Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/90293
標題: A Study of the Establishment of Social Hierarchy in Erh-Mei Chicken, Beijing Fatty Chicken, Chinese Silky Chicken and NCHU Selected Taiwan Country Chickens and their Fear Responses
峨眉雞、北京油雞、絲羽烏骨雞和興大選育土雞 育成期社會地位建立及害怕反應之探討
作者: Chen-Hao Wu
吳振豪
關鍵字: 
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摘要: 雞隻常以啄擊的方式來確立自己在群體內的位階,通常稱為社會地位,也被稱為啄序。位序建立對於雞隻很重要,除了維持族群和平生活,還可以避免不必要的鬥爭行為而造成的能量浪費。商業生產過程中,雞隻除了面臨位序建立的變化外,還有許多變化,如飼養環境改變、飼料改變等等。牠們面臨改變時會表現出生理或行為上的害怕反應。為了減少害怕所造成的緊迫,雞隻會改變遺傳、生理與行為來適應這些變化。前人指出位序的建立和害怕反應與許多因素有相關,如品種、選拔、形態、性別等。因此本研究將探討選育雞種(B、S 品系)與保育雞種(峨眉雞、北京油雞、絲羽烏骨雞)在育成期鬥爭行為、社會位序建立與害怕反應之差異性。研究共分兩個部分,分別為觀察育成期鬥爭行為與社會位序建立的時間,以及產蛋期,雞隻個別的害怕反應測試(包含新奇事物測試、驚嚇癱瘓測試與空欄加人測試)。 育成期鬥爭行為與位序建立時間結果顯示,公母合飼下,以公雞間的鬥爭次數為最多,表示雞群位序建立以公雞間為主。品種部分,S 品系有最多的鬥爭次數,北京油雞最少。位序建立時間以峨眉雞最早約在 10 週齡,其餘品種皆約於11~12 週齡建立。違背啄序的比例無顯著差異。分析體重與早熟性和位序的關係,只有 B 品系與絲羽烏骨雞有較顯著的相關。 害怕測驗結果顯示,新奇事物測試以絲羽烏骨雞害怕程度最低;驚嚇癱瘓測試,選育雞種害怕程度較低,但大體型的 B 品系較 S 品系害怕,保育雞種間並沒有顯著差異;空欄加人測試,以 S 品系為最活潑且最不害怕的雞種。峨眉雞則因品種特性,鳴叫的潛在時間較長且次數較少。B 品系公雞和絲羽烏骨母雞則屬於害怕程度較高的雞種。三種害怕測驗項目所引發的害怕刺激源不同也可能造成不同的反應。育成期的位序與害怕反應之相關,可能受到環境、品種等因素所影響,造成其相關性並不高。 綜合上述,選育雞種雖然較早熟,但位序建立時間與保種雞相差不太,可能為族群數量大,位序建立較複雜所導致。選育雞種的體型差異與保育雞種的形態特徵會影響害怕測試的結果。S 品系有最多的鬥爭頻率,為了增進動物福祉與經濟效益,此品種在飼養時必須注意飼養管理,以減少打鬥所造成的傷害。
Chickens use their beak to fight for their rank in group. It is called the social status, and also 'peck order'. The establishment of social hierarchy is important for chickens to maintain the peaceful living in group to reduce the incidence of conflicts between chickens that incur a greater expenditure of energy. In commercial process, chickens encounter many changes including the establishment of social hierarchy, change of environment, feed composition and so on. They show physiological and behavioral fear responses when facing changes. In order to reduce the stress that caused by fear, chickens will change their genetics, physiology and behaviors to adapt them. According to previous researches, many factors influenced the establishment of social status and fear responses. For example, breed, selection, morphology, gender and so on. The aims of my research was to discuss the difference of agonistic behaviors and the establishment of social hierarchy in rearing period and fear responses between selected strains (B and S strain) and conserved (Erh-Mei Chicken, Beijing Fatty Chicken and Chinese Silky Chicken) breeds.My research divided into two parts, first observed the agonistic behaviors and the establishment of social hierarchy in rearing period. The second was the fear tests including novel object test, tonic immobility test and pen plus human test in laying period for each chicken. The first part of results showed that in sex intermingled rearing method, the establishment of social order was mainly among males. S strain recorded the most frequency of agonistic interactions, and lowest was Beijing Fatty chicken. Erh-Mei chicken completed the dominant-subordinate relationship at 10 weeks of age, and other breeds completed during 11-12 weeks of age. The frequency of peck order violation was no significant difference among five breeds. In the analysis of the relationship between body weight, sexual maturity and social order, only B strain and Chinese Silky were found significant positive correlation. The results of fear tests showd that Silky had lowest score in novel object test.Selected strains had lower fear response in TI test, but big body size B strain was more fearful than S strain. No significant difference was found among conserved breeds. S strain showed active and lower fear response in pen plus human test. Erh-Mei chicken had longer latency of vocalize but shorter latency of step. It may cause by specific of breed. The cock of B strain and pullet of Silky was more fearful than other breeds. Three fear tests invoked different stimuli that may induced different fear response among breeds. In the analysis of the relationship between fear tests and social order was found little significant correlation. It may cause by environment, breed and other factors. Above all, selected breeds were precocious, selected and conserved breeds only had little difference for the age to complete in establishment of social hierarchy. It could be the large flock size in the pen complicated the establishment of social hierarchy. The fear responses of selected chicken influenced by body size, and conserved breeds influenced by the difference of morphological characteristics. S strain had the most frequency of agonistic interaction. To improve animal welfare and economical benefit, it should be raised with an effective management to reduce agonistic interaction that incur physical damage.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/90293
文章公開時間: 2018-07-15
Appears in Collections:動物科學系

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