Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89354
標題: 評估番茄萎凋病菌厚膜孢子之逆境耐受能力
Assessing the stress resistant abilities of chlamydospores of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici
作者: Yuan-Yu Chen
陳媛鈺
關鍵字: 番茄萎凋病
厚膜孢子
逆境
生物防治
Fusarium wilt of tomato
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici
chlamydospore
stress
biocontrol
引用: 王仁晃、王仕賢、林棟樑、謝明憲、林滄澤、趙秀淓、陳正次。2003。紅色小果番茄新品種台南亞蔬11號之育成。台南區農業改良場研究彙報 42:23-31。 王喻其、王泰權、陳富翔、蔡永勝、李宏萍、費雯綺。2012。植物保護手冊。行政院農業委員會農業藥物毒物試驗所。台灣:台中。1079 pp。 行政院農業委員會農糧署。2015。103年農業統計年報。行政院農業委員會。http://agrstat.coa.gov.tw/sdweb/public/book/Book.aspx(查詢日期:2015.07.13) 林天枝、洪澨堂。2002。番茄新品種臺中亞蔬十號之育成。臺中區農業改良場研究彙報 75:41-57。 林俊義、黃秀華。1995。太陽能防治土壤傳播性病害之機制。臺中區農業改良場研究彙報 49:19-31。 徐世典、張東柱、張清安、蔡進來、蔡東纂編。2002。台灣植物病害名彙。 p.157-159。第四版。中華民國植物病理學會出版。386 pp。 郭宏遠。2002。番茄產銷概況分析。p.1-4。番茄品種特性與栽培技術全輯。蕭吉雄、黃維東、周明燕編。行政院農業委員會種苗改良繁殖場出版。台中。78 pp。 陳正次、傅成美、劉依昌。2002a。夏季耐熱小果番茄新品種『台南亞蔬六號』。p.11-18。番茄品種特性與栽培技術全輯。蕭吉雄、黃維東、周明燕編。行政院農業委員會種苗改良繁殖場出版。台灣:台中。78 pp。 陳正次、賴森雄、林天枝、洪澨堂。2002b。夏季鮮食番茄新品種『台中亞蔬四號』。p.5-7。番茄品種特性與栽培技術全輯。蕭吉雄、黃維東、周明燕編。行政院農業委員會種苗改良繁殖場出版。台灣:台中。78 pp。 楊素絲、陳正次。2003。番茄新品種「花蓮亞蔬十三號」之育成及特性。花蓮區農業改良場研究彙報 21:13-28。 廖龍盛。2005。實用農藥。p.363-369, 478-479, 488-490, 534-536, 566-567, 596-597。第八版。得力興業股份有限公司出版。1350 pp。 劉依昌。2012。百年農業點將錄~臺南區農業改良場小果番茄的研發與推廣。臺南區農業專訊 79:29-33. 劉依昌、王仁晃、韓錦絲、謝明憲、陳正次、王仕賢。2006。小果番茄新品種「台南亞蔬19號」。台南區農業專訊 57:5-8。 劉依昌、謝明憲、林棟樑、王仕賢。2008。有機番茄栽培技術。台南區農業專訊 66:1-8。 Alexander, J. V., Bourret, J. A., Gold, A. H., and Snyder, W. C. 1966. Induction of chlamydospore formation by Fusarium solani in soil extracts. Phytopathology 56:353-354. André, L., Nilsson, A., and Adler, L. 1988. The role of glycerol in osmotolerance of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii. Journal of General Microbiology 134:669-677. Apel, K., and Hirt, H. 2004. Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. Annual Review of Plant Biology 55:373-399. Barran, L. R., Schneider, E. F., and Seaman, W. L. 1977. Requirements for the rapid conversion of macroconidia of Fusarium sulphureum to chlamydospores. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 23:148-151. Bennett, R. 2012. Survival of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum chlamydospores under solarization temperatures. Plant Disease 96:1564-1568. Bennett, R., and Davis, R. 2013. Method for rapid production of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum chlamydospores. Journal of Cotton Science 17:52-59. Borges, A. A., Cools, H. J., and Lucas, J. A. 2003. Menadione sodium bisulphite: a novel plant defence activator which enhances local and systemic resistance to infection by Leptosphaeria maculans in oilseed rape. Plant Pathology 52:429-436. Borges, A. A., Borges-Pérez, A., Fernández-Falcón, M. 2004. Induced resistance to Fusarial wilt of banana by menadione sodium bisulphite treatments. Crop Protection 23:1245-1247. Butler, D. M., Kokalis-Burelle, N., Muramoto, J., Shennan, C., McCollum, T. G., and Rosskopf, E. N. 2012. Impact of anaerobic soil disinfestation combined with soil solarization on plant-parasitic nematodes and introduced inoculum of soilborne plant pathogens in raised-bed vegetable production. Crop Protection 39:33-40. Cal, A. D., Pascual, S., and Melgarejo, P. 1997. Infectivity of chlamydospores vs microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato. Journal of Phytopathology 145:231-233. Cao, F.M., Shen, D.L., Li, J., Guan, D.W., Jiang, X., Li, L., Feng, R.H., Yang, X.H., Chen, H.J., and Ge, Y.F. 2008. Multiplex-PCR approach to identify Bacillus species applied in microbial fertilizers. Acta Microbiologica Sinica 48:651-656. Chandel, S., Allan, E. J., and Woodward, S. 2010. Biological control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato by Brevibacillus brevis. Journal of Phytopathology 