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標題: A Study of Feather Colour and Melanogenesis-Related Genes in Lovebirds
作者: Huan-Ting Lin
關鍵字: 愛情牡丹鳥
Melanin synthesis
Plumage colouration
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摘要: 經由馴化過程中某些野生動物族群特定表現型被選出,而其遺傳型受到人為選拔影響下進而被高度保留。使得家畜禽保留許多在野生祖先族群中罕見之基因型及表現型,因此至今可觀察到具有高度多樣性家禽羽色。隨著分子生物標定技術發展下,學者可藉由研究逐漸發現影響家禽羽毛顏色基因。九種愛情鳥物種中,以牡丹鳥羽毛色澤變化相當豐富故受到許多飼育者所喜愛。其中牡丹鳥羽毛色澤表現型中以斑化、淡化與稜狀化牡丹鳥最受到歡迎,故被附予極高之商業價值。本試驗目的係利用已知影響禽類羽色形成基因:第二型內皮因子接受體B (EDNRB2)、小眼症相關轉錄因子(MITF)、第一型黑素皮質素受體(MC1R) 及Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) 探討牡丹鳥斑色、淡化與稜狀化之基因多型性相關性。本試驗使用94隻不同羽色牡丹鳥,並利用色彩分析軟體(ImageJ) 將臉、頭、頸、肩、背、覆翼羽、副翼羽及主翼羽顏色數值量化成HSV值進行比較。試驗一,進行EDNRB2 exon 3至exon 9基因多態性分析。1311 bp序列中存在五個變異點,其中G1283A (Arg428His) 可能會造成G-protein細胞內訊息傳遞上受到阻礙,進而使黑色素細胞遷移、分化及生成上受到影響而導致牡丹鳥頭部產生缺陷色澤外觀型。在頭部色彩分析結果顯示c. 1283變異點中A/A型(35.35±8.45)、G/A型(-1.20±3.70) 及G/G型(-3.91±4.16) 彼此V值具有顯著差異(P<0.05);試驗二,進行MITF exon 7至exon 10基因多態性分析。683 bp序列中存在三個變異點,其中A1255T (Met419Leu) 可能使得黑色素細胞發育不完全並導致末端黑色素生成較低,造成牡丹鳥羽翼遞減色澤外觀型。在羽翼色彩分析結果顯示c. 1255變異點中T/T型(-14.03±4.63)、A/T型(1.35±3.18) 及A/A型(-0.45±1.66) 彼此V值具有顯著差異(P<0.05)。試驗三,進行MC1R exon 1基因多態性分析。945 bp序列中存在兩個變異點並與牡丹鳥羽色無相關;試驗四,進行POMC exon 4基因多態性分析。719 bp序列中存在兩個變異點並亦與牡丹鳥羽色無相關。綜合以上,EDNRB2基因G1283A變異點會造成頭部黑色素產生缺陷;MITF基因A1255T變異點會導致羽翼遞減;MC1R與POMC變異點與牡丹鳥色澤並無直接性相關。後續可朝向其它與黑色素形成相關候選基因進行更深入研究。
Through the process of domestication, many distinct phenotypes of hair and plumage in wild animals are selected and hence their geneotypes are highly reserved under artifical selection. Therefore, the genotypes and phenotypes that are rare in wild ancestors show in modern domestcied animals, resulting in the high diversity of bird plumage colour are obsverd in poultry species. With the development of biotechnology, biologists could base on molecular markers to find out the gene correlated genetic loci are recognized in the domesticated birds. Among the nine species of lovebirds (Agapornis), species A. fischeri and A. personatus were colourful and liked by breeder. In many kinds of feather color phenotypes of agapornis, pied type, dilute and edged type were endued high business value. Therefore, the purpose of experiment was to investigate the sequence variation of the four candidate genes: receptor B2 (EDNRB2), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) and Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in avian. 94 agapornis are analyzed in all experiments, using the process of image sofeware (ImageJ) to calculate the quantitative colour of HSV value per portion in agapornis. In experiment 1, we analyzed the correlation between the sequence variation of the exon 3 to exon 9 of EDNRB2 gene and the plumages colour. We observed 5 substitutions in 1311 bp sequence. G1283A substitution may cause the defective protein not to combine with G-protein for signal transition, which might affect the differentiation and migration of melanocyte and consequently result in the imperfection of the head colour in agapornis. The result of colour analysis, we observed the V value in A/A genotype (35.35±8.45) is significant difference from G/A (-1.20±3.70) and G/G (-3.91±4.16) genotype (P<0.05) in head. In experiment 2, we examined the correlation between the sequence variation of the exon 7 to exon 10 of the MITF gene and agapornis plumages colour. We observed 3 substitutions in 638 bp sequence. A1255T substitution may cause incomplete development and thus less melanin production of melanocytes in distal portion, which like decreasing gradually in feather colour. The result of colour analysis, we observed the V value in T/T genotype (-14.03±4.63) is significant difference from A/T (1.35±3.18) and A/A (-0.45±1.66) genotype (P<0.05) in wing, respectively; In experiment 3, we examined the correlation between the sequence variation of the exon 1 of the MC1R gene and agapornis plumages colour. We observed 2 substitutions in 945 bp sequence and have no difference between plumages colour; In experiment 4, we examined the correlation between the sequence variation of the exon 4 of the POMC gene and agapornis plumages colour. We observed 2 substitutions in 719 bp sequence and also have no difference between plumages colour; Above all, EDNRB2 gene G1283A may cause imperfection of the head colour in agapornis; MITF gene A1255T may cause gradually decreasing in agapornis feather; MC1R and POMC have the non-correlation between V value and phenotype directly. Continued research on other candidate loci gene and will clarify the genetic basis for melanin-based plumage variation among species in agapornis.
文章公開時間: 2015-08-19
Appears in Collections:動物科學系



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