請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件：
Study on the Efficiency of Smallholder Tea Contract Farming in Central Taiwan
|引用:||References Ajibefun, I.A. & Abdulkadri, A.O. (1999). An investigation of technical inefficiency production of farmers under the National Directorate of Employment in Ondo State, Nigeria. Applied Economics Letter 6:111–114 Ali, M. & Chaudhry, M.A. (1990). Interregional farm efficiency in Pakistan's Punjabi. A frontier production function study. J. Agric. Econ. 41:62–73. Armbruster, W. J., & Knutson, R. D. (2013). Evolution of agricultural and food markets. In US Programs Affecting Food and Agricultural Marketing (pp. 3-10). Springer New York. Barrett, et.al (2012). Smallholder participation in contract farming: comparative evidence from five countries. World development, 40(4): 715–730. Bentz, V. M., & Shapiro, J. J. (1998). Mindful inquiry in social research. Sage. Benz, C. & Newman, I. (1998). in their book The Qualitative-Quantitative Research Methodology: Exploring the Interactive Continuum. Bijman, J. (2008). Contract farming in developing countries. An overview of the literature, Wageningen University, department of business administration (working paper). Birthal, P. S., Jha, A. K., Tiongco, M. M., & Narrod, C. (2008). Improving farm-to-market linkages through contract farming: a case study of smallholder dairying in India. Intl Food Policy Res Inst. Bless, C., & Higson-Smith, C. (2000). Fundamentals of social research methods, an African perspective (3rd ed.). Lansdowne, South Africa: Juta. Bolwig, S., Gibbon, P., & Jones, S. (2009). The economics of smallholder organic contract farming in tropical Africa. World Development, 37(6): 1094-1104. Bravo-Ureta, E.B., Boris, E. & Evenson, R.E. (1994). Efficiency in agricultural production. The case of peasant farmers in Eastern Paraguay. Agric. Econ. 10:27–37. Cahyadi, E. R., & Waibel, H. (2013). Is contract farming in the Indonesian oil palm industry pro-poor?. Journal of Southeast Asian Economies (JSEAE),30(1): 62-76. Carlson, B. (1968). The measurements of efficiency in production. An application to Swedish manufacturing industries. Swedish J. Econ. 74:468–485 Catelo, M. O. & Costales, A. (2008), 'Contract Farming and Other Market Institutions as Mechanisms for Integrating Smallholder Livestock Producers in the Growth and Development of the Livestock Sector in Developing Countries', PPLPI Working Paper, No 45. Chang, C. C., Chen, C. C., Chin, M. C., & Tseng, W. C. (2006). Is Contract Farming More Profitable and Efficient Than Non-Contract Farming-A Survey Study of Rice Farms In Taiwan. In American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Long Beach, California. Coelli, O.J. (1995). Recent development in frontier estimation and efficiency measurement. Austr. J. Agric. Econ. 39:219–245. Coffey, A., & Atkinson, P. (1996). Making sense of qualitative data: complementary research strategies. Sage Publications, Inc. Conrad, J. M., & Clark, C. W. (1987). Natural resource economics: notes and problems. Cambridge University Press Council of Agriculture ( COA ) ,Executive Yuan.( http://www.coa.gov.tw ) Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan. (2012) Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan 2011 Annual Report. Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan (2013), Mid-term Agricultural Policy Deployment Plan (2013- 2016) Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (1984), Handbook of Qualitative Research, Newbury Park: Sage Publications Dileep, B. K., Grover, R. K., & Rai, K. N. (2002). Contract farming in tomato: An economic analysis. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 57(2): 197. Dolan, C., & Humphrey, J. (2000). Governance and trade in fresh vegetables: The impact of UK supermarkets on the African horticultural industry. Journal of Development Studies 37 (2): 147–176. Dorward, A., Kydd, J., & Poulton, C. (1998). Smallholder cash crop production under market liberalisation: a new institutional economics perspective. CAB International. Eaton, C. and Shepherd A.W. (2001). 'Contract farming: Partnership for growth. FAO agricultural services bulletin 145, Rome, Italy. Eisner, E. W (1991).The enlightened eye. Qualitative enquiry and the enhancement of educational practice. New York: MacMillan 264 pages. IBSN: 0-032-32125-3 Entwistle, N. (1997). Introduction: Phenomenography in higher education. Higher Education Research & Development, 16(2), 127-134. Galluzzo, N. (2013). Farm Dimension and Efficiency in Italian Agriculture: A Quantitative Approach. American Journal of Rural Development, 1(2): 26-32. Government Information Office (GIO), Taiwan ROC, Taiwan yearbook 2006 (http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan-website/5-gp/yearbook/12Agriculture.htm ) Guba, E. G., Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In . K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research (pp. 105-117). Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. Guo, H., Jolly, W., & Zhu, J. (2005). Contract farming in China: Supply chain or ball and chain? Paper presented at Minnesota International Economic Development Conference, University of Minnesota, April 29–30. Hayami, Y. and K. Otsuka. (1993). The Economics of Contract Choice- An agrarian Perspective. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Holloway, I. (1997). Basic concepts for qualitative research. Oxford: Blackwell Science. Hu, D. (2005). Research report on contract rural households in China. Beijing: Institute of Agricultural Economics and Development, Chinese Academy for Agricultural Sciences. Hu, C. Y., Tsai, Y. Z., & Lin, S. F. (2014). Development of STS and CAPS markers for variety identification and genetic diversity analysis of tea germplasm in Taiwan. Botanical Studies, (1): 55. Hwang-Jaw Lee, (2013) 'Overview of Agricultural Policy of Taiwan', FFTC AP-website Hycner, R. H. (1999). Some guidelines for the phenomenological analysis of interview data. In A. Bryman & R. .G. Burgess (Eds.), Qualitative research (Vol. 3, pp: 143-164). London:Sage. IFAD (2008) 'Supporting Smallholders Is Crucial To Food Security,' speech to G8 by IFAD's President, Lennart Båge, published in the G8 special report of the Financial Times newspaper 7 July 2008 and on-line at: http://www.ifad.org/events/op/2008/g8.htm Jaffee, S. (1994). Contract farming in the shadow of competitive markets: The experience of Kenyan horticulture. In P. Little and M. Watts, eds., Living under contract: Contract farming and agrarian transformation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. Key, N & Runsten, D, (1999). Contract farming, smallholders, and rural development in Latin America: the organization of agroprocessing firms and the scale of outgrower production. World Development, 27(2): 381–401 Kilmer, R. L., & Armbruster, W. J. (1984). Methods for evaluating economic efficiency in agricultural marketing. Southern Journal of Agricultural Economics,16(01): 101-110. Kilmer, RL, (1986). Vertical integration in agricultural and food marketing. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 68(5): 1155–61. Kirsten, J., & Sartorius, K. (2002). Linking agribusiness and small-scale farmers in developing countries: is there a new role for contract farming? Development Southern Africa, 19(4): 503–529. Kruger, D. (1988). An introduction to phenomenological psychology (2nd ed.). Cape Town, South Africa: Juta. Kumar, S., Chakarvarty, K., Chand, P., & Dabas, J. P. S. (2007). Mode of Operation and Performance of contract Farming of cottonseed in Haryana.Agricultural Economics Research Review, (1): 20. Kvale, S. (1996). Interviews: An introduction to qualitative research interviewing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Lincoln, Y. S., & Denzin, N. K. (1994). The fifth moment. Handbook of qualitative research, 1: 575-586. Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Little, P., & Watts, M. (1994). Living under contract: Contract farming and agrarian transformation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. Lofland, J. H., Johnson, N. E., Batenhorst, A. S., & Nash, D. B. (1999). Changes in resource use and outcomes for patients with migraine treated with sumatriptan: a managed care perspective. Archives of internal medicine, 159(8): 857-863. Maartens, M., & Swinnen, J.F.M. (2006). Trade, standards, and poverty: Evidence from Senegal. LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance and Department of Economics, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. MacDonald, J. M. (2011). Agricultural contracting update: Contracts in 2008. Diane Publishing. Malterud, K. (2001). Qualitative research: standards, challenges, and guidelines. The lancet, 358(9280): 483-488. Merriam, S. (1998). Qualitative research and case study: Applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers Mighell, R.L., & Jones, L.A. (1963). Vertical Coordination in agriculture.U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Agricultural Economics Report. No. 19. Washington DC, February. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1984). Drawing valid meaning from qualitative data: Toward a shared craft. Educational researcher, 20-30. Minot, N. (1986). Contract farming and its effect on small farmers in developing countries. Working Paper No. 31. