Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89324
標題: 台灣葉用甘藷細菌性萎凋病之鑑定、感染源及管理策略
Bacterial wilt of vegetable sweet potato in Taiwan - pathogen identification, inoculum sources and management strategy
作者: Yi-Jeng Chen
陳以錚
關鍵字: 葉用甘藷
青枯病
Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 biovar 4
潛伏感染
感染源
扦插苗
檢測
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SPX1
生物防治
vegetable sweet potato
Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 biovar 4
latent infection
cutting seedling
early detection
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SPX1
biological control
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摘要: 中文摘要 甘藷 (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) 為旋花科 (Convolvulaceae) 雙子葉(dicotyledonous) 植物,其塊根為人類的重要糧食,目前為世界第七大糧食作物,僅次於小麥、稻米、玉米、馬鈴薯、大麥及樹薯等。除了塊根,其地上部藤蔓在部分亞洲國家也被用於蔬菜及飼料使用。在台灣,因嫩莖與高產品種的育成,葉用品種甘藷如台農71號與桃園2號已成為夏季及雨季重要之葉菜來源。近十年,一種新的萎凋型病害在台灣葉用甘藷田間普遍發生,罹病甘藷植株呈現矮化、葉片失水、萎凋、維管束褐化等病徵,田間發病率達30 - 80 %之間;病原菌經生理生化測試、病原性測試及其分子特性鑑定為Ralstonia solanacearum strain phylotype I race 1 biovar 4,故將本病害確認為葉用甘藷青枯病 (Bacterial wilt of vegetable sweet potato)。葉用甘藷主要利用扦插苗繁殖,2009年調查發現台灣地區葉用甘藷田間土壤青枯病菌族群量在1.3×102 到9.5×105 cfu/g soil之間;扦插苗攜帶青枯病菌之比率則為2到98 %,含菌量在2.3×103 到 5.9×105 cfu/g tissue,此結果表示青枯病菌可以潛伏感染在葉用甘藷扦插苗之中。在12塊調查田區,青枯病的發病率與種苗攜帶青枯菌的比率呈現高度正相關 (R2 = 0.913) 而與田土中青枯病菌的族群量相關性低 (R2 = 0.086)。進一步於溫室中比較種苗帶菌率與土壤含菌量對葉用甘藷青枯病發生率和罹病度的影響,結果表明種苗帶菌率相對於土壤含菌量對青枯病的病勢發展影響更顯著 (p = 0.05),因此證實種苗攜帶青枯病菌為田間葉用甘藷青枯病的主要感染來源。於溫室中試驗青枯病菌潛伏感染的行為及其在甘藷中的分布,結果發現經土壤接種 (106 cfu/g soil) 八週後,青枯病菌在甘藷匍匐莖的分離率為45到100 %,而在直立莖中的分離率則小於31 %,田間調查呈現出相似的結果,此結果表明青枯病菌在葉用甘藷中分布不均,主要分布於匍匐莖。依此結果,2010年到2011年在田間選取直立莖,並經BIO-PCR方法檢測發現帶菌率低 (2-5%) 作為種苗來源於中埔及大甲2處青枯病圃進行田間試驗,結果經檢測帶菌率低之健康苗於8個月內青枯病發病率為27-38 %,匍匐莖苗 (帶菌率25-33 %) 為49-68 %,差異顯著 (p = 0.05),栽培帶菌率低之直立莖可延緩青枯病的發生。此外,本研究先前自大里地區不發生青枯病之葉用甘藷植株分離得到一株初步發現一株內生細菌Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SPX1 並於實驗室中證實其對青枯病菌具有良好拮抗能力,進一步在於2012到2013年進行田間防治試驗,結果顯示甘藷種苗經處理B. amyloliquefaciens SPX1後,在第八個月的青枯病發病率為45-48 %;另以低帶菌率苗處理B. amyloliquefaciens SPX1,第8個月發病率則為20-33 %,相對對照組72-78 %,差異顯著 (p = 0.05),本結果證實種植低帶菌苗及種苗處理內生菌B. amyloliquefaciens SPX1 可在田間降低青枯病的發生率。另本研究於西螺地區自然病圃中選拔到1種對青枯病或有抗性之葉用甘藷地方品系VSPSL-1,2012年及2013年於嘉義中埔青枯病自然病圃中,定植後第8個月青枯病發生率皆為0。
Abstract Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)], the dicotyledonous plant of the family Convolvulaceae, is the seventh most important food crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato, barley and cassava. Besides food supply, sweet potato has diverse uses in green source, ornamental, feed, starch and liquor manufacture, human consumption, biofuel and bioplastic production, etc. Many cultivars have been currently developed for different uses through the world. Among these cultivars, vegetable sweet potato (VSP) has been bred for edible leafy vegetable and can produce a lot of leaves, tender shoots and small/non tubers constantly throughout the growth period in whole year period, especially, summer and rainy season. The VSP is considered as an important green source in summer or rainy season in Taiwan, and similar cultivars of VSP have been bred and grew in Japan. A new disease, Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (RS) broke out during 2000's and reduced 30 to 80% yield of VSP last decade in Taiwan. The R. solanacearum isolates obtained from diseased VSP were identified as Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype I race 1 biovar 4 (R1bv4) based on physical and molecular analyses. Moreover, these isolates also caused wilting in convolvulaceous, solanaceaous and cruciferous plants. Field investigation indicated that R1bv4 was generally distributed in soil of VSP fields with 1.3×102 to 9.5×105 cfu/g soil. Further detection showed R1bv4 could latently infect healthy VSP cuttings with 2 to 98% isolation frequency. The severity of BW was closely related to R1bv4-carried VSP cuttings (R=0.913); however, the severity of BW did not show significant correlation with the R1bv4 density in soil (R=0.086). Similar phenomenon was observed in greenhouse test. Thus, the cuttings carried R1bv4 were more important inocula source than the R1bv4 residing in soil. The distribution of R1bv4 in VSP indicated that the terminal shoots or erect stems had low R1bv4 containation perecentage (<31%) and creeping stem had high R1bv4 containation percentage (45 to 100%) 8 wks after the VSP planted in infested soil (106 cfu/g soil). Results demonstrated that R1bv4 did not consistently move to the part of erect stem cuttings. For confirming the efficacy of the erect stem cutting on control BW of VSP in the fields, the erect stem cuttings were collected from VSP field. The results revealed that the erect stem cuttings used as new plants could decrease the BW in field. Moreover, companied with early R1bv4 detection in erect stems could increase the control efficient of BW in VSP production area. In this study, a bacterial endophyte, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SPX1 from healthy VSP in Dali, had good ability to inhibit the growth of R1bv4 on TTC medium. The further experiment showed that the SPX1 isolate could decrease the wilting development of VSP in greenhouse and field conditions by soaking treatment. In addition, a resistance line of VSP, VSPSL-1, showed high reistance to bacterial wilt in field. Thus, the VSPSL-1 line is a promising cultivar resistant to R1bv4 in the future.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89324
文章公開時間: 2018-02-03
Appears in Collections:植物病理學系

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