Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89330
標題: 拮抗性枯草桿菌在甘藍黑腐病防治之應用
Control of cabbage black rot by antagonistic Bacillus spp. bioagent –the potential application
作者: Chein-Wei Chen
陳俊位
關鍵字: 甘藍
黑腐病
枯草桿菌
功能性營養配方
cabbage
black rot disease
Bacillus subtilis/amyloliquefaciens
functional nutritive formulation(FNF )
引用: 8093035102-b
摘要: 甘藍黑腐病(black rot)為全球十字花科蔬菜之重要病害,臺灣地區自70年代起推行蔬菜生產專業區,大量集中栽培之後,甘藍黑腐病的發生逐漸加劇,已成為臺灣地區十字花科蔬菜之重要病害;甘藍黑腐病菌(Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris)可種子傳播,且從育苗期到成株採收皆可感染為害,因防治困難,常造成嚴重損失,在無藥劑防治狀況下,發病率可高達95.6%以上。目前化學藥劑防治並無法有效控制本病害的發生與蔓延,且甘藍黑腐病菌抗藥性亦已產生,而目前市場上常用的栽培品種抗病能力弱,生物農藥遂為本病害防治的新途徑。本研究室所篩選之枯草桿菌Bacillus subtilis WG6-14及相關菌株已知可抑制多種黃單胞菌(Xanthomonas)屬病原菌,為此本論文擬利用相關菌株及製劑針對甘藍黑腐病進行防治,從種子處理、苗期管理及田間防治施用上進行探討,並分析供試菌株及其代謝產物在防治上所扮演的角色,以建立一套有效的病害防治策略。施用枯草桿菌WG6-14醱酵菌液及功能性營養醱酵菌液(FNF)於彰化縣大村鄉臺中區農業改良場田間栽種的甘藍試區,稀釋100倍施用後WG6-14可在土壤中存活30天,菌量可維持在2×10^7 cfu/g,但葉片上之菌量在施用14天後即降至2×10^6 cfu/ml。施用WG6-14醱酵菌液FNF於田間防治初秋甘藍黑腐病可較對照組降低罹病度40%,處理組甘藍的株高、葉片數、葉長、葉寬、單球重量及總重皆優於對照組。在不同甘藍品種上施用枯草桿菌WG6-14一次及FNF醱酵菌液防治黑腐病,與化學藥劑防治組比較,可降低甘藍罹病度27~35%,並有促進生長之效果。進而施用於埔里田間甘藍上評估對黑腐病的防治效果,從田間種植起每隔7天澆灌WG6-14功能性營養配方(FNF)100倍一次,能降低甘藍黑腐病發病率在40%以下,相較於對照組100%的發病率除有明顯的防治效果外,並能提高收獲甘藍單球重量1公斤及提早採收天數10天。而在甘藍種子及種苗管理上,為減少幼苗黑腐病之發生,將所搜集的枯草桿菌菌株與黑腐病菌進行對峙培養,結果以WG6-14、TKS1-1與SP4-17三菌株拮抗能力最強,其次為TCB9407與TCB102-B7。先行以WG6-14、TKS1-1、SP4-17三菌株處理芥藍種子,建立種子拌種技術。結果發現噴霧、浸種與混拌方式拌種處理皆可抑制種子上之黑腐病菌;50℃熱風乾燥處理對種子發芽沒有影響,其每粒種子上之含菌量在3×10^6cfu/seed以上,菌株耐熱性在50℃熱風乾燥處理90分鐘後種子上的菌量以WG6-14、TKS1-1二者高於SP4-17。將液化澱粉芽孢桿菌(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) TCB102-B7、TCB9407與WG6-14及枯草桿菌(B. subtilis )TKS1-1等菌株進行量產醱酵,製備完成後取樣分析菌量與醱酵菌液養份成份,並與黑腐病菌進行對峙培養,抑制圈半徑在1cm以上。將各菌株之醱酵菌液與甘藍台中一號種子進行拌種試驗,初步檢測種子上各液化澱粉芽孢桿菌與枯草桿菌菌株帶菌率100%,種子帶菌量則以TCB 102-B7最高,每克種子上可達4×10^5cfu/seed以上,各菌株並有抑制種子黑腐病菌發生及提昇幼苗發芽率效果。甘藍苗期黑腐病防治試驗於溫室育苗場施用各菌株醱酵菌液,以葉噴與澆灌方式施用後調查對初秋甘藍黑腐病防治效果及對幼苗園藝性狀之影響,試驗結果黑腐病防治率以TKS1-1菌株防治效果最佳,處理組發病率在0~6%,對照組則高達50%,罹病度處理組在5~13.5%,對照組則在45%。於蔬菜育苗場施用TCB102-B7、TCB9407、WG6-14與TKS1-1等菌株於甘藍夏峰及228幼苗上,調查園藝性狀結果發現各菌株處理對根鮮重、株高、葉長及葉寬皆比對照組高,有促進幼苗發育的效果。 由上述結果顯示枯草桿菌WG6-14醱酵菌液結合功能性營養配方於甘藍栽培上施用,除可作為病害防治製劑外並兼具有促進生長之效果,此於病蟲害綜合管理上之應用性值得推薦;而拮抗性枯草桿菌生物製劑WG6-14、TKS1-1、 TCB102-B7、TCB9407等在甘藍種子與苗期黑腐病防治上極具應用性。相關製劑與其防治成效有關的作用機制除菌體殘存量高低以外,其醱酵過程中的代謝產物扮演極重要角色。
Black rot of crucifers caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is one of the most important vegetable disease in the world. Our laboratory developed mass production of Bacillus subtilis WG6-14 preparation and application of technology. Use a 750-liter fermentor for production WG6-14 fermentation broth(10^10cfu/ml) with a functional nutritive formula. The agents can antagonistic variety of pathogenic microorganisms and promoting plant growth. In our research, control of cabbage black rot disease by B. subtilis WG6-14 in field test had significant effect. Combined inoculation of B. subtilis WG6-14 and functional nutritive formulation (FNF) solution showed increased growth rate, nutrient uptake, plant height, number of leaves, yield, and total biomass of cabbage then control treatment. Use B. subtilis WG6-14 fermentation broth (BS1) and functional nutrition fermentation broth (FNF) in Changhua County, TDARES`s cabbage field. B. subtilis WG6-14 can survive in the soil over 30 days, the amount of bacteria can be maintained at 2×10^7 cfu/g, but the amount of bacteria on the leaf can not be measured after 14 days. Use WG6-14 fermentation broth in the K-Y cross cabbage field can reduce black rot disease severity 40% than control. Applied B.subtilis WG6-14 fermentation broth (BS1) and functional nutrition fermentation broth (FNF) on different varieties of cabbage can reduce black rot disease severity 27 to 35% compared with chemical bactericide and has the effect of promoting growth. Further evaluation black rot control effect of the application of WG 6-14 on Puli cabbage field. From starting field planting drench WG6-14 functional nutrition formula (FNF) solution 100X weekly. Compared to the control can reduce the incidence of black rot of cabbage in 60% and increase the single ball weight of cabbage from 0.4 to 1 kg and cut down harvest time 10 to 20 days. The above results show that B. subtilis WG6-14 fermentation broth combined with functional nutrition formula solution applied on cabbage cultivation, except as foreign agents and disease control and has the effect of promoting the growth of this on the application of integrated pest management on the recommendation.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89330
文章公開時間: 2017-08-31
Appears in Collections:植物病理學系

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