Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/90144
DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributorTsung-Ren Pengen_US
dc.contributor彭宗仁zh_TW
dc.contributor.authorWen-Jui Liangen_US
dc.contributor.author梁文睿zh_TW
dc.contributor.other土壤環境科學系所zh_TW
dc.date2015zh_TW
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-09T02:25:13Z-
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C., Wang, C. H., Liu, T. K., Lu W. C., and Chen, K. Y. (2012) Using oxygen, hydrogen, and tritium isotopes to assess pond water's contribution to groundwater and local precipitation in the pediment tableland areas of northwestern Taiwan. J. Hydrol., 450-451: 105-116. Peng, T. R., Wang, C. H., Hsu, S. M., Wang, G. S., Su, T. W., and Lee, J. F. (2010) Identification of groundwater sources of a local-scale creep slope: Using environmental stable isotopes as tracers. J. Hydrol., 381: 151-157. Rangarajan, R., and Ghosh, P. (2011) Tracing the source of bottled water using stable isotope techniques. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom 25:3323-3330. Rozanski, K., Araguas-Araguas, L., and Gonfiantini, R. (1993) Isotopic patterns in modern global precipitation. In: Swart P K, Lohmann KC, Mckenzie J, Savin S, editors. Climate Change in Continental Isotopic Record. Washington: American Geohphysical Union, p, 1-36. Sadrzadeh, M., and Mohammadi, T. (2008) Sea water desalination using electrodialysis. Desalination 221: 440-447. Selle, B., Schwientek, M., and Lischeid, G. (2013) Understanding processes governing water quality in catchments using principal component scores. J. Hydrol., 486: 31-38. Sharp, Z. (2007) Principles of Stable Isotope Geochemistry. New Jersey: Pearson Education. Spangenberg, J. E., and Vennemann, T. W. (2008) The stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope variation of water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom 22:672-676. Yurtsever, Y., and Gat, J. R. (1981) Atmospheric Waters. In: Gat J. R., Gonfiantini R (eds) Stable isotope Hydrology: deuterium and oxygen-18 in the Water Cycle. IAEA Technical Reports Series No.210: 103-142.zh_TW
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11455/90144-
dc.description.abstractDeep-sea water industry is one of the economic activities that actively promotes by the government in recent years, and the most remarkable output of products is bottled drinking water desalted from deep-sea water. Some commercial deep-sea drinking waters (DSDW) are suspected to be manufactured with terrestrial freshwater duo to the production cost. Since the descriptions of counterfeit products are labelled from 100% deep-sea water, it will cause mislabeling. Because of the isotopic fractionation, hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions (δ2H and δ18O) of sea water are significantly different from those of terrestrial freshwater. For this, the purpose of this study is to confirm whether the commercial DSDW comes from seawater through analyzing the isotopic compositions of bottled samples, and further speculating reasons for deviation of the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic values by desalination processes. On the other hand, the commercial DSDW always brags that it contains rich minerals and trace elements that benefit human beings; however, all commercial DSDW have not marked the details including elemental kinds and concentrations on the labels. Therefore, another obligation of this study is to chemically characterize the commercial DSDW by determining the kinds and concentrations of trace elements with principal component analysis (PCA). The isotopic results indicate that samples from 