158:470-478. Chaurasia, B., Pandey, A., Palni, L. M. S., Trivedi, P., Kumar, B., and Colvin, N. 2005. Diffusible and volatile compounds produced by an antagonistic Bacillus subtilis strain cause structural deformations in pathogenic fungi in vitro. Microbiological Research 160:75-81. Chen, C. W. 2006. Effect of Amendment of Soil with Shrimp and Crab Shell Powder on Control of Tomato Fusarium Wilt. Taichung, Taiwan: National Chung Hsing University. Master thesis. Conde De La Rosa, L., Schoemaker, M.H., Vrenken, T.E., Buist-Homan, M., Havinga, R., Jansen, P. L. M., and Moshage, H. 2006. Superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide induce hepatocyte death by different mechanisms: involvement of JNK and ERK MAP kinases. Journal of Hepatology 44:918-929. Couteaudier, Y., and Alabouvette, C. 1990. Survival and inoculum potential of conidia and chlamydospores of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini in soil. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 36:551-556. Cowen, L. E., and Steinbach, W. J. 2008. Stress, drugs, and evolution: the role of cellular signaling in fungal drug resistance. Eukaryotic Cell 7:747-764. Doohan, F. M., Brennan, J., and Cooke, B. M. 2003. Influence of climatic factors on Fusarium species pathogenic to cereals. European Journal of Plant Pathology 109:755-768. Edwards, S., and Seddon, B. 2001. Mode of antagonism of Brevibacillus brevis against Botrytis cinerea in vitro. Journal of Applied Microbiology 91:652-659. Elad, Y., and Baker, R. 1985. Influence of trace amounts of cations and siderophore-producing pseudomonads on chlamydospore germination of Fusarium oxysporum. Phytopathology 75:1047-1052. FAOSTAT. 2012. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Available at: http://faostat3.fao.org/home/E. (Accessed 31 December 2014.) Freeman, S., and Katan, J. 1988. Weakening effect on propagules of Fusarium by sublethal heating. Phytopathology 78:1656-1661. Garcı́a-Maceira, F.I., Di Pietro, A., Huertas-González, M.D., Ruiz-Roldán, M.C., and Roncero, M.I. 2001. Molecular characterization of an endopolygalacturonase from Fusarium oxysporum expressed during early stages of infection. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67:2191-2196. Goh, Y.K., Daida, P., and Vujanovic, V. 2009. Effects of abiotic factors and biocontrol agents on chlamydospore formation in Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium sporotrichioides. Biocontrol Science and Technology 19:151-167. Gordon, T., and Martyn, R. 1997. The evolutionary biology of Fusarium oxysporum. Annual Review of Phytopathology 35:111-128. Goto, K., Fujita, R., Kato, Y., Asahara, M., and Yokota, A. 2004. Reclassification of Brevibacillus brevis strains NCIMB 13288 and DSM 6472 (=NRRL NRS-887) as Aneurinibacillus danicus sp. nov. and Brevibacillus limnophilus sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 54:419-427. Goyal, J., Maraite, H., and Meyer, J. 1973. Abundant production of chlamydospores by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis in soil extract with glucose. European Journal of Plant Pathology 79:162-164. Guenther, J.C., Hallen-Adams, H.E., Bücking, H., Shachar-Hill, Y., and Trail, F. 2009. Triacylglyceride metabolism by Fusarium graminearum during colonization and sexual development on wheat. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 22:1492-1503. Hoffmann, E.K., Lambert, I.H., and Pedersen, S.F. 2009. