp。 盧柏松、江淑雯、陳奕君。2014。鳳梨釋迦災後復育試驗-夜間燈照處理對開花及果實品質之影響。臺東區農業改良場。 謝明憲、林棟樑、鄭安秀、王仕賢。2001。甘藍抗黑腐病篩選之研究。台南區農業改良場研究彙報38: 45-53。 藍國兵、何自福、羅芳方、湯亞飛、佘小漫、杜振國。2014。霸王花褐腐病的病原鑑定。華南農業大學學報 35(1): 60-63。 顏昌瑞、張哲瑋、曾建興、鄭孟育。1994。仙人掌果品種特性、實生變異、果實生長及栽培管理對植物生育之影響。中國園藝學會年會報告摘要。P16。 顏昌瑞。2002。新興果樹栽培推廣手冊27。國立屏東科技大學農業推廣委員會編印。36pp。 蘇雲翰。2005。光週期及修剪對仙人掌紅龍果(Hylocereus spp.)產期調節之影響。國立屏東科技大學農園生產系碩士論文。105pp。 Alejandra, N. G., T. D. Enrique, D. V. C. Ricardo, Z. S. Sergio, O. C. Ignacio, and M. Bernardo. 2011. Plant height and mineral content of Opuntia tapona growing along the coasts of Baja California Sur, Mexico. J. PACD 13: 77-87. Ansari, A. Q. and D. J. F. Bowling. 1972. Measurement of the transroot electrical potential of plants grown in soil. New phytol. 71: 111-117. Ayala, M. B. and G. Sandmann. 1988. Activities of Cu-containing proteins in Cu-depleted pea leaves. Physiol. Plant. 72: 801-806. Bailey, I. W. 1965. Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing cactaceae, XIII. The occurrence of water-soluble anisotropic bodies in air-dried and alcohol-dehydrated leaves of Pereskia and Pereskiopsis. J. Arnold Arbor. Harv. Univ. 46: 74-81. Barthana, D., N. Nasir, and Jumjunidang. 2013. Description of symptoms and disease severity of yellow disease stem rot of red dragon fruit(Hylocereus polyrhizus, L.) in Padang Paraman, West Sumatera. J. Bio. UA. 2(3): 2303-2162. Basile, F.. 2001. Economic aspects of Italian cactus pear production and market. JPACD. 4: 31-46. Bates, T. E. 1971. Factors affecting critical nutrient concentrations in plants and their evaluation: A review. Soil Sci. 112: 116-130. Bergmann, W. 1988. Farbtafeln. Cu. Bild 520-577. In: Ernahrungsstorngen bei Kulturpflanzen. Ficher Verlag, Jena. p. 403-657. Britton, N. L. and J. N. Rose. 1963. The Cactaceae. Vol. 1 and 2. Dover, New York. 227pp. Brown, P. H., R. D. Graham, and D. J. D. Nicholas. 1984. The effect of manganese and nitrate supply on the levels of phenolics and lignin in young wheat plants. Plant Soil 81: 437-440. Chadha, K. L., J. S. Arora, P. Ravel, and S. D. Shikhamany. 1973. Variation in mineral composition of the leaves of guava (Psidium guajava L.) as affected by leaf position. Season and sample size. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 43: 555-561. Chandra, R. and S. Govind. 1995. Influence of time and intensity of pruning on growth, yield, and fruit quality of guava under high-density planting. Tropical Agiculture 72: 110-113. Chuang, M. F., H. F. Ni, H. R. Yang, S. L. Shu, and S. Y. Lai. 2012. First report of stem canker disease of pitaya (Hylocereus undatus and H. polyrhizus) caused by Neosyctalidium dimidiatum in Taiwan. Plant Dis. 96: 906. Crous, P. W., B. Slipper, M. J. Wingfield, J. Rheeder, J. Marasas, W. F. O. Philips, A. J. L. Alves, A. Burgess, T. Barber, and J. Z. Groenewald. Phylogenetic lineages in the Botryosphaeriaceae. Studies in Mycology 55: 235-253. Darling, M. S. 1976. Interpretation of global differences in plant calorific values: the significance of desert and arid woodland variation. Oecologia 23: 127-139. Davis, J. G. and M. B. Parker. 1993. Zinc toxicity symptom development and partitioning of biomass and zinc in peanut plants. J. Plant Nutri. 16(12): 2353-2369. Dorcey, E., C. Urbez, M. A. Blazquez, J. Carbonell, and A. Perez-Amador. 2009. Fertilization- dependent auxin respose in ovules triggers fruit development through modulation of gobberellin metabolism in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 58: 318-332. Doriee. 2000. Effect of pruning on yield and quality of inderminate tomato. ARC Training Report 2000: 1-8. Dunlop, J. and D. J. F. Bowling. 1971. The movement of ions to the xylem exudate of maize roots. Ⅱ. A comparison of the electrical potential and electrochemical potentials of ions in the exudate and in the root cells. J. Exp. Bot. 22: 445-452. Embleton, T. W., C. K. Labanauskas, W. W. Jones, and C. B. Cree. 1963. Interrelations of leaf sampling methods and nutritional status of orange trees and their influence on the macro- and micronutrient concentrations in orange leaves. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 82: 131-141. Epstein, E. 1971. Mineral nutrition of plants: Principles and perspectives. Department of soil and plant nutrition, Univ. of Calif. Eric, A. G. and P. S. Nobel. 1999. Root water uptake, leaf water storage and gas exchange of a desert succulent: implication for root system redundancy. Ann. Bot. 83: 213-223. Evans, H. J. and G. J. Sorger. 1966. Role of mineral elements with emphasis on the univalent cations. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 17: 47-76. Ezra, D., O. Liarzi, T. Gat, M. Hershcovich, and M. Dudai. 2013. First report of internal black rot caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on Hylocereus undatus (pitahaya) fruit in Isreal. Plant Dis. Notes 97: 1513 Fujiwara, A. and S. Iida. 1967. Effect of pottassium on the respiration of higher plants. International Potash Institute. Bernae. Gallasch, P. T. 1988. Chemical thinning of heavy crop of mandarins to increase fruit size. Proc. 6thInt. Citrus congress 1: 395-405. Gillaspy, G., H. David, and W. Gruissem. 1993. Fruit: A developmental perspective. Plant Cell 5: 1439-1451. Greene, L.W., W. E. Pinchak, and R.K. Heitschmidt. 1987. Seasonal dynamics of mineral in forages at the Texas experimental ranch. J. Range Manage. 40: 502–510. Grings, E. E., M. R. Haferkamp, R. K. Heitschmidt, and M.G. Karl. 1996. Mineral dynamics in forages of the Northern Great Plains. J. Range Manage. 49: 234–240. Guardiola, J. L. 1988. Factors limiting productivity in citrus. A physiological approach. Proach. Proc. 6th Int. Citrus congress 1: 381-394. Guirguis, N. S., E. S. Attala, and M. M. Al. 2003. Effect of sitofex (CPPU) on fruit quality of Le-Conte pear cultivar. Ann. Agri. Sci. 41(1): 271-282. Hampson, C. R., H. A. Quamme, and R. T. Brownlee. 2002. Canopy growth, yield, and fruit quality of 'Royal Gala' apple trees growth for eight years in five tree training system. HortScience 37: 627-631. Hartt, C.E. 1969. Effect of potassium deficiency upon translocation of 14C in attached blades and entire plants of sugarcane. Plant physoil. 44: 1461-1469. Huien, H. and P. Felker. 1997. Field validation of water-use deeiciency of the CAM plant Opuntia ellisiana in south Texas. J. Arid Environ. 