100% deep-sea water exhibit δ2H and δ18O values around 0‰, respectively, and it means that the descriptions are correct. Samples from 100% deep-sea water are added brine with different doses through EC values. By comparison, the mislabeling samples display δ2H and δ18O values around -51 and -8‰, respectively, which are in the ranges of terrestrial freshwater. Also, the mislabeling samples are not added brine through EC values. Furthermore, The PCA results indicate that the scores of principal components (PCs) of the mislabeling samples are in the ranges between samples with correct descriptions and reverse osmosis water or deionized water in laboratory, and are identical to a mixed-water product manufactured by purified terrestrial freshwater adulterated with few amount of brine. This similarity implies that the mislabeling samples are manufactured by the same procedures as the mixed-water product. This study demonstrates a combined method involving stable isotopes and trace elements with PCA analysis which is applicable in assessing the source description of commercial DSDW. And it should be of great interest to similar future studies elsewhere.en_US
dc.description.abstract深層海水產業之開發利用為政府近年來積極推展之經濟活動之一,而將深層海水經淡化處理製成包裝飲用水是現今最具商品特色之產業,由於成本考量,部分商品利用陸域淡水為原水取代深層海水充填,瓶身卻標示來自100%深層海水,造成來源標示不實之虞。由於水文環境之同位素分化作用,海水之氫、氧同位素組成會與陸域淡水之組成不同,因此本研究擬測定各海洋水源商品之氫、氧同位素值,藉以評估商品之來源,並進一步地透過海水淡化方式推測樣品之氫、氧同位素值的偏離原因。另ㄧ方面,深層海水包裝飲用水業者常標榜其富含豐富之礦物質及微量元素,但市售商品多未標示其所含之元素種類與含量,因此本研究亦擬定分析各海洋水源商品之微量元素含量,再利用主成份分析(Principal Component Analysis, PCA)進行數據統計。由同位素值結果顯示來自100%深層海水之飲用水樣品中,其δ2H和δ18O值皆為0‰左右,表示其水源地之標示為正確的,透過EC值則證明皆有添加不同劑量之海水濃縮礦物質液。相反的,來源標示不實的樣品之δ2H和δ18O值則約為-51‰和-8‰,其值之範圍及特性與陸域淡水相似,透過EC值則顯示未添加海水濃縮礦物質液。另一方面,主成份分析結果顯示來源標示不實之樣品,其主成份得點分數約介於水源地標示正確之樣品與實驗室之逆滲透水及去離子水樣品之間,並與來源標示為混合水體的樣品之得點分數相似,而混合樣品為經淡化處理後之陸域淡水為主體,且僅添加少量海水濃縮礦物質液之商品,因此該現象指出來源標示不實的樣品之成份是陸域淡水為主體,且未添加或僅添加少量海水濃縮礦物質液。因此,本研究已成功發展利用穩定氫、氧同位素與微量元素之分析,並結合主成份分析之數據統計,驗證市售深層海水包裝飲用水之來源標示之技術。zh_TW
dc.description.tableofcontents第一章 緒論 1 1-1 前言 1 1-2 研究目的 5 1-3 前人研究 6 第二章 同位素原理 9 2-1 同位素定義 9 2-2 同位素種類 9 2-3 同位素分化作用 9 2-4 穩定氫、氧同位素組成效應 11 2-4-1 溫度效應 11 2-4-2 緯度效應 11 2-4-3 高程效應 11 2-4-4 雨量效應 12 2-4-5 海陸效應 12 第三章 材料與方法 13 3-1 樣品收集 13 3-2 穩定氫、氧同位素分析 17 3-3 特徵元素分析 18 3-4 主成分分析(PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS, PCA)19 第四章 結果與討論 21 4-1 穩定氫、氧同位素組成之分析結果 21 4-1-1 第一批樣品之同位素分析結果 21 4-1-2 第二批樣品之同位素分析結果 23 4-2 電導度值之分析結果 25 4-2-1 第一批樣品之EC值分析結果 25 4-2-2 第二批樣品之EC值分析結果 25 4-3 由氫、氧同位素組成之差異探討深層海水包裝飲用水之來源 26 4-3-1 第一批樣品之氫、氧同位素值關係探討 26 4-3-2 第二批樣品之氫、氧同位素值關係探討 27 4-4 由電導度值之差異探討深層海水包裝飲用水之來源 30 4-4-1 第一批樣品之電導度值關係探討 30 4-4-2 第二批樣品之電導度值關係探討 32 4-5由海水淡化方式探討氫、氧同位素組成之差異 33 4-5-1 第一批樣品之同位素值差異之原因 33 4-5-2 第二批樣品之同位素值差異之原因 34 4-6 由主成份分析評估深層海水包裝飲用水來源之差異 34 4-6-1 第一批樣品之主成份分析結果探討 34 4-6-2 第二批樣品之主成份分析結果探討 41 4-6-3 兩批樣品之主成份分析綜合結果探討 47 4-6-4 兩批樣品中特定特徵值之主成份分析結果探討 52 4-7 探討深層海水包裝飲用水樣品之化學元素濃度特徵 57 4-7-1 兩批樣品分析之化學元素結果 57 4-7-2 兩批樣品分析之特徵元素絕對濃度結果 61 4-7-3 兩批樣品分析之化學元素綜合探討結果 65 第五章 結論 66 參考文獻 68zh_TW
dc.language.isozh_TWzh_TW
dc.rights同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2015-06-11起公開。zh_TW
dc.subjectSource descriptionen_US
dc.subjectDeep-sea wateren_US
dc.subjectHydrogen and oxygen isotopesen_US
dc.subjectTrace elementsen_US
dc.subjectPrincipal component analysisen_US
dc.subject來源標示zh_TW
dc.subject深層海水zh_TW
dc.subject氫氧同位素zh_TW
dc.subject微量元素zh_TW
dc.subject主成份分析zh_TW
dc.titleAssessing the source descriptions of bottled deep-sea drinking waters by chemical and isotopic approachesen_US
dc.title以化學與同位素特徵驗證深層海水包裝飲用水之來源標示zh_TW
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationen_US
dc.date.paperformatopenaccess2015-06-11zh_TW
dc.date.openaccess2015-06-11-
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