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates. Physiological Reviews 89:193-277. Houterman, P.M., Ma, L., van Ooijen, G., de Vroomen, M.J., Cornelissen, B.J., and Takken, F.L. 2009. The effector protein Avr2 of the xylem-colonizing fungus Fusarium oxysporum activates the tomato resistance protein I-2 intracellularly. The Plant Journal 58:970-978. Hsu, S., and Lockwood, J. 1973. Chlamydospore formation in Fusarium in sterile salt solutions. Phytopathology 63:597-602. Huang, C.W. 2008. Potato common scab caused by Streptomyces scabies in Taiwan - biological characteristics of the pathogen and an attempted biocontrol by antagonistic Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens WG6-14. Taichung, Taiwan: National Chung Hsing University. Master thesis. Huang, J.W., and Sun, S.K. 1982. Tomato wilt, Fusarium oxysporum (Schl.) f. sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) Snyder & Hansan, in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin 24:265-270. Huang, J.W., Sun, S.K., and Ko, W.H. 1983. A medium for chlamydospore formation in Fusarium. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 49:704-708. Katan, J. 1980. Solar pasteurization of soils for disease. Plant Disease 64:450-454. Kawabe, M., Kobayashi, Y., Okada, G., Yamaguchi, I., Teraoka, T., and Arie, T. 2005. Three evolutionary lineages of tomato wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, based on sequences of IGS, MAT1, and pg1, are each composed of isolates of a single mating type and a single or closely related vegetative compatibility group. Journal of General Plant Pathology 71:263-272. Kim, J.E., Lee, H.J., Lee, J., Kim, K., Yun, S.H., Shim, W.B, and Lee, Y.W. 2009. Gibberella zeae chitin synthase genes, GzCHS5 and GzCHS7, are required for hyphal growth, perithecia formation, and pathogenicity. Current Genetics 55:449-459. Klis, F.M., Ram, A.F. J., and De Groot, P.W.J. 2007. A Molecular and Genomic View of the Fungal Cell Wall. In: Howard, R., and Gow, N.R. eds. The Mycota vol. 8. Biology of the Fungal Cell. New York, the U.S.A: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p 97-120. Klotz, L.V., Nelson, P.E., and Toussoun, T.A. 1988. A medium for enhancement of chlamydospore formation in Fusarium species. Mycologia 8:108-109. Liu, Y.H., Huang, C.J., Yang, K.H., and Chen, C.Y. 2008. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on infection of lily by Botrytis elliptica. Plant Pathology Bulletin 17:307-314. Larkin, R.P., and Fravel, D.R. 1998. Efficacy of various fungal and bacterial biocontrol organisms for control of Fusarium wilt of tomato. Plant Disease 82:1022-1028. Ling, N., Huang, Q., Guo, S., and Shen, Q. 2011. Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR-21 systemically affects root exudates of watermelon to decrease the conidial germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Plant and Soil 341:485-493. Momma, N., Momma, M., and Kobara, Y. 2010. Biological soil disinfestation using ethanol: effect on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and soil microorganisms. Journal of General Plant Pathology 76:336-344. Nikolaou, E., Agrafioti, I., Stumpf, M., Quinn, J., Stansfield, I., and Brown, A.J. 2009. Phylogenetic diversity of stress signalling pathways in fungi. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9:44-61. Odds, F.C., and Kerridge, D. 1985. Morphogenesis in Candida albicans. Critical Reviews in Microbiology 12:45-93. Olivain, C., Humbert, C., Nahalkova, J., Fatehi, J., L'haridon, F., and Alabouvette, C. 2006. Colonization of tomato root by pathogenic and nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strains inoculated together and separately into the soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72:1523-1531. Opgenorth, D., and Endo, R. 1985. Abiotic factors and chlamydospore formation in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. apii. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 84:740-742. Panda, A.K., Bisht, S.S., Demondal, S., Kumar, N.S., Gurusubramanian, G., and Panigrahi, A.K. 2014. Brevibacillus as a biological tool: a short review. