Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/90279
標題: Evaluation of the quality and microbial inhibition of sliced ham spray coated with Chinese mahogany (Toona sinensis) extracts and stored at 15±2℃ for 21 days
切片火腿經香椿萃取液噴灑處理後於15±2℃儲存21天期間其品質與抑菌效果之評估
作者: Huei-Chi Wei
韋慧琦
關鍵字: 香椿
切片火腿
超音波
Toona sinensis
sliced ham
ultrasonication
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摘要: 即食性 (Ready-to-eat, RTE) 肉製品因方便性使其消費量逐年增加,但亦易受微生物二次汙染,進而導致許多食源性疾病發生案例,目前食品加工最普遍之預防策略即是加入化學防腐劑且有明顯的防腐效果。然而近20年來,隨著食品健康及安全意識高漲,消費者對於人工防腐劑的使用已產生高度之疑慮,所以朝向天然抑菌物質以取代防腐劑之使用為許多相關研究者的目標。文獻指出香椿 (Toona sinensis) 富含許多酚類化合物,其具有良好之抗氧化與抗菌特性。故本次試驗旨在探討 (1) 利用超音波萃取對香椿其萃取液有效成分之評估及香椿萃取液對單核球增多性李斯特菌 (Listeria monocytogenes) 之最小抑制濃度。 (2) 將香椿萃取液以70 %乙醇配製成多酚濃度為0、125、250及500 μg/mL之噴劑溶液,與空白組 (Control) 和己二烯酸鉀組 (positive control, PC) 總計6組,分別噴灑於接種L. monocytogenes與Staphylococcus aureus之切片火腿表面,經真空包裝後於15±2℃儲存5天,分析其對病源菌之抑制效果。 (3) 噴灑香椿萃取液之切片火腿經真空包裝後於15±2℃儲存21天,分別分析一般化學組成、pH、L*、a*、b*、揮發性鹽基態氮 (volatile basic nitrogen, VBN) 、總生菌、厭氧菌、乳酸菌及感官品評以評估儲存期間其品質之變化及抑菌效果。 結果顯示:以超音波萃取80分鐘之香椿萃取液其總酚與總類黃酮含量最高。而香椿萃取液對L. monocytogenes之最小抑制濃度為1.95 μg/mL。對L. monocytogenes與S. aureus之抑菌效果上,空白組的菌數隨儲存時間增加呈顯著上升,噴灑香椿之各處理組於第5天皆有顯著抑菌之效果。切片火腿一般化學組成分析項目中,水分、粗脂肪、粗蛋白及灰分項目各組間差異小。切片火腿之pH值於各處理組皆呈現穩定現象,範圍為6.21-6.38。色澤分析則可發現,L*値與a*値於儲存期間變異不大;然而b*值則隨儲存天數增加而有些微上升。微生物品質,噴灑香椿之各處理組於儲存後期,總生菌數皆顯著低於多酚濃度0 μg/mL、PC組及空白組。厭氧菌數於21天儲存期間,500 μg/mL之處理組亦顯著有較低值。乳酸菌測定,於儲存前期 (0-14天) 所有處理組之乳酸菌菌數皆低於102 CFU/g,除多酚濃度0 μg/mL組外。而儲存結束 (21天) 時僅250 μg/mL與500 μg/mL之組別其乳酸菌數依舊維持低於102 CFU/g。VBN分析,各組皆隨儲存時間呈現穩定之趨勢,噴灑香椿濃度250 μg/mL以上之切片火腿其VBN於儲藏期間均顯著低於空白組。感官品評測定,各組各項感官品評 (外觀、氣味、質地、風味及總接受度) 皆隨儲存時間增加而有下降之趨勢。然而於儲存後期,噴灑香椿萃取液之處理組,除250 μg/mL組別於氣味、風味、質地及總接受度顯著較低外,其餘感官品評各項目皆無顯著差異,且於儲藏期間皆高於4分。綜觀上述,噴灑香椿萃取液對切片火腿表面之病原菌有顯著抑制效果,而於切片火腿表面噴灑250 μg/mL以上的香椿萃取液,不僅可延緩一般微生物之生長,且具有較佳的感官品評成績。
Consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods has considerably increased due to their convenience. But RTE meat products were easily polluted with microorganism during preparation and resulted in outbreak of foodborne illness. Synthetic preservatives play an important role in RTE meat products, but they always know as negative response for human health. At present, a lot of scientific studies are looking for nature antimicrobial compounds from plants to replace synthetic preservatives in food system. Toona sinesis was rich in polyphenolic compounds that has excellent antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Therefore, the aims of this study were (1) to determine the total phenol and total flavonoids concentrations in T. sinensis by ultrasound-assisted extraction and the minimum inhibitory concentration of Listeria monocytogenes; (2) to screen the different levels of T. sinensis extracts (0, 125, 250 and 500 μg/mL) spray coating on sliced ham to control the growth of L .monocytogenes and S. aureus stored at 15±2℃ for 5 days and (3) to evaluate the quality and microbial inhibition of sliced ham spray coated with different levels of T. siensis extracts then packed with vacuum package and stored at 15±2℃ for 21 days. The results showed that the extracts of T. sinensis treated by ultrasonication for 80 min had the highest total phenol and total flavonoids content. The minimum inhibitory concentration of T. sinesis extract for L. monocytogenes was 1.95 μg/mL. The inhibition of pathogen bacteria (L. monocytogenes and S. aureus ) test showed that the L. monocytogenes and S. aureus counts increased with storage time. At day 5, sliced ham treated with all of T. sinensis extracts and PC were significantly lower than control. The chemical compositions of all treatments were slightly different. The pH value of all lots were stable and ranged as 6.21 to 6.38 during storage time. During storage, L* and a* value of all lots were slightly varied and b* value was increased with storage days. The total plate count of control, PC and 0 μg/mL of T. sinesis extract were significantly higher than treated with T. sinensis extracts at the end of storage. However, sliced ham treated with 500 μg/mL T. sinensis extracts still maintained the lowest count. During 21 days of storage, the anaerobic of sliced hams treated with 500 μg/mL of T. sinensis extracts hold lower count. Sliced ham spray-coating 250 and 500 μg/mL of T. sinensis showed lower than 102 CFU/g of lactic acid bacteria count during storage. Otherwise, the control, PC and 125 μg/mL maintained lower than 102 CFU/g of lactic acid bacteria count at the early storage time (0-14) then increased up to 104 CFU/g at the end of storage. The VBN of all lots maintained stable with storage time and spray-coating above 250 μg/mL of T. sinensis showed lower than control. Analysis of sensory panel, all sensory items of sliced ham of all lots were decreased as storage time. However, except the 250 μg/mL of T. sinensis had lower value, other T. sinensis treatments had no significantly different, and all score values were higher than 4. Sliced ham treated by over 250 μg/mL of T. sinensis extracts not only retard the growth of microorganism but also maintain a good sensory profiles in this study.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/90279
文章公開時間: 2018-07-21
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