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dc.contributorWen-Hsin Chungen_US
dc.contributor.authorChien-Jui Huangen_US
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dc.description.abstract本研究以臺灣常見農產廢棄物柚子皮與常綠樹木檸檬桉落葉為精油萃取材料,並透過蒸餾法萃取柚子皮和檸檬桉落葉中的精油,得知其精油含量分別為7.2%與0.74%。本研究分析兩種精油之主要有效成份,指出柚子精油中的主要成分為檸檬烯,約含96.27%;而檸檬桉精油之主要成分為香茅醛與香茅醇,含量分別約為43.69%與17.06%。由於精油具揮發特性,本研究測試精油以薰蒸的方式對9種植物病原真菌抑制的效果,得知未稀釋之柚子精油可抑制草莓灰黴病菌GBS3-93與GBS1-104菌株菌絲生長達92.7%與100.0%,然對綠黴病菌Cmep1-3菌株則有促進生長效果。於檸檬桉精油測試結果得知,當稀釋10倍以下時,可抑制所有供試病原菌達96.6%-100.0%。本研究亦測試含精油之PDA培養基對供試病原菌的抑制效果,顯示含稀釋100倍柚子精油的培養基對小白菜炭疽病菌PA01菌株與草莓灰黴病菌GBS1-104和GBS3-93菌株之生長抑制率較佳,分別有89.8%、81.1%及73.4%,然對Cmep1-3菌株有促進生長現象。另於PDA培養基添加檸檬桉精油測試結果,得知添加稀釋1,000倍檸檬桉精油時,即可抑制多數供試植物病原菌株生長。孢子發芽的抑制測試方面,針對6種供試病原菌菌株為對象,結果顯示稀釋50倍以下的柚子精油,對其中5種病原真菌抑制效果達92.6%以上,然對Cmep1-3菌株則具促進孢子發芽效果(>65.4%)。而檸檬桉精油稀釋至500倍時,仍對所有供試病原菌菌株孢子發芽具有80.1%以上的抑制效果。 本研究進一步將精油以不同濃度加入含1,000 mg a. i./L亞托敏之PDA培養基中,得知添加稀釋1,000倍之檸檬桉精油後,可提升抑制抗藥性GBS1-104菌株與非抗藥性GBS3-93菌株生長達100%;而添加稀釋100倍之柚子精油,則可提升抑制GBS1-104菌株與GBS3-93菌株生長達71.0%與100.0%。進一步測試添加精油對亞托敏之藥效增加效果,顯示稀釋1,000倍與10,000倍之檸檬桉精油和稀釋100倍之柚子精油對亞托敏之藥效皆有提升效果,而以稀釋1,000倍之檸檬桉精油最佳。本研究測試柚子精油與檸檬桉精油對胡瓜、小白菜生長及草莓植株之影響,指出稀釋20倍以上的柚子精油對小白菜生長無明顯影響,然稀釋100倍以下之檸檬桉精油,則會對所有供試植株造成白灰色斑點之藥害。本研究測試兩種精油小白菜炭疽病、胡瓜炭疽病及草莓灰黴病的防治效果,處理方式為接種病原菌前1小時與後1小時噴施精油,結果得知於接種後1小時施用檸檬桉精油之效果最佳,而草莓果實灰黴病若於接種前處理稀釋50倍之柚子精油與稀釋500倍之檸檬桉精油時,有促進發病的現象。本研究證實柚子與檸檬桉精油具防治植物病害與降低抗藥性發生之潛力,未來可進一步測試精油於溫室與田間提升亞托敏藥效之效果,以及篩選適當的施用方法或劑型,將精油開發為可實際應用之防治資材。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractThe essential oils of pomelo peel and lemon eucalyptus fallen leaves extracted by steam-distillation revealed that the essential oil content of pomelo peel and lemon eucalyptus fallen leaves was 7.2% and 0.74%, respectively. The chemical composition of the two essential oils analyzed by GC-MS showed that the major component of pomelo essential oil was limonene (96.27%) while the major components of lemon eucalyptus essential oil were citronellal (43.69%) and citronellol (17.06%). The antifungal activity of essential oils against 9 plant pathogens was tested by the volatile activity assay. The results of volatile activity assay showed that, 1X pomelo could decrease the growth of Botrytis cinerea GBS3-93 and GBS1-104 to 92.7% and 100.0%, respectively; however, it enhanced the growth of Penicillium digitatum Cmep1-3. Moreover, 10X lemon eucalyptus essential oil could decrease the growth of all tested pathogen at the rate of 96.6%-100.0%. Based on the results of poisoned food assay, which showed that PDA containing 100X pomelo essential oil could decrease the growth of Colletotrichum higginsianum PA01, B. cinerea GBS3-93 and GBS1-104 at the rate of 89.8%, 81.1% and 73.4%, but enhanced the growth of P. digitatum Cmep1-3. In contrast, PDA containing 1,000X lemon eucalyptus essential oil could completely inhibit the growth of most tested pathogens. Furthermore, the spore germination inhibiting tests showed that 50X pomelo essential oil could inhibit over 92.6% spore germination of 5 tested pathogens while facilitate spore germination of P. digitatum Cmep1-3(>65.4%). In contrast, 500X lemon eucalyptus essential oil could inhibit over 80.1% spore