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 105:623-639. Priest, F.G. 2009. Genus I. Paenibacillus Ash. Priest and Collins 1994. In: (Eds.) Vos, P.D., Garrity, G.M., Jones, D., Krieg, N.R., Ludwig, W., Rainey, F.A., Schleifer, K.H., and Whitman,W.B. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Volume 3: The Firmicutes. 2nd ed. New York, the U.S.A: Springer. p 305-316. Rahman, M., Kadir, J., Mahmud, T., Rahman, R. A., and Begum, M. 2007. Screening of antagonistic bacteria for biocontrol activities on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in papaya. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 6:12-20. Rekah, Y., Shtienberg, D., and Katan, J. 2000. Disease development following infection of tomato and basil foliage by airborne conidia of the soilborne pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici. Phytopathology 90:1322-1329. Reva, O.N., Dixelius, C., Meijer, J., and Priest, F.G. 2004. Taxonomic characterization and plant colonizing abilities of some bacteria related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 48:249-259. Shanmugam, V., and Kanoujia, N. 2011. Biological management of vascular wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial mixture. Biological Control 57:85-93. Shetty, N.P., Mehrabi, R., Lütken, H., Haldrup, A., Kema, G.H.J., Collinge, D.B., and J?rgensen, H.J.L. 2007. Role of hydrogen peroxide during the interaction between the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Septoria tritici and wheat. New Phytologist 174:637-647. Shida, O., Takagi, H., Kadowaki, K., and Komagata, K. 1996. Proposal for Two New Genera, Brevibacillus gen. nov. and Aneurinibacillus gen. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 46:939-946. Shida, O., Takagi, H., Kadowaki, K., Udaka, S., Nakamura, L.K., and Komagata, K. 1995. Proposal of Bacillus reuszeri sp. nov., Bacillus formosus sp. nov., nom. rev., and Bacillus borstelensis sp. nov., nom. rev. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 45:93-100. Son, H., Lee, J., and Lee, Y.W. 2012. Mannitol induces the conversion of conidia to chlamydospore-like structures that confer enhanced tolerance to heat, drought, and UV in Gibberella zeae. Microbiological Research 167:608-615. Steinkellner, S., Mammerler, R., and Vierheilig, H. 2009. Root exudates as important factor in the Fusarium-host plant interaction. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 42:165-168. Stevenson, I.L., and Becker, S.A.W.E. 1972. The fine structure and development of chlamydospores of Fusarium oxysporum. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 18:997-1002. Sung, J.M., and Cook, R.J. 1981. Effect of water potential on reproduction and spore germination by Fusarium roseum 'Graminearum', 'Culmorum', and 'Avenaceum'. Phytopathology 71:499-504. Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A., and Kumar, S. 2013. MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30:2725-2729. Ting, P.F. 2006. Identification for Biocontrol Agents of Tomato Fusarium Wilt and Evaluation for Their Potential Biocontrol Ability. Taichung, Taiwan: National Chung Hsing University. Master thesis. Walker, J.C. 1971. Fusarium Wilt of Tomato. Monograph No. 6. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota. p 56. Wang, Z.Y., Jenkinson, J.M., Holcombe, L.J., Soanes, D.M., Veneault-Fourrey, C., Bhambra, G.K., and Talbot, N.J. 2005. The molecular biology of appressorium turgor generation by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Biochemical Society Transactions 33:384-388. Weisburg, W.G., Barns, S.M., Pelletier, D.A., and Lane, D.J. 1991. 16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. Journal of Bacteriology 173:697-703. Weller, D.M. 1988. Biological control of soilborne plant pathogens in the rhizosphere with bacteria. Annual Review of Phytopathology 26:379-407.