36:133-148. Inglese, P., G. Barbera, and F. Carimi. 1994. The effect of different amounts of cladode removal on reflowering of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-ndica (L.) Miller) J. Hort. Sci. 69: 61-65. Iwahori, S., S. Tominaga, and T. Yamasaki. 1988. Stimulation of fruit growth of kiwifruit, Actinidiachinensis Planch., by N-(2-choro-4 pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea, a diphenylureaderivative cytokinin. Sci. Hort. Sci. 79(1): 16-22. Jiang, Y. L., Y. Y. Liao, T. S. Lin, C. L. Lee, C. R. Yen, and W. J. Yang. 2012. The photoperiod-regulated bud formation of red pitaya (Hylocereus sp.). HortScience. 47: 1063-1067. Joiner, J. N., R. T. Poole, and C. A. Conover. 1983. Nutrient and fertilization of ornamental greenhouse crops. Hort. Rev. 5: 317-403. Jones, Jr. J. B., B. Wolf, and H. A. Mill. 1991. The essential elements. In: Plant analysis handbook. Mirco-Macro Publishing Inc. p. 3-17. Khaimov, A. and Y. Mizrahi. 2006. Effects of day-lengh, radiation, flower thinning and growth regulators on flowering of the vine cacti Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus. J. Hort. Sci. Biotech. 81(3): 465-470. Kliewer, W. M. 1977. Influence of temperature, solar radiation and nitrogen on coloration of emperor grapes. Am. J. Enol. Vitic 28(2): 96-103. Koo, R. C. J. and T. W. Young. 1977. Effects of age, position, and fruiting status on mineral composition of 'Tonnage' avocado leaves. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 102: 311-313. Lan, G. B., Z. F. He, P. G. Xi, and Z. D. Jiang. 2012. First report of brown spot disease caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on Hylocereus undatus in Guangdong, Chinese mainland. Plant Dis. Notes 96: 1702. Leshem, Y. Y., A. H. Halevy, and C. Frenkel. 1986. Free radicals and senescence. Processes and control of plant senescence. CRC Press pp. 100-126. Lin, W. and J. B. Hanson. 1976. Cell potentials, cell resistance, and proton fluxes in corn root tissues. Plant Physiol. 58: 276-282. Lyman, B.. 1982. The cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford University press, Stanford, California. 1018pp. Marques, V. B., R. A. Moreira, J. D. Ramos, N. A. D. Araujio, and F. O. D. R. Silva. 2011. Reproductive phenology of red pitaya in Lavras, MG, Brazil. Cienc. Rural 41(6): 984-987. Marschner, H. 1986. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press, San Diego, California. Marschner, H. 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plant. Second Edition. Academic press. Marschner, H. and I. Cakmak. 1986. Mechanism of phosphorus-induced zinc deficiency in cotton. II. Evidence for impaired cladode control of phosphorus uptake and translocation under zinc deficiency. Physiol. Plant. 68: 491-496. Masyahit, M., K. Sijam, Y. Awang, and M. G. M. Satar. 2009b. In vitro assay of factors affecting the growth of pathogens associated with diseases on dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp. ) in Peninsular Malaysia. Plant Pathology Journal 8(4): 144-151. Mathur, D. D., N. J. Natarella, and H. M. Vine. 1978. Elemental analysis of Crassulacean acid metabolism plant tissue. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 9: 127-139. Menzel, C. M. and D. R. Simpson. 1988. Effect of temperature on growth and flowering of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. ) cultivars. J. Hort. Sci. 63(2): 349-360. Miller, G. W., A. Shigematsu, G. W. Welkie, N. Motoji, and M. Szlek. 1990. Potassium effect on iron stress in tomato. II. The effect on root CO2-fication and organic acid formation. J. Plant Nutri. 13: 1355-1377. Mills, H. A., and J. B. Jones. 1996. Essential nutrients. Plant analysis handbook II. Micro Macro Publishing. p. 6-62. Mizrahi, Y. and A. Nerd. 1996. New crops as a possible solution for the troubled Israeli export market. P. 37-45. In J. Janick (Ed. ). Perspectives on New Crops and New Uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA. Mizrahi, Y. and A. Nerd. 1997. Cacti as crops. Hort Rev.18:291-319. Mizrahi, Y., A. Nerd, and P. S. Nobel. 1997. Cacti as crops. Hort Rev. 18: 291-391. Mizrahi, Y., A. Nerd, and Y. Sitrit. 2002. New fruit for arid climates. P. 378-384. In: J. Janick (Ed.), Trends in new crops and new uses, ASHS, Alexandria, VA. Mohd, M. S., B. Salleh and L. Zakaria. 2013. Identification and molecular characterizations of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum causing stem canker of red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) in Malaysia. J. Phytopathol. 161: 841-849. Munoz de Chavez, M., A. Chavez, V. Valles, J. A. 1995. Roldan.The nopal: a plant of manifold qualities. World Rev. Nutr. Dietetics 77: 109–134. Myers, S. C. 1993. Preharvest watersprout removal influence canopy light relation, fruit quality, and flower bud formation of 'Redskin' peach trees. J. Amer. Soc. Hort Sci. 118: 442-445. Nard, A. and Y. Mizrahi. 1997. Reproductive biology of cactus fruit crops. Hort. Rev. 18: 321-346. Nerd, A. and Y. Mizrahi. 1999. The effect of ripening on fruit quality after storage of yellow pitaya. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 15: 99-105. Nerd, A., N. Tel-Zur, and Y. Mizrahi. 2002. Fruits of vine and columnar cacti. P. 185-197. In: Nobel, P. S. (Eds. ) Cacti Biology and Uses. University of California Press, London, England. Nerd, A., Y. Sitrit, R. A. Kaushik, and Y. Mizrahi. 2002. High sumer temperatures inhibit flowering in vine pitaya crops (Hylocereus spp.). Scientia Hort. 96: 343-350. Nickell, L. G.. 1986a. Effects of N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl) -N'-phenylurea on grapes and other crops. Proc. Plant Growth Regulat. Soc. Amer. 13: 236-241. Nickell, L. O.. 1986b. The effects of N-(2-chloro-4-pyidyl)-N'-phenylurea and the 3-chloro-benzyl ester of dicamba on the growth and sugar content of grapes. Acta Hort. 179: 805-806. Nobel, P. S.. 1983. Nutrient levels in cacti-relation to nocturnal acid accumulation and growth. Amer. J. Bot. 70(8): 1244-1253. Nobel, P. S. 1994. Remarkable agaves and cacti. Oxford University Press. Oxford. New York. 166pp. Nobel, P. S. and E. De la Barrera. 2004. CO2 uptake by the cultivated hemiepiphytic cactus Hylocereus undatus. Ann. Appl. Biol. 144: 1-8. Nu, T. T.. 1996. Pruning effect on yield of different Cumcumber varieties. ARC Training Report 1996: 1-5. Nukaya, A., K. Goto, H. Jang, A. Kano, and K. Ohkawa. 