Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89406
標題: Restoration of Luciola ficta Olivier Hibitats with Different Water Sources
不同水源復育黃緣螢
作者: 劉志偉
Chih-Wei Liu
關鍵字: 棲地自衛能力
環境干擾
地下水源
self-protection process of the habitat
environmental interference
groundwater sources
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摘要: 本試驗採用家用潔淨水源,分別為靜置五天的自來水與抽取的地下水。養殖箱內土壤與植被在3月1日均移自原黃緣螢棲地,在60cm(長) x 45cm(寬)x 43cm(高)透明強力玻璃箱內水深維持1.5cm到 3.0cm水位的人工復育方式。養殖箱內枯葉等有機物為全生態系的起動力,有機氮分解後主要以有毒的氨(ammonia, NH3 )存在,幸兩者水源PH值均為7.0,在水中NH3轉變成NH4+,成為養殖箱主要養分供應者,水族箱內水生棲地得以安全地蓬勃發展。大量自然生成自營性厭氧的亞硝酸菌(the aerobic bacterium Nitrosomonas sp.)接著氧化氨離子成為有毒的NO2-; 硝酸菌(Nitrobacter sp.) 進一步化NO2-為NO3-。長期浸水維持厭氧狀況下,底泥還原NO3-為氮順利進入空中。水生植物根系十分茂盛得以維持良好微生物過程(microbial process)而具有良好淨水功能。也使黃緣螢食源大量供應方式為可能。每箱放養150隻不到三齡的幼蟲,不換水、不曝氣,兩重複進行羽化成蟲的觀察比較。自2008年4/1起到7/10止共101天觀查期得到如下結果: 1.地下水水源,PH值波動較大,水域較早羽化(5/18起)且數量提前,到7/10止羽化成成蟲數已分別達88隻與61隻。比起自來水源的53隻與36隻顯然高出甚多,尚無不適做為黃緣螢水域情況發生。 2. 成蟲求偶交配,深受外來光源與露水有無的影響。外來光源影響下,成蟲飛翔幾乎停止。在有露水形成的夜晚,求偶時間集中在19:00 到21:00,其他時間較少,但本試驗在23:30也觀查到;沒有露水形成的夜晚求偶活動時程縮短一半,可知黃緣螢對人造環境的干擾反應強烈。 3.飼養箱內在水深1.5cm到3.0cm水位範圍內水質變化極小,水量因蒸發加以補充有利良好棲地淨化功能,塵灰落進箱內多浮留水面,雨水或露水的干擾下箱內水質一直清澈。全過程的主角竟然是氮循環,黃緣螢的成功復育僅是氮循環的副產品,氮循環完成是棲地自衛能力的保障,在本研究試驗條件操作下似存在。
The sources of clean water for homes used in this study are tap water and deep well water set aside for settling for five days. The soil and vegetation contained in the culture box were transplanted from the Luciola ficta habitat on March 1 and placed in a transparent reinforced glass box measuring 60 cm (L) x 45 cm (W) x 43 cm (H) for artificial remediation. Depth of water in the box was maintained between 1.5 cm and 3.0 cm. The organic matters, such as withered leaves and other materials, in the culture box became the promoter (起動力) of the entire ecosystem. The decomposed organic nitrogen mainly turned into toxic ammonia (NH3). Fortunately the pH levels of the two water sources were at 7.0; hence, the NH3 in the water was converted into NH4, the principal nutrient supplier of the culture box. Thus the habitat of the aquatic organisms in the aquarium flourished and developed naturally. Contact with oxidized ammonia ions turned the aerobic bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. into toxic NO2, but the Nitrobacter sp. further metabolizes the NO2 into NO3. Long period of immersion allows them to maintain their aerobic state, and the base mud is reconverted the NO3 back to nitrogen, which then easily entered the atmosphere. Aquatic plants have an abundant root system may be maintained through a good microbial process and excellent clean water process, thus making it possible to provide massive supplies of Luciola ficta food sources. Around 150 third-instar larva were placed in each box. No water change or aeration was conducted. A comparative study of the two repeatedly conducted adult eclosion. Findings of the 101-day observation period (from April 1 to July 10, 2008) are as follows: 1. Fluctuations in the pH levels of groundwater sources are more dramatic. Those in water areas emerged into adults earlier (starting from May 18) and the populations increase ahead of schedule. As of July 10, populations of emerged adults were 88 and 61, respectively, quite significantly higher than the populations in tap water sources, 53 and 36 adults respectively. Apparently, both are adaptable to the conditions occurring in the Luciola ficta water areas. 2. The mating of adults is strongly affected by the presence of external light source and dew. Where external light is present, the adults nearly stopped flying. On nights with dew fall, mating period is mainly concentrated between 19:00 hr and 21:00 hr. Mating activity after this period is scarce. However, the experiment noticed that at 23:30 hr, at the absence of dew fall, nighttime mating period is shortened by half. This indicates that the Luciola ficta reacts strongly to the disturbances or interferences in the artificial environment. 3. Water quality changes in nursing boxes with water depths maintained between 1.5 cm and 3.0 cm are minimal. The replenishment of vaporized water had an excellent habitat purifying effect. Dust falling into the boxes mostly float on the water surface. Rainwater or dew interference kept the water quality in the boxes crystal clear. The principal player in the entire process is the nitrogen cycle. The success of the Luciola ficta cultivation is merely a byproduct of the nitrogen cycle. The nitrogen cycle is the self-protection process of the habitat, and in this study, the cycle was found to be present in the conditions created by the experiment
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89406
其他識別: U0005-0907201509584900
文章公開時間: 2020-07-16
Appears in Collections:水土保持學系

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