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Effects of nitrogen fertilizers on plant growth and nitrogen metabolism of tea（Camellia sinensis）
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氮素為茶樹生長之關鍵營養元素，而土壤中氮素大多以硝酸態或銨態氮存在，本試驗以硝酸鈣、尿素與硫酸施用於茶樹(Camellia sinensis L.)土壤，觀察不同氮肥形式對於茶樹生長及土壤之影響。試驗結果顯示氮肥處理並不會影響茶樹之葉片數目、分枝數目與芽數目，但有助於葉面積及葉綠素含量。不同氮肥處理對於枝條長度及葉片數目皆無顯著差異，但銨態氮處理下新生枝條及葉片乾鮮重之累積顯著增加。進一步分析不同氮肥影響茶樹生長之可能原因，發現土壤於不同氮肥施用180天之後，硝酸態氮肥使土壤pH值自6.14略降至5.77，尿素使其降至4.36，而銨態氮處理則顯著降至3.90。土壤硝酸鹽含量則是以硝酸態氮處理者累積最多，尿素次之，銨態氮最低。土壤銨離子含量則以銨態氮處理者最高，尿素次之，硝酸態氮與對照組則無顯著影響。分析葉片硝酸鹽含量發現其與土壤累積之硝酸鹽含量變化趨勢一致，但銨離子含量在不同氮肥處理下則無顯著差異，由於葉片中硝酸鹽及銨離子與土壤之含量並不一致，且在銨態氮施用下，可以提高土壤中銨離子以及有利於茶樹生長，故推測銨態氮較有利於茶樹吸收，以及在根部代謝，故於葉片中未發現銨離子顯著增加。於三種氮肥處理下葉片穀氨醯胺與穀氨酸皆有顯著提高，尤其銨態氮及尿素處理下顯著提高茶胺酸。|
Abstract Nitrogen is the most important nutrient for tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant growth. The common forms of nitrogenous fertilizer in soil are nitrate and ammonium. In order to understand the effect of nitrogen form to tea plant growth, calcium nitrate, urea, and ammonium sulfate were used in tea plant cultivation. Different forms of nitrogenous fertilizers didn't change leaf number, branch number and bud number of tea plant, but these fertilizers were helpful to increase leaf area and chlorophyll content. Individual branch growth including branch length and leaf number was not influenced by nitrogenous fertilizers, but both fresh weight and dry weight of newly-formed branch were improved by ammonium-N treatment. Further study on the effect of different nitrogenous fertilizers showed that soil pH were changed from 6.14 to 5.77, 4.36 and 3.90, respectively, by calcium nitrate, urea, and ammonium sulfate at 180 days after treatment. Soil analysis showed that nitrate contents were largely increased by nitrate fertilizer, than by urea and ammonium fertilizer ; and ammonium contents were largely increased by ammonium fertilizer, than by urea. The change of nitrate content in leaves was similar to that in soil, whereas change of the ammonium content in leaves was independent to that in soil. Due to the fact that ammonium fertilizer improved tea plant growth and increased ammonium content in soil, but had no significant increase of ammonium in leaves, it is suggested that ammonium fertilizer is better for tea growth and easily absorbed by roots of tea plant than other two fertilizers. Once the ammonium fertilizer entered roots, most of nitrogen metabolism was taken place in roots. In addition, theanine also increased under ammonium fertilizer application.
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