1995. Effect of K/Ca ratio in the nutrient solution on incidence of blossom-end rot and gold specks of tomato fruit grown in rockwool. Acta Hort. 396: 123-130. Ogata,R., T. Saito, and K. Oshima. 1988. Effect of N-phenvl-N'-(4-pyrridyl) urea (4-PU) on fruit size: apple, Japanese pear, grapevive, and kiwifruit. Acta Hort. 239: 395-398. Oosthuyse, S. A. and G. Jacobs. 1995. Relationship between branching frequency, and growth, cropping and structural strength of 2-year- old mango trees. Scientia Horticulturae 64: 85-93. Palmateer, A. J., R. C. Ploetz, E. Santen, and J. C. Correll. 2007. First occurrence of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on pitaya. Plant Disease 91(5): 631. Peaslee, D. E. and D. N. Moss. 1966. Photosynthesis in K+ and Mg2+ deficient maize (Zea may L. ) leaves. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. 30: 220-223. People, T. R. and D. W. Koch. 1979. Role of potassium in carbon dioxide assimilation in Medicaqo sativa L. Plant physiol. 63: 878-881. Peppi, M. C., M. W. Fidelibus, and N. Dokoozlian. 2006. Abscisic acid application timing and concentration affect firmness, pigmentation and color of 'Flame Seedless' grapes. HortScience 41:1440-1445. Peppi, M. C., M. W. Fidelibus, and N. K. Dokoozlian. 2007. Application timing and concentration of abscisic acid affect the quality of 'Redglobe' grapes. J. Hort. Sci. Biotech. 82: 304-310. Phillips, R. D. and D. H. Jennings. 1976. Succulence, cations and organic acid in long and short Kalanchoe daigremontiana grown in long and short days in soil and water culture. New Phytol. 77: 599-611. Polizzi. G., D. Aiello, A. Vitale, F. Giuffrida, J. Z. Groenewald, and P. W. Crous. 2009. First report of shoot blight, canker, and gummosis caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on citrus in Italy. Plant Dis. 93: 1215. Ramirez–Lozano, R. G. 2004. Nutricion del venado cola blanca. Edit. Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Union Ganadera Regional de Nuevo Leon, Fundacion Produce Nuevo Leon, A. C. Monterrey, N. L., Mexico. 240 p. Rao, I. M. and N. Terry. 1989. Leaf phosphate status, photosynthesis, and carbon partition in sugar beet. I. Changes in growth, gas exchange, and Calvin cycle enzymes. Plant Physiol. 90: 814-819. Rao, I. M., R. E. Sharp, J. S. Boyer. 1987. Leaf magnesium alters photosynthetic response to low water potentials in sunflower. Plant Physiol. 84: 1214-1219. Raveh, E., J. Weiss, A. Nerd, and Y. Mizrahi. 1993. Pitayas (Genus Hylocereus): A new fruit crop for the Negav desert of Israel. P. 491-495. In: J. Janick and J. E. Simon (Eds. ), New Crops. Wiley, New York. USA. Ray, J. D., T. Burgess, and V. M. Lanoiselet. 2010. First record of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum and N. novaehoollandiae on Mangifera indica and N. dimidiatum on Ficus carica in Australia. Australas. Plant Dis. Notes 5: 48-50. Richard, P. M. and J. A. Barden. 1987. Summer pruning of apple and peach trees. Hort. Rev. 15: 351-375. Ruano, A., J. Barcelo, and C. Poschenrieder. 1987. Zinc toxicity-induced variation of mineral element composition in hydroponically grown bush bean plants. J. Plant Nutri. 10: 373-384. Sandalio, L. M. and L. A. Del Rio. 1987. Localization of superoxide dismutase in glyoxysomes from Citrullus vulgaris. Functional implications in cellular metabolism. J. Plant Physiol. 127: 395-409. Saunders, R. C., G. Jacobs, and D. K. Strydom. 1991. Effect of pruning on fruitset and cladode growth of Packham's triumph pear trees. Scientia Horticulturae 47: 239-246. Sen Gupta, A., G. A. Berkowitz, and P. A. Pier. 1989. Maintenance of photosynthesis at low leaf water potential in wheat. Plant Physiol. 89: 1358-1365. Serri, H. and F. Hepp. 2011. Effect of the growth regulator CPPU on fruit quality and fruit ripening of highbush blueberries. Acta Hort. 715. Shear, C. B. and M. Faust. 1980. Nutrional ranges in deciduous tree fruits and nuts. Hort. Rev. 2: 142-163. Shetty, A. S. and G. W. Miller. 1966. Influence of ions chlorosis on pigment and protein metabolism in leaves of Nicotiana tabacum L. Plant Physiol. 41: 415-421. Simpson, D. J. and S. R. Robinson. 1984. Freeze-fracture ultrastructure of thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts from manganese-deficient plants. Plant Physiol. 74: 735-741. Smith, P. F. 1962. Mineral analysis of plant tissues. Ann. Rev. Plant physiol. 13:81-108. Spanswick, R. M. and E. T. Williams. 1964. Electrical potential and Na, K and Cl concentrations in the vacuole and cytoplasm of Nitella translucens. J. Exp. Bot. 15: 193-200. Spears, J. W. 1994. Minerals in forages. P. 281–317. In: Fahey Jr., G.C. (Ed.), Proceedings of the National Conference on Forage Quality, Evaluation and Utilization. University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, USA. Stephenson, R. A. and B. W. Cull. 1986. Vegetative flushing patterns of macadamia trees in south east Queensland. Sci. Hort. 30: 53-62. Suelte, C. H. 1970. Enzymes activated by monovalent cations. Science 168: 789-795. Taiz, L. and E. Zeiger. 2002. Plant physiology, Thrid Edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, Massachusetts. pp.690. Takahashi, L. M., D. D. Rosa, M. A. Basseto, H. G. Souza, and E. L. Furtado. 2008. First report of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Hylocereus megalanthus in Brazil. Australasian Plant Dis. Notes 13: 27-34. Tanakamaru, K. 1989. Development and characteristics of new plant growth regulator (Fulmet solution). Agar. Chem. 36: 40-46. Tehrani, G. and S. J. Leuty. 1987. Influence of rootstock and pruning on productivity and fruit size of European plun cultivars. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 112: 743-747. Terry, N. and A. Vrich. 1973. Effects of phosphorus deficiency on the photosynthesis and respiration of leaves in sugar beet. Plant physiol. 54: 379-381. Thanarut, C., C. C. Chen, and Y. S. Yang. 2010. Effects of Streptomycin, GA3, and CPPU treatments on induction of seedless berry in 'Kyoho' and 'Honey Red' grapes. Horticulture NCHU 35(3): 1-11. Thorp, T. G., and B. Stowell. 