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標題: Optimal parameters of artificial incubation for domestic water fowl eggs
作者: Yi-Hsiu Chen
關鍵字: 水禽
cooling eggs
metabolic rate
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摘要: 本研究進行了孵化溫溼度、涼蛋溫度及噴水對水禽蛋之影響,此外,亦進行二氧化碳濃度對孵化影響之測試,期能做為改善並提升水禽蛋孵化率之基礎研究,並提供飼養業者做實際應用參考。實驗結果顯示;於1-7天孵化溫度在38.5℃時,改鴨、菜鴨與白羅曼鵝蛋的孵化率會顯著地低於37.5以及38℃(P < 0.05)。而在鵝蛋孵化15-28天以每天90分鐘為涼蛋時間,結束時蛋殼表面溫度與設定溫度約有0.5-2℃差距,且約需30分鐘蛋表溫度能降溫至高於設定溫度2.5-3℃(29 -29.5℃)。而涼蛋時設定溫度對孵化率影響則以26.5℃顯著優於室溫(> 30℃)與28.5℃之涼蛋處理組(P < 0.05)。為了抵禦高溫及高產熱,涼蛋溫度較低的處理組其胚胎孵化時之corticosterone有下降趨勢,且代謝率亦會下降(P < 0.05),此顯示涼蛋會增加孵化中胚胎散熱作用與降低產熱與緊迫發生,而本實驗結果印證26.5℃涼蛋組其涼蛋期間胚胎代謝率與血液中corticosterone濃度遠低於與室溫涼蛋組(P < 0.05)。在孵化期各器官發育方面,除了心臟與蛋殼重在胚胎第15天(ED15)時具有差異性外,到出雛時各器官重就沒有顯著上差異。此顯示儘管在孵化期間因為溫度的不同而導致代謝率上的差異,胚胎本身存在著某種調控機制,會有互補性生長反應出現以保護重要的器官的發育。涼蛋期間噴水處理顯著降低鵝蛋蛋殼強度(P < 0.05),同時亦會提高孵化率(82% vs. 62%, P < 0.05),此顯示除以水份蒸發形式增加胚胎散熱外,噴水處理有脆化蛋殼強度以利雛鳥順利啄殼而出。於孵化8-14天適度提高二氧化碳濃度至0.05-1%對於水禽蛋孵化率確有正面的影響,其中以白羅曼鵝最為顯著(P < 0.05)。在孵化8-14天高相對溼度組別(75%)其胚失重都較低相對濕度組別(65%)少,而孵化8-14天高相對溼度對改鴨、菜鴨與鵝蛋孵化率有些微的提昇作用。綜合以上之實驗結果,當具有適當的孵化溫度及涼蛋溫度,加以噴水之實施,的確能提高孵化率。此外,若二氧化碳濃度與溼度控制得宜,亦能提高孵化率。
Eggs are essentially closed systems that receive no input of nutrients during development. There are many factors that affect the growth and metabolism of avian's embryo. For many species, periodic cooling during embryo development occurs when the incubating adult leaves the nest to forage, but the effects of periodic cooling on embryo growth, yolk use, and metabolism are poorly known. Avian embryos can tolerate periodic cooling, possibly by adjusting their physiology to variable thermal conditions. In the water fowl breeder farms, artificial incubation for a higher hatchability needs periodic cooling after ED14 to decrease embryo metabolism and increase heat dissipation. The cooling protocol also includes water-spraying treatment to facilitate pipping. Most of the works are due to a relative larger yolk and poor permeability for air and heat conductance of the eggshell of waterfowls when compared to chicken's. The study was to establish optimal parameters of artificial incubation for domestic water fowls including Kaiya and Tsaiya ducks, and White Roman goose. We investigated the effect of incubation temperature, cooling temperature, water showering and CO2 concentration on hatchability. In the first 7 days, eggs were incubated at 3 temperatures; 37.5、38 and 38.5℃ and maintained at 37.5℃ thereafter. Results showed that 37.5℃ incubation resulted in a better hatchability (P < 0.05). In the following 14 days, eggs were subjected to periodic cooling 90 minute per day to decrease heat production and increase hatchability. There are approximately 0.5-2℃ differences between the temperatures set up for cooling and the real temperature measured athe the eggshell surface. In contrast to ambient temperature (> 30℃) and 28.5℃, the setup 26.5℃ cooling temperature resulted in a better hatchability in consistence with lower plasma corticosterone levels and metabolic rate during incubation (P < 0.05), suggesting that periodic cooling decrease embryo metabolism and increase heat dissipation. Except heart and eggshell weight at ED15, cooling treatment exerted no effects on the weight of embryo organs. Interestingly, the heart weight bounced back to the control level at hatch, suggesting sparing and catch-up growth to ensure normal organ development and growth. Goose eggs receiving water spraying had a lower eggshell strength and a higher hatchability rate (82% vs. 62%), suggesting that water spraying increases heat dissipation with evaporation and promote embrittlement of the eggshell to facilitate chick pipping. Besides, in contrast to the control with air at 0.03% CO2 levels, infusion of CO2 to maintain CO2 concentrations between 0.5-0.7% in the incubator during ED8-14 improved hatchability of water fowl eggs, particularly goose eggs (P < 0.05). During ED8-14, incubation at 75% RH (relative humidity) had a less egg weight loss and marginal effect on hatchability when compared to eggs incubated at 65% RH. In summary, 37.5℃ incubation during the first 7 days, and periodic cooling to 26.5℃ with water sparing and 0.5-0.7% CO2 concentrations in the following 14 days resulted in better hatchability of water fowl eggs.
文章公開時間: 10000-01-01
Appears in Collections:動物科學系



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