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University. Minot, N. (2009). Chapter three contract farming in developing countries: Patterns, impact, and policy implications (6-3) by Nicholas Minot. Case studies in food policy for developing countries: domestic policies for markets, production, and environment, 2: 37. Mishler, E. G. (1986). Research interviewing: Context and narrative. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Narayanan, S. (2014). 'Profits from participation in high value agriculture: Evidence of heterogeneous benefits in contract farming schemes in Southern India.' Food Policy 44: 142–157 Overboom, M,( 2000). Analysing governance structure of international supply chains. In Trienekens, JH & Zuurbier, PJP (Eds), Chain management in agribusiness and the food industry. Parikh, A. & Shah, K. (1994). Measurement of technical efficiency in the Northwest frontier province of Pakistan. J. Agric. Econ. 45:132–38. Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods ( 2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Porter, G., & Phillips-Howard, K. (1997). Comparing contracts: An evaluation of contract farming schemes in Africa. World Development 25 (2): 227–238. Peterson, H. C. & Wysocki, A. (1997). The vertical coordination continuum and the determinants of firm-level coordination strategy. Staff Paper 97-64, Michigan State University. Prowse, M. (2012). Contract farming in developing countries: a review. Agence Française de développement a savoir. Ramaswami, B., Birthal, P.S. & Joshi, P.K. (2005), 'Efficiency and distribution in contract farming: The case of indian poultry growers', Discussion Papers in Economics, Discussion paper 05-01, Indian Statistical Institute, Delhi Planning Unit Reardon, T. & Barrett, CB, (2000). Agroindustrialization, globalization and international development: an overview of issues, patterns and determinants. Agricultural Economics (Special Issue), 23: 195–205, September. Rehber, E, 1998. Vertical integration in agriculture and contract farming Rehber, E. (2007), Contract Farming: Theory and Practice, ICFAI University Press, Hyderabad, India. Reid K, Flowers P, Larkin M.(2005). Exploring lived experience. The Psychologist 18, 1: 20-23. Riordan, M. H., & Williamson, O. E. (1985). Asset specificity and economic organization. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 3(4): 365-378. Saenger, C., Qaim, M., Torero, M., & Viceisza, A. (2013). Contract farming and smallholder incentives to produce high quality: Experimental evidence from the Vietnamese dairy sector. Agricultural Economics, 44(3): 297-308. Saenz, F., & Ruben, R. (2004). Export contracts for non-traditional products: Chayote from Costa Rica. Journal of Chains and Network Science 4 (2): 139–150. Setboonsarng, S., Leung, P. & Cai, J. (2006). Contract farming and poverty reduction: The case of organic rice contract farming in Thailand. ADB Institute Discussion Paper No. 49. Manila: Asian Development Bank. Sharma, K.R., Leung, P.S. & Zaleeki, H.M. (1999). Technical, allocative and economic efficiencies in swine production in Hawali: A comparison of parametric and nonparametric approaches. Agric. Econ. 20:23–35. Simmons, P., Winters, P., & Patrick, I. (2005). An analysis of contract farming in East Java, Bali, and Lombok, Indonesia. Agricultural Economics 33 (3): 513–552. Singh, S. (2002). Contracting out solutions: Political economy of contract farming in the Indian Punjab. World DevelopmentI 30 (9): 1621–1638. Smith, J., & Firth, J. (2010). Qualitative data analysis: the framework approach.Nurse researcher, 18(2): 52-62. Smith, J. A., Flowers, P., & Osborn, M. (1997). Interpretative phenomenological analysis and the psychology of health and illness. Material discourses of health and illness, 68-91. Smith, J., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. (2009). Interpretative Phoneomological Analysis: theory, method and research. Smith J.A. (2004). Reflecting on the development of interpretative phenomenological analysis and its contribution to qualitative research in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology 1:39-54. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc 8 Sriboonchitta, S., & Wiboonpongse, A. (2005). Analysis of contract farming in Thailand. Chiang Mai Univ J, 4(3): 361-385. Svensson, L. (1997). Theoretical foundations of phenomenography. Higher Education Research & Development, 16(2): 159-171. Swinnen, J. & Maertens, M. (2007), 'Globalization, privatization, and vertical coordination in food value chains in developing and transition countries', Agricultural Economics 37(1): 89-102. UNCTAD (2004), the least developed countries report 2004, UNCTAD/LDC/2004, Geneva. Warning, M., & Key, N. (2002). The social performance and distributional consequences of contract farming: An equilibrium analysis of the