2001. Pruning height and selective limb removal affect yield of large 'Hass' avocado trees. HortScience 36: 699-702. Tran, D. H., C. R. Yen, and Y. K. H. Chen. 2015. Flowering response of a red pitaya germplasm collection to lighting addition. International Scholarly and Scientific Research and Innovation 9(2): 126-130. Tucker, D. P. H., T. A. Wheaton, and R. P. Muraro. 1994. Citrus tree pruning principles and practices. Fact Sheet HS-144 pp.1-9. Vigueras G, A. L., and L. Portillo. 2001. Uses of Opuntia species and the potential impact of cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: pyralidae) in Mexico. Florida Entomologist 84(4): 494-498. Volencia-Botin, A. J., J. S. Sandoval-Islas, E. Cardenas-Soriano, T. J. Michailides, and G. Rendon-Sanchez. 2003. Botryosphaeria dothidea causing stem spots on Hylocereus undatus in Mexico. News Disease Reports 7:25 Walter, T. E. 1967. Report east malling exp. Stn. 70-82. Weiss, J., A. Nerd, and Y. Mizrahi. 1994. Flowering and pollination requirements in Cereus peruvianus cultivated in Israel. J. Plant Sci. 42: 149-158. Weiss, J., A. Nerd, and Y. Mizrahi. 1995. Selenicereus megalanthus (the yellow pitaya), a climbing cactus from Colombia and Peru. Cact. Succ. J. (U. S. A. ) 67: 280-283. Wheaton, T. A. 1981. Fruit thinning of Florida mandarins using plant growth regulators. Proc. Int. Soc. Citriculture 1: 263-268. White, J. W. 1987. Fertilization. In: Roses. R. W. Langhans(Ed.) p.87-142. White, P. J. and M. R. Broadley. 2003. Calcium in plants. Ann. Bot. 92: 487-511. Worley, R .E., B. G. Mullinix, and J. W. Daniel. 1996. Selective limb pruning, tree removal, and paclobutrazol growth retardant for crowding pecan trees. Sci. Hort. 67:79-85. Wright, E. R., M. C. Rivera, A. Ghirlanda and G. A. Lori. 2007. Basal rot of Hylocereus undatus caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Plant Disease 91(3): 323. Yamashita, T. and A. Fujiwara. 1966. Respiration and organic acid metabolism in potassium deficient rice plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 7: 527-532. Yildirim, B., T. Yesiloglu, M. U. Kamiloglu, M. Incesu, B. Cimen, and N. Yilmaz. 2011. Effects of 3,4,6-trichloro-2-pyridyloxyacetic acid on fruit size and yield of Valencia oranges (Citrus sinensis Osb.). J. Food Agri. and Env. 9(1): 275-279. Zegbe, J. A. and J. M. Covarrubias. 2009. Flower bud thinning in 'Rojo Liso' cactus pear. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotechnol. 84(6): 595-598. 毛青樺。2008。蟹爪蘭X病毒與紅龍果X病毒之分子特性與偵測。國立台灣大學植物病理與微生物學研究所碩士論文。105pp。 王茗慧。2006。帝王番石榴無機養分週年變化果實後熟生理及貯藏之研究。國立中興大學園藝研究所碩士論文。臺灣臺中。 王智立、林正忠。2005。紅龍果果腐及仙人掌莖腐病。植物病理學會刊14(4): 269-274。 石巧月。2014。植物生長調節劑對長實金柑無子化及果實品質之影響。國立中興大學園藝學系碩士論文。臺灣臺中。102pp。 江一蘆。2005。攀附性仙人掌果品系分類,開花著果習性與修剪。國立台灣大學園藝學研究所碩士論文。臺灣臺北。102pp。 江一蘆。2012。紅龍果花期調節之研究。國立台灣大學園藝研究所博士論文。臺灣臺北。 李芃函。2010。溫度與光週期對'桃園三號'草莓花芽形成之影響。國立臺灣大學園藝系碩士 論文。臺灣臺北。 李金龍、李紅曦、黃子彬。2002。我國園藝產業發展現況與未來展望。林宗賢主編。知己知彼迎WTO剖析WTO之內涵。耕耘台灣果品。國立台灣大學。P. 1-41。 沈百奎,1988,葡萄休眠及萌芽與氮素之關係。國立中興大學園藝研究所碩士 論文。臺灣臺中。 易潤華、甘羅軍、晏冬華、吳澤菁、童依婷、吳鳳發。2013。火龍果潰瘍病病原菌鑑定及生物學特性。植物保護學報 40(2): 102-108。 林秀澄。1992。鐵對番木瓜幼株生理及無機養分濃度之影響。國立中興大學碩士論文。臺灣臺中。76pp。 林孟璇、楊純明。2011。植物賀爾蒙介紹及對其改善逆境之應用。農業試驗所技術服務86: 24-26。 林景和。2005。果樹殘枝的回田利用。高雄區農情月刊92: 4-5。 林嘉興。1988。葡萄休眠與催芽技術。葡萄生長技術特刊14: 189-196。 范忠宇。2010。紅龍果產期調節與貯藏之研究。國立屏東科技大學農園生產系碩士論文。臺灣:屏東。 倪蕙芳、黃巧雯、許淑麗、賴素玉、楊宏仁。2013。紅龍果莖潰瘍病之病原特性及防治藥劑篩選。台灣農業研究62(3): 225-234。 徐萬德。2004。Hylocereus spp. 仙人掌紅龍果之栽培、生育習性及物後調查。國立台灣大學園藝學研究所碩士論文。臺灣臺北。167pp。 徐麗霞、裴琨、徐韋法。1999。園藝作物鈣素功能。北方園藝 126: 15-17。 荊樹英。1992。營養缺乏與過量對非洲菊生理及瓶插壽命之影響。國立中興大學園藝研究所碩士論文。臺灣臺中。204pp。 張鳳如、顏昌瑞。1997。仙人掌果(Hylocereus undatus Britt. & Rose)之開花及果實生長。中國園藝 43(4):314-321。 張騰維。2003。產期調節對紅龍果產量及果實品質的影響。國立中興大學農藝學系碩士論文。臺灣臺中。 莊作權、譚鎮中。1989。植物營養學。國立編譯館。臺灣臺北。308pp。 陳敏祥。1977。香蕉抗病品種育成之研究-親本抗性測定,生育特性調查及雜交。中國園藝23(6): 287-294。 陳清義。1988。植物營養學。國立中興大學。臺灣臺中。261pp。 陸景陵。1994。植物營養學(上冊)。北京農業大學出版社。中國北京。204pp。 黃士晃、吳雅芳。2011。紅龍果栽培改善措施(上)。臺南區農業專訊77期。8pp。 黃士晃。2011。紅龍果栽培改善措施(下)。臺南區農業專訊78期。7pp。 黃琇亭。2008。紅龍果果實生長期間果實和肉質莖組成份變化及對套袋、環剝和砷酸鉛之反 應。國立中興大學園藝系碩士論文。臺灣臺中。 葉文彬、張致盛、劉惠菱、張林仁。2014。不同夜間電照光源對'巨峰'葡萄新梢生育、著果率與品質之影響。臺中區農業改良場研究彙報122: 33-45。 葉洹瑜。2012。台灣紅龍果莖部潰瘍病之研究。國立台灣大學植物病理與微生物學研究所碩士論文。84pp。 廖玉琬、徐善德。1999。植物與無機養分。植物生理學。?英文化。臺灣臺北。p79-97。 劉命如、洪建龍、劉瑞芳。2004。引起紅龍果斑駁病徵之Cactus virus X的鑑定與免疫檢測。植病會刊13: 27-34. 劉碧鵑。2010。台灣紅龍果的栽培。行政院農業委員會農業試驗所鳳山熱帶園藝試驗分所編印。pp.32。 劉銘峰。1993。芒果整枝修剪。台南區農業專訊4: 14-16。 蔡志濃、安寶貞、林俊義、吳雅芳、彭淑貞。2001。楊桃細菌性斑點病之發生、品種抗病性和藥劑防治。植物病理學會刊10: 139-145。 蔡怡芳。2004。紅龍果莖腐病病因之探討。國立屏東科技大學植物保護系碩士論文。121pp。 盧柏松、江淑雯、陳奕君。2014。鳳梨釋迦災後復育試驗-夜間燈照處理對開花及果實品質之影響。臺東區農業改良場。 謝明憲、林棟樑、鄭安秀、王仕賢。2001。甘藍抗黑腐病篩選之研究。台南區農業改良場研究彙報38: 45-53。 藍國兵、何自福、羅芳方、湯亞飛、佘小漫、杜振國。2014。霸王花褐腐病的病原鑑定。華南農業大學學報 35(1): 60-63。 顏昌瑞、張哲瑋、曾建興、鄭孟育。1994。仙人掌果品種特性、實生變異、果實生長及栽培管理對植物生育之影響。中國園藝學會年會報告摘要。P16。 顏昌瑞。2002。新興果樹栽培推廣手冊27。國立屏東科技大學農業推廣委員會編印。36pp。 蘇雲翰。2005。光週期及修剪對仙人掌紅龍果(Hylocereus spp.)產期調節之影響。國立屏東科技大學農園生產系碩士論文。105pp。 Alejandra, N. G., T. D. Enrique, D. V. C. Ricardo, Z. S. Sergio, O. C. Ignacio, and M. Bernardo. 2011. Plant height and mineral content of Opuntia tapona growing along the coasts of Baja California Sur, Mexico. J. PACD 13: 77-87. Ansari, A. Q. and D. J. F. Bowling. 1972. Measurement of the transroot electrical potential of plants grown in soil. New phytol. 71: 111-117. Ayala, M. B. and G. Sandmann. 1988. Activities of Cu-containing proteins in Cu-depleted pea leaves. Physiol. Plant. 72: 801-806. Bailey, I. W. 1965. Comparative anatomy of the leaf-bearing cactaceae, XIII. The occurrence of water-soluble anisotropic bodies in air-dried and alcohol-dehydrated leaves of Pereskia and Pereskiopsis. J. Arnold Arbor. Harv. Univ. 46: 74-81. Barthana, D., N. Nasir, and Jumjunidang. 2013. Description of symptoms and disease severity of yellow disease stem rot of red dragon fruit(Hylocereus polyrhizus, L.) in Padang Paraman, West Sumatera. J. Bio. UA. 2(3): 2303-2162. Basile, F.. 2001. Economic aspects of Italian cactus pear production and market. JPACD. 4: 31-46. Bates, T. E. 1971. Factors affecting critical nutrient concentrations in plants and their evaluation: A review. Soil Sci. 112: 116-130. Bergmann, W. 1988. Farbtafeln. Cu. Bild 520-577. In: Ernahrungsstorngen bei Kulturpflanzen. Ficher Verlag, Jena. p. 403-657. Britton, N. L. and J. N. Rose. 1963. The Cactaceae. Vol. 1 and 2. Dover, New York. 227pp. Brown, P. H., R. D. Graham, and D. J. D. Nicholas. 1984. The effect of manganese and nitrate supply on the levels of phenolics and lignin in young wheat plants. Plant Soil 81: 437-440. Chadha, K. L., J. S. Arora, P. Ravel, and S. D. Shikhamany. 