摘要: 番茄萎凋病是由病原真菌 Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 所造成的土壤傳播性病害,此病原菌可藉由產生分生孢子及厚膜孢子增殖。一般認為由於厚膜孢子可於土壤中長期殘存,導致根除此病害較為困難,但番茄萎凋病菌厚膜孢子對逆境條件的耐受能力之研究仍闕如。本篇研究中,利用土壤栽培介質之萃取液,作為產生病原菌株 CT-Fo-5 之厚膜孢子的基質。經測試11種在市售的土壤栽培介質,以 BVB 和 KEKKILÄ 栽培介質之萃取液添加 0.5% (w/v) 葡萄糖,分別能生成最大量的厚膜孢子,濃度可達 5×105 chlamydospores/ml 以上。此外,添加 0.03% (w/v) 的硫酸銨至BVB土壤萃取液中,可明顯提升厚膜孢子的數量,並降低分生孢子的產生。為了解厚膜孢子之逆境耐受能力,因此比較厚膜孢子與分生孢子於不同逆境下之發芽率,厚膜孢子在高溫、高pH值、高滲透壓、高過氧化物及高濃度剛果紅的逆境下,發芽率皆優於分生孢子。以超過60℃之熱處理5分鐘下,厚膜孢子與分生孢子的發芽率皆顯著降低。在四種防治萎凋病的殺菌劑處理下,厚膜孢子的發芽能力對撲克拉、賽普護汰寧較不敏感,而對貝芬替、鋅錳乃浦較為敏感,其中濃度超過 50 ppm 之鋅錳乃浦即可使厚膜孢子及分生孢子完全無法發芽,且其對孢子為殺菌作用。生物逆境方面,當厚膜孢子與分離自土壤的拮抗微生物之上清培養液或菌體共同培養一天後,其中11個拮抗微生物菌 株可以降低厚膜孢子的發芽率至40%以下,並以菌株 PL T-1 N-5.5 的效果為最佳,厚膜孢子經其上清培養液或菌體處理下幾乎無法發芽,亦能顯著減少厚膜孢子形成菌落,但其濾液處理則對厚膜孢子沒有抑制效果。經過16S rDNA、脂肪酸甲酯及Biolog鑑定,菌株PL T-1 N-5.5 鑑定為 Brevibacillus sp.。本研究證實番茄萎凋病菌之厚膜孢子確實能比分生孢子更加耐受多種不良的逆境,並顯示厚膜孢子之耐受程度作為防治此病害的參考。
Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is a soil-borne disease. The pathogen produces macroconidia, microconidia and chlamydospores for propagation. It is wildly accepted that the disease is difficult to eradicate because its thick-walled chlamydospores can persist in soil for a long time. However, the study on stress resistance ability of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is still largely lacking. In this study, we used the potting soil broth as culture medium to generate chlamydospores of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain CT-Fo-5 in one week. Among 11 potting soils, BVB and KEKKILÄ potting soil broths with 0.5% (w/v) glucose could induce chlamydospres in a concentration of at least 5×105 chlamydospores/ml, respectively. By adding 0.03% (w/v) (NH4)2SO4 into BVB broth, the ratio of chlamydospores/conidia significantly increased. Comparing the germination rate of chlamydospores and microconidia of strain CT-Fo-5 in different stresses, the chlamydospores had higher germination rate than conidia in alkaline pH levels and at 36℃, and could be more tolerant to higher concentration of osmotic stress, oxidative stress and Congo red. Both chlamydospores and conidia dramatically reduced the germination after a heat shock of 60℃ for 5 minutes. In fungicide tests, the germination of chlamydospores was resistant to prochloraz and cyprodinil + fludioxonil, but sensitive to carbendazim and mancozeb. When the chlamydospores of strain CT-Fo-5 were treated with the supernatants or pellets of soil microorganisms, the pellet treatments of 11 microorganisms reduced the germination rate of chlamydospores to a level below 40%. Especially, the strain PL T-1 N-5.5 almost completely inhibited the germination and dramatically decreased the number of colonies formed from chlamydospores, but the filtrate of PL T-1 N-5.5 was no inhibition effect on chlamydospores. By the analyses of 16S rDNA, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and Biolog, the strain PL T-1 N-5.5 was identified as Brevibacillus sp. These results consent to the notion that chlamydospores are more resistant to various stresses than conidia, and provide information for disease control.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89354
文章公開時間: 2017-08-14
Appears in Collections:植物病理學系

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.