請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/90352
標題: 台灣中部小型茶農契作效率之研究
Study on the Efficiency of Smallholder Tea Contract Farming in Central Taiwan
作者: 歐馬
Omar Sanyang
關鍵字: 
台灣
契作
效率
小農
表現程度分析法
投入
生產
行銷
Tea
Taiwan
Contract farming
Efficiency
Smallholder
IPA
Inputs
Production
Marketing.
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摘要: 摘要 台灣農業部門在近數十年面臨經濟快速發展及不斷高漲的勞動力成本壓力,並於2002年1月加入世界貿易組織(WTO)之後,隨之而來的貿易自由化帶來更多的挑戰。台灣履行開放市場、消除貿易保護等措施。此外,因台灣農產業主要的特點是小規模農場經營,這因素使得不易累積資金、增加投資,甚至以機械化生產方式擴大經營規模。 本研究主要探討台灣中部地區茶產業小型企業與茶農契作的效率。此地區的茶產量及出口量有下降的趨勢,勞動成本的增加及國內市場縮減是造成此趨勢的主要原因。做為反應,茶農們更加注重國內市場需求,同步提升標準品質並採認證制度。本研究著重於賣家透過事先協議之契作合約,以達對農民之生產品質、價格等控制。 本研究依此地區參與者之數量採定性質化研究方法並設計半結構訪談問卷問題,選定兩家茶葉公司及其配合契作之茶農,先訪問茶業公司經理接著由茶農輪流回答訪談問題。主要針對其投入及降低生產成本、風險共擔及行銷高端市場之問題進行訪談。 此研究採用表現程度分析法( Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, IPA) 是應用於分析訪談資料的方法,本研究發現台灣地區的農業契作方式與世界上其他大部分國家不同。大多數台灣茶園採農場經營模式,例如自己栽種茶葉銷售給其他公司,也會嘗試建立自有品牌直接銷售給消費者。農民和A公司契作,其公司承擔部分包含投入、訓練、信貸及收成等成本;然而和B公司契作的農民,僅由B公司提供技術,並不保證投入、訓練、信貸或收成等成本承擔,然而這些農民仍可習得加工技術與進入利基市場。 總的來說,由於小規模經營的企業及農場企業可以共同承擔生產及市場行銷風險,因此在提升品質標準及進入高端市場之策略較容易實現。契作合約更可以因為培訓模式正面影響生產技術之提升。然而,本研究所訪問的兩家公司契作合約並無第三方介入之口頭協議,其與農民之間所建立的關係是基於信任。生產成本的降低是農民與買方公司雙方共同滿意的契約條件,因此這樣的合作模式是被視為有效的。 關鍵字:茶、台灣、契作、效率、小農、表現程度分析法、投入、生產、行銷
Abstract Taiwan's agricultural sector has faced increased pressure from rapid economic development and soaring labor costs in recent decades. World trade organization (WTO) accession in January 2002 and subsequent trade liberalization have brought more challenges, as Taiwan fulfills its WTO commitments of opening its markets and eliminating protective trade measures. Also, Taiwan is characterized mainly by small-scale farms which makes it difficult to accumulate capital, increase investments, and expand the scale of operations using mechanized cultivation methods. This study seeks to investigate the efficiency of tea contract farming in central Taiwan which is the major tea producing area, because both tea production and exports have been on the decline. This is mainly due to rising labor cost and increased domestic consumption. In response, tea growers have focused more on domestic market and improvements in standards and quality attributes and also registration for certification trademarks. The focus of the study is on the role of contract farming in linking smallholder farmers to buyers/marketers through advance agreements, pricing, production practices and quality control. The study utilized a qualitative research methodology because of the number of participants' involved and the little body of research on this area of study. In that regard a deep understanding of tea contract farming efficiency can be achieved through in-depth interviews using semi-structured interview questions. Two tea firms with their corresponding contracted growers participated in this research. Firm managers first and then farmers take turns in answering interview questions. The interview questions mainly focus on phenomena such as accessing inputs and lowering production costs, risk sharing, and also access to high-end markets. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was utilized to analyze interview data. The study found that tea contract farming in Taiwan is different from contract farming found in most parts of the world. Most tea farms in Taiwan are farm business i.e. they cultivate tea and sell to other firms as well as process and try to create their own brand and sell to consumers. Farmers contracted to firm A gain access to inputs, training, credit and all harvest is purchased by the firm. On the other hand farmers contracted to firm B do not have access to inputs, training or credit and purchase of all the harvest is not guaranteed, however they got skilled processing techniques and a niche market. In conclusion, the small-scale nature of firms and farm businesses makes contracting efficient and enables the sharing of production as well as marketing risks. In addition contracting enables improvements in quality standards through input supplies or monitoring by firms and also access to high end markets is achieved. Contracts can also lead to improvements in production technology due to access to training. However, contracts in both cases are merely oral agreements with no third parties involved. The relationships survive based on trust. Production costs are lowered due to shared responsibilities and both growers and firms in both cases claim to be satisfied with contracting. Hence, it is deemed effective. Key words: Tea, Taiwan, Contract farming, Efficiency, Smallholder, IPA, Inputs, Production, Marketing.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/90352
文章公開時間: 2017-08-31
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