1973. Variation in mineral composition of the leaves of guava (Psidium guajava L.) as affected by leaf position. Season and sample size. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 43: 555-561. Chandra, R. and S. Govind. 1995. Influence of time and intensity of pruning on growth, yield, and fruit quality of guava under high-density planting. Tropical Agiculture 72: 110-113. Chuang, M. F., H. F. Ni, H. R. Yang, S. L. Shu, and S. Y. Lai. 2012. First report of stem canker disease of pitaya (Hylocereus undatus and H. polyrhizus) caused by Neosyctalidium dimidiatum in Taiwan. Plant Dis. 96: 906. Crous, P. W., B. Slipper, M. J. Wingfield, J. Rheeder, J. Marasas, W. F. O. Philips, A. J. L. Alves, A. Burgess, T. Barber, and J. Z. Groenewald. Phylogenetic lineages in the Botryosphaeriaceae. Studies in Mycology 55: 235-253. Darling, M. S. 1976. Interpretation of global differences in plant calorific values: the significance of desert and arid woodland variation. Oecologia 23: 127-139. Davis, J. G. and M. B. Parker. 1993. Zinc toxicity symptom development and partitioning of biomass and zinc in peanut plants. J. Plant Nutri. 16(12): 2353-2369. Dorcey, E., C. Urbez, M. A. Blazquez, J. Carbonell, and A. Perez-Amador. 2009. Fertilization- dependent auxin respose in ovules triggers fruit development through modulation of gobberellin metabolism in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 58: 318-332. Doriee. 2000. Effect of pruning on yield and quality of inderminate tomato. ARC Training Report 2000: 1-8. Dunlop, J. and D. J. F. Bowling. 1971. The movement of ions to the xylem exudate of maize roots. Ⅱ. A comparison of the electrical potential and electrochemical potentials of ions in the exudate and in the root cells. J. Exp. Bot. 22: 445-452. Embleton, T. W., C. K. Labanauskas, W. W. Jones, and C. B. Cree. 1963. Interrelations of leaf sampling methods and nutritional status of orange trees and their influence on the macro- and micronutrient concentrations in orange leaves. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 82: 131-141. Epstein, E. 1971. Mineral nutrition of plants: Principles and perspectives. Department of soil and plant nutrition, Univ. of Calif. Eric, A. G. and P. S. Nobel. 1999. Root water uptake, leaf water storage and gas exchange of a desert succulent: implication for root system redundancy. Ann. Bot. 83: 213-223. Evans, H. J. and G. J. Sorger. 1966. Role of mineral elements with emphasis on the univalent cations. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 17: 47-76. Ezra, D., O. Liarzi, T. Gat, M. Hershcovich, and M. Dudai. 2013. First report of internal black rot caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on Hylocereus undatus (pitahaya) fruit in Isreal. Plant Dis. Notes 97: 1513 Fujiwara, A. and S. Iida. 1967. Effect of pottassium on the respiration of higher plants. International Potash Institute. Bernae. Gallasch, P. T. 1988. Chemical thinning of heavy crop of mandarins to increase fruit size. Proc. 6thInt. Citrus congress 1: 395-405. Gillaspy, G., H. David, and W. Gruissem. 1993. Fruit: A developmental perspective. Plant Cell 5: 1439-1451. Greene, L.W., W. E. Pinchak, and R.K. Heitschmidt. 1987. Seasonal dynamics of mineral in forages at the Texas experimental ranch. J. Range Manage. 40: 502–510. Grings, E. E., M. R. Haferkamp, R. K. Heitschmidt, and M.G. Karl. 1996. Mineral dynamics in forages of the Northern Great Plains. J. Range Manage. 49: 234–240. Guardiola, J. L. 1988. Factors limiting productivity in citrus. A physiological approach. Proach. Proc. 6th Int. Citrus congress 1: 381-394. Guirguis, N. S., E. S. Attala, and M. M. Al. 2003. Effect of sitofex (CPPU) on fruit quality of Le-Conte pear cultivar. Ann. Agri. Sci. 41(1): 271-282. Hampson, C. R., H. A. Quamme, and R. T. Brownlee. 2002. Canopy growth, yield, and fruit quality of 'Royal Gala' apple trees growth for eight years in five tree training system. HortScience 37: 627-631. Hartt, C.E. 1969. Effect of potassium deficiency upon translocation of 14C in attached blades and entire plants of sugarcane. Plant physoil. 44: 1461-1469. Huien, H. and P. Felker. 1997. Field validation of water-use deeiciency of the CAM plant Opuntia ellisiana in south Texas. J. Arid Environ. 36:133-148. Inglese, P., G. Barbera, and F. Carimi. 1994. The effect of different amounts of cladode removal on reflowering of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-ndica (L.) Miller) J. Hort. Sci. 69: 61-65. Iwahori, S., S. Tominaga, and T. Yamasaki. 1988. Stimulation of fruit growth of kiwifruit, Actinidiachinensis Planch., by N-(2-choro-4 pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea, a diphenylureaderivative cytokinin. Sci. Hort. Sci. 79(1): 16-22. Jiang, Y. L., Y. Y. Liao, T. S. Lin, C. L. Lee, C. R. Yen, and W. J. Yang. 2012. The photoperiod-regulated bud formation of red pitaya (Hylocereus sp.). HortScience. 47: 1063-1067. Joiner, J. N., R. T. Poole, and C. A. Conover. 1983. Nutrient and fertilization of ornamental greenhouse crops. Hort. Rev. 5: 317-403. Jones, Jr. J. B., B. Wolf, and H. A. Mill. 1991. The essential elements. In: Plant analysis handbook. Mirco-Macro Publishing Inc. p. 3-17. Khaimov, A. and Y. Mizrahi. 2006. Effects of day-lengh, radiation, flower thinning and growth regulators on flowering of the vine cacti Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus. J. Hort. Sci. Biotech. 81(3): 465-470. Kliewer, W. M. 1977. Influence of temperature, solar radiation and nitrogen on coloration of emperor grapes. Am. J. Enol. Vitic 28(2): 96-103. Koo, R. C. J. and T. W. Young. 1977. Effects of age, position, and fruiting status on mineral composition of 'Tonnage' avocado leaves. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 102: 311-313. Lan, G. B., Z. F. He, P. G. Xi, and Z. D. Jiang. 2012. First report of brown spot disease caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on Hylocereus undatus in Guangdong, Chinese mainland. Plant Dis. Notes 96: 1702. Leshem, Y. Y., A. H. Halevy, and C. Frenkel. 1986. Free radicals and senescence. Processes and control of plant senescence. CRC Press pp. 100-126. Lin, W. and J. B. Hanson. 1976. Cell potentials, cell resistance, and proton fluxes in corn root tissues. Plant Physiol. 