Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89301
標題: Modification and refining of oriental lacquer
生漆之精製與改質
作者: Hsiu-Ling Lee
李綉玲
關鍵字: 生漆
精製漆
有油精製漆
乾性油
金屬乾燥劑
Oriental lacquer
Refined lacquer
Oil modified refined lacquer
Drying oil
Metal drier
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摘要: 生漆(Oriental lacquer)是由割取漆樹屬漆樹樹幹,收集流出的汁液再精製而成的天然高分子塗料。本研究分析生漆之組成分,其中漆酚佔54.1%,水為34.3%,樹膠質佔7.2%、含氮物質佔4.4%,外觀為乳黃色。為獲得最佳之塗膜物性,將生漆以加熱攪拌方式進行精製,並以科學化方法評估生漆精製過程中不同含水率對於精製漆之黏度、外觀、分子量及塗膜性質之影響。在精製過程初期,其黏度隨含水率降低而減少,但當精製漆含水率達12%後,黏度則隨含水率下降而大幅上升,且顏色轉為透明深褐色,同時生漆中的漆酚單體因漆酶催化反應聚合為寡聚體及聚合體。精製漆之塗膜光澤度同時受到表面粗糙度與水球直徑影響,當含水率低於16.4%時,塗膜光澤度則隨粗糙度上升而下降﹔而當含水率高於16.4%時,塗膜光澤度因漆膜表面水球蒸發所留下之孔洞而降低,其中以含水率 16.4%之精製漆具有最佳塗膜光澤度。精製漆之塗膜硬化乾燥時間先隨含水率降低而延長,當精製漆之含水率為18.4%時具有最長硬化乾燥時間為13.0 hr,之後則隨含水率下降而縮短,以含水率3.5%之精製漆硬化乾燥時間最短僅6.0 hr,且具有最佳塗膜拉伸強度、硬度及耐光性,而塗膜耐衝擊性、抗彎曲性與耐熱性則與其他不同含水率精製漆相似。為改善其乾燥緩慢之缺點,在生漆中加入氯化銅(Copper(II) chloride, CuCl2 ),探討其能否增加漆酶活性,及添加金屬乾燥劑,期待能促進側鏈不飽和雙鍵之自動氧化聚合反應,進而縮短生漆之乾燥時間,結果顯示添加氯化銅可提升塗膜耐光性與破壞伸長率、但無法縮短塗料乾燥時間。而添加金屬乾燥者可縮短乾燥時間且提高塗膜光澤度。為獲得高光澤度之精製漆並改善其塗膜脆性之缺點,於生漆精製過程中添加乾性油包括桐油、亞麻仁油及脫水蓖麻油。探討精製過程中,添加乾性油之時間點、添加量及種類對最終精製漆之性質影響。於不同時間點添加桐油與生漆共同精製之試驗中,於精製漆含水率10%之時添加桐油之桐油精製漆乾燥時間最短。添加不同桐油/生漆重量比之桐油精製漆中,以桐油/生漆重量比為50/100者具有最高塗膜光澤度,並具有較佳之塗膜耐衝擊性與抗彎曲性,然乾燥時間延長,且塗膜硬度、拉伸強度與Tg下降;以桐油/生漆重量比為10/100與20/100之桐油精製漆各項性質最為均衡,為最佳之桐油/生漆重量比配方。而添加不同乾性油之有油精製漆中,以亞麻仁油精製漆具有最高塗膜光澤度,而脫水蓖麻油精製漆具有最短之硬化乾燥時間,桐油精製漆之塗膜機械性質最佳。
Oriental lacquer, a natural polymeric coating, is refined from the sap which is collected from Rhus succedanea. In this study, the main components of the oriental lacquer with creamy yellow appearance were urushiol (54.1), water (34.3%), plant gum (7.2%), and nitrogenous compound (4.4%). Oriental lacquer was refined by heating and stirring for obtaining the optimum performances of refined lacquer. The effects of water content on the viscosity appearance, molecular weight, and film properties of refined lacquers were evaluated by scientific methods. At an early refining process the viscosity of refined lacquer decreased with reducing of water content, while the reversed results were obtained at water content of 12% i.e. the viscosity of refined lacquer increased with reducing of water content. In the refining process, the cream yellow appearance of oriental lacquer transformed was transparent into brown color, and the urushiol monomers were polymerized to oligomers and polymers by laccase catalyzed oxidative polymerization. The gloss of refined lacquer films were affected by both of the surface roughness and water drop diameter. When the water content of refined lacquer below 16.4%, the films gloss decreased with increasing of surface roughness, while the films gloss decreased with increasing of water drop diameter at water content of over 16.4%. The refined lacquer with water content of 16.4% had the best gloss of films. The curing time of refined lacquer films were first extended with decreasing of water content, however it were shortened with further decreasing of water content. The refined lacquer with water content of 18.4% had the longest curing time of 13.0 hr. The refined lacquer with water content of 3.5% had the shortest curing time of 6.0 hr as well as had the best tensile strength, hardness and lightfastness of films. In addition, had the similar impact resistance, bending resistance, and thermo stability refined lacquers with different water contents. For shorten the curing time of the coatings, copper(II) chloride for improving the activity of laccase and metal catalysts for increasing the auto-oxidation polymerization of pendant unsaturated double bond were blended with oriental lacquer and refined lacquer, respectively. The results showed that the films containing copper(II) chloride had the superior lightfastness, elongation at break but it cannot shortened the curing time of coatings, while the coatings contained metal drier had the an excellent gloss of and the films shortest curing time of coating. For enhancing the low gloss and brittle films of refined lacquer, the drying oil including tung oil, linseed oil and dehydrated castor oil were mixed with refined lacquers. The effects of adding time, adding amounts and drying oil types on the coating and films properties were evaluated. The results showed that the proper adding time of tung oil during refining process, is at the water content of 10% of refined lacquer and it showed the shortest curing time. The films of tung oil modified refined lacquer with tung oil/oriental lacquer weight ratio of 50/100 had an excellent gloss, impact resistance and bending resistance, however it had a lower hardness, tensile strength, Tg, and longer curing time than refined lacquer. The films of tung oil modified refined lacquer with tung oil/oriental lacquer weight ratio of 10/100 and 20/100 had a balance between coating and films properties. The effects of drying oil types of oil modified refined lacquer were also investigated. The refined lacquer films with linseed oil had the highest gloss, the one with dehydrated castor oil had the shortest curing time, and the one with tung oil had the best mechanical properties of films.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89301
其他識別: U0005-1308201514583600
文章公開時間: 2017-08-14
Appears in Collections:森林學系

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