Arachide de Bouche program in Senegal. World Development, 30(2): 255-263. Watts, M.J., (1994). Life under contract; contract farming, agrarian restructuring, and flexible accumulation. Welman, J. C., & Kruger, S. J. (1999). Research methodology for the business and administrative sciences. Johannesburg, South Africa: International Thompson. Williamson, O.E., (1975). Markets and Hierarchies. Free Press, New York. Williamson, O.E., (1985). The economics of organization: the transaction cost approach. American Journal of Sociology 87: 548–577. Wu, T. F., & Kao, C. L. (2013). Technical Innovations and Demand–Supply Models of the Taiwanese Tea Industry After Joining WTO. In The 19th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management 281-291. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Young, L.M. and Hobbs, J.E. (2002), 'Vertical linkages in agri-food supply chains: changing roles for producers, commodity groups, and government policy', Review of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 24, No 2: 428–441.|
此研究採用表現程度分析法( Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, IPA) 是應用於分析訪談資料的方法，本研究發現台灣地區的農業契作方式與世界上其他大部分國家不同。大多數台灣茶園採農場經營模式，例如自己栽種茶葉銷售給其他公司，也會嘗試建立自有品牌直接銷售給消費者。農民和A公司契作，其公司承擔部分包含投入、訓練、信貸及收成等成本；然而和B公司契作的農民，僅由B公司提供技術，並不保證投入、訓練、信貸或收成等成本承擔，然而這些農民仍可習得加工技術與進入利基市場。
Abstract Taiwan's agricultural sector has faced increased pressure from rapid economic development and soaring labor costs in recent decades. World trade organization (WTO) accession in January 2002 and subsequent trade liberalization have brought more challenges, as Taiwan fulfills its WTO commitments of opening its markets and eliminating protective trade measures. Also, Taiwan is characterized mainly by small-scale farms which makes it difficult to accumulate capital, increase investments, and expand the scale of operations using mechanized cultivation methods. This study seeks to investigate the efficiency of tea contract farming in central Taiwan which is the major tea producing area, because both tea production and exports have been on the decline. This is mainly due to rising labor cost and increased domestic consumption. In response, tea growers have focused more on domestic market and improvements in standards and quality attributes and also registration for certification trademarks. The focus of the study is on the role of contract farming in linking smallholder farmers to buyers/marketers through advance agreements, pricing, production practices and quality control. The study utilized a qualitative research methodology because of the number of participants' involved and the little body of research on this area of study. In that regard a deep understanding of tea contract farming efficiency can be achieved through in-depth interviews using semi-structured interview questions. Two tea firms with their corresponding contracted growers participated in this research. Firm managers first and then farmers take turns in answering interview questions. The interview questions mainly focus on phenomena such as accessing inputs and lowering production costs, risk sharing, and also access to high-end markets. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was utilized to analyze interview data. The study found that tea contract farming in Taiwan is different from contract farming found in most parts of the world. Most tea farms in Taiwan are farm business i.e. they cultivate tea and sell to other firms as well as process and try to create their own brand and sell to consumers. Farmers contracted to firm A gain access to inputs, training, credit and all harvest is purchased by the firm. On the other hand farmers contracted to firm B do not have access to inputs, training or credit and purchase of all the harvest is not guaranteed, however they got skilled processing techniques and a niche market. In conclusion, the small-scale nature of firms and farm businesses makes contracting efficient and enables the sharing of production as well as marketing risks. In addition contracting enables improvements in quality standards through input supplies or monitoring by firms and also access to high end markets is achieved. Contracts can also lead to improvements in production technology due to access to training. However, contracts in both cases are merely oral agreements with no third parties involved. The relationships survive based on trust. Production costs are lowered due to shared responsibilities and both growers and firms in both cases claim to be satisfied with contracting. Hence, it is deemed effective. Key words: Tea, Taiwan, Contract farming, Efficiency, Smallholder, IPA, Inputs, Production, Marketing.
在 DSpace 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。