58: 276-282. Lyman, B.. 1982. The cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford University press, Stanford, California. 1018pp. Marques, V. B., R. A. Moreira, J. D. Ramos, N. A. D. Araujio, and F. O. D. R. Silva. 2011. Reproductive phenology of red pitaya in Lavras, MG, Brazil. Cienc. Rural 41(6): 984-987. Marschner, H. 1986. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press, San Diego, California. Marschner, H. 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plant. Second Edition. Academic press. Marschner, H. and I. Cakmak. 1986. Mechanism of phosphorus-induced zinc deficiency in cotton. II. Evidence for impaired cladode control of phosphorus uptake and translocation under zinc deficiency. Physiol. Plant. 68: 491-496. Masyahit, M., K. Sijam, Y. Awang, and M. G. M. Satar. 2009b. In vitro assay of factors affecting the growth of pathogens associated with diseases on dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp. ) in Peninsular Malaysia. Plant Pathology Journal 8(4): 144-151. Mathur, D. D., N. J. Natarella, and H. M. Vine. 1978. Elemental analysis of Crassulacean acid metabolism plant tissue. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 9: 127-139. Menzel, C. M. and D. R. Simpson. 1988. Effect of temperature on growth and flowering of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. ) cultivars. J. Hort. Sci. 63(2): 349-360. Miller, G. W., A. Shigematsu, G. W. Welkie, N. Motoji, and M. Szlek. 1990. Potassium effect on iron stress in tomato. II. The effect on root CO2-fication and organic acid formation. J. Plant Nutri. 13: 1355-1377. Mills, H. A., and J. B. Jones. 1996. Essential nutrients. Plant analysis handbook II. Micro Macro Publishing. p. 6-62. Mizrahi, Y. and A. Nerd. 1996. New crops as a possible solution for the troubled Israeli export market. P. 37-45. In J. Janick (Ed. ). Perspectives on New Crops and New Uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA. Mizrahi, Y. and A. Nerd. 1997. Cacti as crops. Hort Rev.18:291-319. Mizrahi, Y., A. Nerd, and P. S. Nobel. 1997. Cacti as crops. Hort Rev. 18: 291-391. Mizrahi, Y., A. Nerd, and Y. Sitrit. 2002. New fruit for arid climates. P. 378-384. In: J. Janick (Ed.), Trends in new crops and new uses, ASHS, Alexandria, VA. Mohd, M. S., B. Salleh and L. Zakaria. 2013. Identification and molecular characterizations of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum causing stem canker of red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) in Malaysia. J. Phytopathol. 161: 841-849. Munoz de Chavez, M., A. Chavez, V. Valles, J. A. 1995. Roldan.The nopal: a plant of manifold qualities. World Rev. Nutr. Dietetics 77: 109–134. Myers, S. C. 1993. Preharvest watersprout removal influence canopy light relation, fruit quality, and flower bud formation of 'Redskin' peach trees. J. Amer. Soc. Hort Sci. 118: 442-445. Nard, A. and Y. Mizrahi. 1997. Reproductive biology of cactus fruit crops. Hort. Rev. 18: 321-346. Nerd, A. and Y. Mizrahi. 1999. The effect of ripening on fruit quality after storage of yellow pitaya. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 15: 99-105. Nerd, A., N. Tel-Zur, and Y. Mizrahi. 2002. Fruits of vine and columnar cacti. P. 185-197. In: Nobel, P. S. (Eds. ) Cacti Biology and Uses. University of California Press, London, England. Nerd, A., Y. Sitrit, R. A. Kaushik, and Y. Mizrahi. 2002. High sumer temperatures inhibit flowering in vine pitaya crops (Hylocereus spp.). Scientia Hort. 96: 343-350. Nickell, L. G.. 1986a. Effects of N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl) -N'-phenylurea on grapes and other crops. Proc. Plant Growth Regulat. Soc. Amer. 13: 236-241. Nickell, L. O.. 1986b. The effects of N-(2-chloro-4-pyidyl)-N'-phenylurea and the 3-chloro-benzyl ester of dicamba on the growth and sugar content of grapes. Acta Hort. 179: 805-806. Nobel, P. S.. 1983. Nutrient levels in cacti-relation to nocturnal acid accumulation and growth. Amer. J. Bot. 70(8): 1244-1253. Nobel, P. S. 1994. Remarkable agaves and cacti. Oxford University Press. Oxford. New York. 166pp. Nobel, P. S. and E. De la Barrera. 2004. CO2 uptake by the cultivated hemiepiphytic cactus Hylocereus undatus. Ann. Appl. Biol. 144: 1-8. Nu, T. T.. 1996. Pruning effect on yield of different Cumcumber varieties. ARC Training Report 1996: 1-5. Nukaya, A., K. Goto, H. Jang, A. Kano, and K. Ohkawa. 1995. Effect of K/Ca ratio in the nutrient solution on incidence of blossom-end rot and gold specks of tomato fruit grown in rockwool. Acta Hort. 396: 123-130. Ogata,R., T. Saito, and K. Oshima. 1988. Effect of N-phenvl-N'-(4-pyrridyl) urea (4-PU) on fruit size: apple, Japanese pear, grapevive, and kiwifruit. Acta Hort. 239: 395-398. Oosthuyse, S. A. and G. Jacobs. 1995. Relationship between branching frequency, and growth, cropping and structural strength of 2-year- old mango trees. Scientia Horticulturae 64: 85-93. Palmateer, A. J., R. C. Ploetz, E. Santen, and J. C. Correll. 2007. First occurrence of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on pitaya. Plant Disease 91(5): 631. Peaslee, D. E. and D. N. Moss. 1966. Photosynthesis in K+ and Mg2+ deficient maize (Zea may L. ) leaves. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. 30: 220-223. People, T. R. and D. W. Koch. 1979. Role of potassium in carbon dioxide assimilation in Medicaqo sativa L. Plant physiol. 63: 878-881. Peppi, M. C., M. W. Fidelibus, and N. Dokoozlian. 2006. Abscisic acid application timing and concentration affect firmness, pigmentation and color of 'Flame Seedless' grapes. HortScience 41:1440-1445. Peppi, M. C., M. W. Fidelibus, and N. K. Dokoozlian. 2007. Application timing and concentration of abscisic acid affect the quality of 'Redglobe' grapes. J. Hort. Sci. Biotech. 82: 304-310. Phillips, R. D. and D. H. Jennings. 1976. Succulence, cations and organic acid in long and short Kalanchoe daigremontiana grown in long and short days in soil and water culture. New Phytol. 77: 599-611. Polizzi. G., D. Aiello, A. Vitale, F. Giuffrida, J. Z. Groenewald, and P. W. Crous. 2009. First report of shoot blight, canker, and gummosis caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on citrus in Italy. Plant Dis. 93: 1215. Ramirez–Lozano, R. G. 2004. Nutricion del venado cola blanca. Edit. Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Union Ganadera Regional de Nuevo Leon, Fundacion Produce Nuevo Leon, A. C. Monterrey, N. L., Mexico. 240 p. Rao, I. M. and N. Terry. 1989. Leaf phosphate status, photosynthesis, and carbon partition in sugar beet. I. Changes in growth, gas exchange, and Calvin cycle enzymes. Plant Physiol. 90: 814-819. Rao, I. M., R. E. Sharp, J. S. Boyer. 1987. Leaf magnesium alters photosynthetic response to low water potentials in sunflower. Plant Physiol. 84: 1214-1219. Raveh, E., J. Weiss, A. Nerd, and Y. Mizrahi. 1993. Pitayas (Genus Hylocereus): A new fruit crop for the Negav desert of Israel. P. 491-495. In: J. Janick and J. E. Simon (Eds. ), New Crops. Wiley, New York. USA. Ray, J. D., T. Burgess, and V. M. Lanoiselet. 2010. First record of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum and N. novaehoollandiae on Mangifera indica and N. dimidiatum on Ficus carica in Australia. Australas. Plant Dis. Notes 5: 48-50. Richard, P. M. and J. A. Barden. 1987. Summer pruning of apple and peach trees. Hort. Rev. 15: 351-375. Ruano, A., J. Barcelo, and C. Poschenrieder. 1987. Zinc toxicity-induced variation of mineral element composition in hydroponically grown bush bean plants. J. Plant Nutri. 10: 373-384. Sandalio, L. M. and L. A. Del Rio. 1987. Localization of superoxide dismutase in glyoxysomes from Citrullus vulgaris. Functional implications in cellular metabolism. J. Plant Physiol. 127: 395-409. Saunders, R. C., G. Jacobs, and D. K. Strydom. 1991. Effect of pruning on fruitset and cladode growth of Packham's triumph pear trees. Scientia Horticulturae 47: 239-246. Sen Gupta, A., G. A. Berkowitz, and P. A. Pier. 1989. Maintenance of photosynthesis at low leaf water potential in wheat. Plant Physiol. 89: 1358-1365. Serri, H. and F. Hepp. 2011. Effect of the growth regulator CPPU on fruit quality and fruit ripening of highbush blueberries. Acta Hort. 715. Shear, C. B. and M. Faust. 1980. Nutrional ranges in deciduous tree fruits and nuts. Hort. Rev. 2: 142-163. Shetty, A. S. and G. W. Miller. 1966. Influence of ions chlorosis on pigment and protein metabolism in leaves of Nicotiana tabacum L. Plant Physiol. 41: 415-421. Simpson, D. J. and S. R. Robinson. 1984. Freeze-fracture ultrastructure of thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts from manganese-deficient plants. Plant Physiol. 74: 735-741. Smith, P. F. 1962. Mineral analysis of plant tissues. Ann. Rev. Plant physiol. 13:81-108. Spanswick, R. M. and E. T. Williams. 1964. Electrical potential and Na, K and Cl concentrations in the vacuole and cytoplasm of Nitella translucens. J. Exp. Bot. 15: 193-200. Spears, J. W. 1994. Minerals in forages. P. 281–317. In: Fahey Jr., G.C. (Ed.), Proceedings of the National Conference on Forage Quality, Evaluation and Utilization. University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, USA. Stephenson, R. A. and B. W. Cull. 1986. Vegetative flushing patterns of macadamia trees in south east Queensland. Sci. Hort. 30: 53-62. Suelte, C. H. 1970. Enzymes activated by monovalent cations. Science 168: 789-795. Taiz, L. and E. Zeiger. 2002. Plant physiology, Thrid Edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, Massachusetts. pp.690. Takahashi, L. M., D. D. Rosa, M. A. Basseto, H. G. Souza, and E. L. Furtado. 2008. First report of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Hylocereus megalanthus in Brazil. Australasian Plant Dis. Notes 13: 27-34. Tanakamaru, K. 1989. Development and characteristics of new plant growth regulator (Fulmet solution). Agar. Chem. 36: 40-46. Tehrani, G. and S. J. Leuty. 1987. Influence of rootstock and pruning on productivity and fruit size of European plun cultivars. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 112: 743-747. Terry, N. and A. Vrich. 1973. Effects of phosphorus deficiency on the photosynthesis and respiration of leaves in sugar beet. Plant physiol. 54: 379-381. Thanarut, C., C. C. Chen, and Y. S. Yang. 2010. Effects of Streptomycin, GA3, and CPPU treatments on induction of seedless berry in 'Kyoho' and 'Honey Red' grapes. Horticulture NCHU 35(3): 1-11. Thorp, T. G., and B. Stowell. 2001. Pruning height and selective limb removal affect yield of large 'Hass' avocado trees. HortScience 36: 699-702. Tran, D. H., C. R. Yen, and Y. K. H. Chen. 2015. Flowering response of a red pitaya germplasm collection to lighting addition. International Scholarly and Scientific Research and Innovation 9(2): 126-130. Tucker, D. P. H., T. A. Wheaton, and R. P. Muraro. 1994. Citrus tree pruning principles and practices. Fact Sheet HS-144 pp.1-9. Vigueras G, A. L., and L. Portillo. 2001. Uses of Opuntia species and the potential impact of cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: pyralidae) in Mexico. Florida Entomologist 84(4): 494-498. Volencia-Botin, A. J., J. S. Sandoval-Islas, E. Cardenas-Soriano, T. J. Michailides, and G. Rendon-Sanchez. 2003. Botryosphaeria dothidea causing stem spots on Hylocereus undatus in Mexico. News Disease Reports 7:25 Walter, T. E. 1967. Report east malling exp. Stn. 70-82. Weiss, J., A. Nerd, and Y. Mizrahi. 1994. Flowering and pollination requirements in Cereus peruvianus cultivated in Israel. J. Plant Sci. 42: 149-158. Weiss, J., A. Nerd, and Y. Mizrahi. 1995. Selenicereus megalanthus (the yellow pitaya), a climbing cactus from Colombia and Peru. Cact. Succ. J. (U. S. A. ) 67: 280-283. Wheaton, T. A. 1981. Fruit thinning of Florida mandarins using plant growth regulators. Proc. Int. Soc. Citriculture 1: 263-268. White, J. W. 1987. Fertilization. In: Roses. R. W. Langhans(Ed.) p.87-142. White, P. J. and M. R. Broadley. 2003. Calcium in plants. Ann. Bot. 92: 487-511. Worley, R .E., B. G. Mullinix, and J. W. Daniel. 1996. Selective limb pruning, tree removal, and paclobutrazol growth retardant for crowding pecan trees. Sci. Hort. 67:79-85. Wright, E. R., M. C. Rivera, A. Ghirlanda and G. A. Lori. 2007. Basal rot of Hylocereus undatus caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Plant Disease 91(3): 323. Yamashita, T. and A. Fujiwara. 1966. Respiration and organic acid metabolism in potassium deficient rice plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 7: 527-532. Yildirim, B., T. Yesiloglu, M. U. Kamiloglu, M. Incesu, B. Cimen, and N. Yilmaz. 2011. Effects of 3,4,6-trichloro-2-pyridyloxyacetic acid on fruit size and yield of Valencia oranges (Citrus sinensis Osb.). J. Food Agri. and Env. 9(1): 275-279. Zegbe, J. A. and J. M. Covarrubias. 2009. Flower bud thinning in 'Rojo Liso' cactus pear. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotechnol. 84(6): 595-598.