germination of all tested pathogens. In this study, adding 100X pomelo essential oil, or 1,000X and 10,000X lemon eucalyptus essential oil to PDA containing 1,000 mg a. i./L azoxystrobin showed enhanced efficacies on inhibiting azoxystrobin resistant and sensitive B. cinerea isolates. This effect could also be observed in the experiment which added 100X pomelo essential oil or 1,000X and 10,000X lemon eucalyptus essential oil into PDA containing different concentrations of azoxystrobin. Phytotoxicity tests of essential oils on cucumber, Chinese cabbage and strawberry leaves showed that 20X pomelo and 100X lemon eucalyptus essential oil would damage the leaves of cucumber and strawberry. The control efficacies of anthracnose of Chinese cabbage and cucumber, and gray mold of strawberry indicated that spraying essential oils 1 hour after inoculation would reduce the disease severities of gray mold on strawberry fruit; however, spraying 50X pomelo and 500X lemon eucalyptus essential oils 1 hour before inoculation increased the disease severity. This study showed that pomelo and lemon eucalyptus essential oils are potential disease-control agents to reduce the risk of fungicide-resistance.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontents中文摘要 i 英文摘要  目次 v 表次目錄  圖次目錄  前言 1 材料與方法 5 一、 供試菌株與植株 5 二、 精油萃取 5 三、 利用氣象層析質譜聯用技術(Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS)分析柚子精油與檸檬桉精油中之有效成分 6 四、 測試柚子皮與檸檬桉葉片精油對病原菌生長抑制效果 6 (一)、 薰蒸效果測試 6 (二)、 精油培養基對菌絲生長抑制效果測試 6 (三)、 精油對孢子發芽之抑制效果測試 7 五、 於農藥中添加精油對具抗藥性草莓灰徽病菌菌株生長抑制效果測試 7 六、 農藥添加精油對於藥效的提升效果測試 8 七、 精油對植物生長的影響測試 8 八、 評估精油防治植物病害之效果 8 (一)、 於定溫生長箱中精油防治小白菜炭疽病之效果評估 8 (二)、 於定溫生長箱中精油防治胡瓜炭疽病之效果評估 9 (三)、 於保濕環境中精油防治草莓灰黴病之效果評估 9 (四)、 於保濕環境下精油防治草莓果實灰黴病之效果評估 10 九、 統計分析 11 結果 12 一、 精油之萃取 12 二、 柚子精油與檸檬桉精油中之有效成分分析 12 三、 測試柚子皮與檸檬桉葉片精油對病原菌的抑制效果 12 (一)、 測試薰蒸效果 12 (二)、 測試精油培養基對菌絲生長抑制效果 13 (三)、 測試精油對孢子發芽之抑制效果 14 四、 測試農藥添加精油對具抗藥性草莓灰徽病菌生長抑制效果 15 五、 測試農藥添加精油對藥效提升效果 15 六、 測試精油對植物的影響 16 七、 評估精油防治植物病害之效果 16 (一)、 定溫生長箱中測試精油防治小白菜炭疽病之效果 16 (二)、 定溫生長箱中精油防治胡瓜炭疽病之效果 16 (三)、 保濕環境中精油防治草莓葉部灰黴病之效果 17 (四)、 於保濕環境下精油防治草莓果實灰黴病之效果 17 討論 19 參考文獻 25   表次目錄 表一、本試驗中使用之菌株 29 表二、以柚子精油薰蒸對供試植物病原真菌之生長抑制效果 30 表三、以檸檬桉精油薰蒸對供試植物病原真菌之生長抑制效果 31 表四、柚子精油培養基對供試植物病原真菌菌絲生長抑制效果 32 表五、檸檬桉精油培養基對供試植物病原真菌菌絲生長抑制效果 33 表六、柚子精油對供試植物病原真菌孢子發芽之抑制效果 34 表七、檸檬桉精油對供試植物病原真菌孢子發芽之抑制效果 35 表八、1,000 mg a.i./L亞托敏添加於不同濃度精油對草莓灰徽病菌菌株生長抑制效果 36 表九、精油防治小白菜炭疽病的效果 37 表十、精油對胡瓜炭疽病的防治效果 38 表十一、精油防治草莓葉部灰黴病的效果 39 表十二、精油防治草莓果實灰黴病的效果 40 圖次目錄 圖一、柚子皮為台灣主要的農業廢棄物之一 41 圖二、精油蒸餾萃取裝置示意圖 42 圖三、柚子精油之氣相層析圖 43 圖四、柚子精油主成分與檸檬烯之質譜圖 44 圖五、檸檬桉精油之氣相層析圖 45 圖六、化合物B與香茅醛之質譜圖 46 圖七、化合物D與香茅醇之質譜圖 47 圖八、化合物E與乙酸香葉酯之質譜圖 48 圖九、化合物F與丁香烯之質譜圖 49 圖十、於不同濃度亞托敏添加柚子或檸檬桉精油對抗亞托敏草莓灰徽病菌菌株(GBS1-104)生長抑制效果測試 50 圖十一、精油對胡瓜葉片的影響 51 圖十二、精油對小白菜葉片的影響 52 圖十三、精油對草莓葉片的影響 53zh_TW
dc.subjectessential oilen_US
dc.subjectlemon eucalyptusen_US
dc.subjectagriculture wastesen_US
dc.titleEvaluation of essential oil from pomelo (Citrus maxima Burm.) and lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.) on inhibition of plant pathogens and control of plant diseasesen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationen_US
Appears in Collections:植物病理學系


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