摘要: In recent years, the production area of pitaya incresed gradually, therefore new problems also arised. Pitaya production may face problems such as nonstandard fertilization, unstable lighting and severe stem canker disease which in turn resulted in excessive fertilization, overuse of energy and discarding of orchard. In this study, we investigated the variation of mineral elements in pitaya cladodes, to provide a reasonable fertilizer application method and to develop a new forcing culture method aiming to reduce energy waste. Meanwhile, some pitaya lines were collected from local market to screen for disease-resistance which can be applied in future breeding program. Pitaya cladode mineral composition was investigated in January, March and July, we found that the mineral composition of young pitaya cladodes showed large variations, compared to old pitaya cladodes. Nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and iron concentration decreased, but potassium, magnesium, manganese, zinc and copper concentration increased. Changes of mineral composition in old pitaya cladodes were smaller, compared to young pitaya cladodes. Variation pattern of mineral composition in two different ages of pitaya were the same , but changes of magnesium and manganese contents were found to be different in young pitaya cladodes compared to old pitaya cladodes. Mineral composition of pitaya cladodes may vary from place to place. In adition, young pitaya cladodes have high potassium content and old pitaya cladodes have high calcium content. Mineral composition of pitaya cladodes was not correlated to mineral composition of soil but may vary in different variaties.Young pitaya cladodes contained 0.99~1.48% nitrogen, 0.15~0.32% phosphorus, 2.64~4.69% potassium, 0.71~1.99% calcium, 0.37~0.80% magnesium, 11~32ppm iron, 8~37ppm manganese, 20~38ppm zinc, and 0.3~7ppm copper. In contrast, old pitaya cladodes contained 0.78~1.11% nitrogen, 0.19~0.58% phosphorus, 0.92~3.05% potassium, 2.49~6.01% calcium, 0.43~1.08% magnesium, 8~28ppm iron, 18~65ppm manganese, 30~40ppm zinc, and 0.1~4ppm copper. The best timing to treat Vietnam plant growth regulator VSL 1 was in June and July. Application of VSL 1 in June and July can achieve 20% and 22% of floral induction rate in young pitaya cladode and 9% and 20% in old pitaya cladode, respectively. VSL 1 treatment was unable to induce floral induction in pitaya if treated during the period from November to the next May. Flower bud formation was visible three days after VSL 1 treatment. In addition, fruit quality after treatment with VSL 1 was not significantly defferent from the normal season fruit in terms of fruit weight, fruit length, number of sepals, peel thickness, total soluble solids content and titratable acidity. All CPPU and GA3 mix solutions can induce flower bud formation and 3.55~6.7cm long stalk formation. Furthermore, fruit qualities such as fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, number of sepals, peel thickness, total soluble solids content, titratable acidity and firmness were similar to normal season fruit after application of CPPU and GA3 mixed solution. Results from pitaya stem canker disease-resistant line selection indicated that stingless and Penghu red pitaya lines were the best candidates. During our initial disease-resistant test, stingless and Penghu red pitaya line showed 3.85% and 7.69% of canker incidence in young pitaya cladode 28 days after inoculation and 0% and 3.85% of canker incidence in old pitaya cladode, respectively. Twenty one days after Neosyctalidium dimidiatum inoculation, Yilan red pitaya line showed at least 80% of canker incidence indicating that Yilan red pitaya line was not resistant to pitaya stem canker. Result from our second test demonstrated that stingless pitaya line had 11.11% of canker incidence 21 days after Neosyctalidium dimidiatum inoculaton. In contrast, Yilan red pitaya line had 95.56% of canker incidence. Our results also suggested that all ages of pitaya cladodes can be infected by Neosyctalidium dimidiatum with 1-week-old pitaya cladode being the most volunerable which had 84.45% of canker incidence 7 days after Neosyctalidium dimidiatum inoculation and 100% of canker incidence 21 days after inoculation. One-month-old (maturity) and 3-month-old pitaya cladodes were more resistant to stem canker disease which showed 40% and 36.67% of canker incidence 21days after Neosyctalidium dimidiatum inoculation, respectively.
近來,紅龍果栽培面積日益增加,因此連帶產生的問題也就隨之而增加。紅龍果在栽培生產上常面臨施肥標準不一、電照效果不穩定以及莖潰瘍病菌的肆虐,因而造成施肥過量、過多能源浪費以及廢園等後續問題。因此,本論文藉由探討紅龍果肉質莖養份的變化,進而提供後續合理化施肥制訂應用。此外,本論文也希望開發另一種產期調節之方法,以減少過量電照造成的能源浪費。同時,本論文也篩選市面所收集到的部分品系,並希望可以從中篩選出較抗病之品系,以作為將來育種上之應用。 1月、3月以及7月份紅龍果肉質莖無機養分調查結果,以當季肉質莖中養分變化較大,其中以氮、磷、鈣與鐵濃度呈下降之現象,而鉀、鎂、錳、鋅與銅濃度則呈現上升之現象。相較與當季與非當季肉質莖中無機養分變化較為平緩。但兩者之變化趨勢是相似的,唯有非當季肉質莖中鎂與錳濃度之變化是與當季肉質莖不同。紅龍果肉質莖中無機養分之增加幅度將因地區而有所差異。此外,當季肉質莖中含大量鉀元素,而非當季肉質莖中含大量鈣元素。在受測樣本中,紅龍果肉質莖養分濃度之變化與土壤養分狀態無正相關,而會因品種而有所差異。紅龍果當季肉質莖中含氮0.99~1.48%、磷0.15~0.32%、鉀2.64~4.69%、鈣0.71~1.99%、鎂0.37~0.80%、鐵11~32ppm、錳8~37ppm、鋅20~38ppm與銅0.3~7ppm。非當季肉質莖中含氮0.78~1.11%、磷0.19~0.58%、鉀0.92~3.05%、鈣2.49~6.01%、鎂0.43~1.08%、鐵8~28ppm、錳18~65ppm、鋅30~40ppm與銅0.1~4ppm。 越南植物生長調節劑(VSL 1)最佳處理時機為6月與7月,這兩月份於當季肉質莖中花芽誘導率分別為20%以及22%,而在非當季肉質莖中則為9%以及20%。於11月份至隔年5月份,此藥劑均無法誘導花芽之萌生。藥劑處理後3天即可見花芽之萌生。藥劑誘導之果實在果重、果長、可溶性固形物含量、酸度、果皮厚度與果實萼片數測定結果均與正常產季之果實無顯著差異。此外,福芬素(CPPU)與激勃素(GA3)組合藥劑或單獨福芬素處理也具有誘導紅龍果花芽萌生之效果,但各組合中均會誘導果實基柄伸長3.55~6.7cm。其餘之果實品質測定如果重、果長、果寬、可溶性固形物、酸度、果皮厚度、萼片數與果實硬度均與正常產季之果實相似。 紅龍果莖潰瘍病之抗病品系篩選結果以無刺與澎湖紅肉品系抗病性最佳。初試驗中,無刺與澎湖紅肉品系在病原菌接種28天後,其當季肉質莖之發病率為3.85%與7.69%,而在非當季肉質莖之發病率則為0%以及3.85%。宜蘭紅肉品系在接種後21天,其發病率已達80%以上,因此視為不抗病品系。重複試驗中,無刺品系在接種後21天時之發病率只有11.11%,而不抗病品系宜蘭紅肉之發病率則為95.56%。在肉質莖成熟度對莖潰瘍抗病反應結果中,發現所有年齡之肉質莖均會感病,其中以生長一週之肉質莖發病率最嚴重,於病原菌接種後7天其發病率達84.45%,接種後21天發病率更達100%。生長一個月並成熟與生長三週之肉質莖對莖潰瘍病菌有較高的抗性,在接種後21天,兩者之發病率分別為40%與36.67%。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89207
其他識別: U0005-1708201508310100
文章公開時間: 2018-08-20
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.