請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/90408
標題: 微生物肥料產業現況與應用分析
A survey of microbial fertilizer industry: from producer to farmer
作者: 林家弘
Chia-Hung Lin
關鍵字: 微生物肥料
產業現況
問卷
深入訪談
SWOT策略
microbial fertilizer
industry situation
questionnaires
in-deep interview
SWOT approach
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摘要: In order to achieve sustainable management of agriculture and overcome the problems caused by the increasing price of chemical fertilizer, many developed countries have made goals to reduce the requirement of chemical fertilizer and pesticide. Microbial fertilizers are newly developed agricultural materials which have been proved to promote crop growth. Besides, the application of microbial fertilizer also shows potential in partly replacement of chemical fertilizer. Under the efforts of industry, government, academic organization, and research institute, the items of microbial fertilizers have been listed in the Fertilizer Management Act. The present studies were undertaken to survey the situation of microbial fertilizer industry and the application of microbial fertilizer. The questionnaires were designed and the in-deep interviews were conducted with companies (fertilizer producers) and farmers (fertilizer users). The questionnaires filled out by each survey candidate were use for SPSS analyses. The main factors influencing the microbial fertilizer industry were figured out. The SWOT strategy was used to analyze the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of microbial fertilizer industry. Suggestions are given here to promote the development of microbial fertilizer industry in a more sustainable way. The results demonstrated that the interior strength of microbial fertilizer industry includes: companies have knowledge and techniques to develop new product, they are familiar with the industry and will obtain new experiences or knowledge, seek for the solutions to problem produced by user and increase the innovation ability. The companies also have ability to develop new product through patent or technique transfer from other cooperative partner, in order to create higher industrial value. The interior weakness of microbial fertilizer industry is the unchanged management and organization process used in the development of a new product. Market requirement and technology development for microbial fertilizer bring exterior opportunity for microbial fertilizer industry. The exterior threat of microbial fertilizer industry includes: price competition, insufficient education for farmers, and high similarity between the available products in the market. The farmers have recognized that the application of microbial fertilizer can reduce the requirement of chemical fertilizer used in agriculture. The main concerns of microbial fertilizer applications from farmers' views include the efficiency, price, inoculation method, bacterial number and biosafety of microbial fertilizer. Opinions derived from the present studies have been made to provide bases for the development of microbial fertilizer industry. Government can provide financial assistance for companies and farmers to help the development of microbial fertilizer industry. The announcement for the use of legal microbial fertilizer product should be made to farmers. Professional staffs involved in the research, production or marketing of microbial fertilizer are required. Companies can develop a variety of products with multiple functions by themselves or collaborate with universities, research institutes or other companies instead of a price war. A comprehensive inoculation method of microbial fertilizers should be provided, and the performance of microbial fertilizer after inoculation should be evaluated. Besides, new management and organization process are encouraged to be delivered in the microbial fertilizer industry. Farmers should select and utilize legal microbial fertilizers which have qualified function, bacterial number and biosafety.
為達農業之永續經營,並因應化學肥料價格高漲的問題,許多先進國家已訂定減少化學肥料及農藥使用量之目標。微生物肥料是新興的農業資材,對於作物生長促進之功效已在許多試驗中獲得證實,微生物肥料的使用亦具有減少化學肥料用量之目的。在產官學研的努力催生下微生物肥料目前已納入肥料管理規範中,正式成為從科技研究邁入法規化的新興產業本研究旨在了解微生物肥料產業現況與微生物肥料商品之應用情形。研究中首先針對各主題設計不同面向之問卷題目,透過與微生物肥料生產業者及微生物肥料使用農民之深入訪談,再將問卷調查所得之初級資料以SPSS統計軟體進行分析,了解主要影響微生物肥料產業發展之因素,並利用SWOT策略進行微生物肥料產業內部及外部環境四大構面分析,進而提出有助於微生物肥料產業發展及永續經營之建議。 研究結果顯示目前微生物肥料產業之內部優勢包括業者具新產品研發之能力(知識及技術),熟悉產業且持續獲得經驗及新知識,尋求解決顧客問題能力及提升創新能力,願意與合作夥伴進行技術交易,並透過專利授權與外部單位進行新產品的開發,以創造更高之產業價值等。內部劣勢為在新產品開發過程仍沿用過去的管理與組織流程。業者普遍認為其產品市占率、公司獲利成長率或新產品利潤並無高於競爭者,顯示微生物肥料產業中目前並無獨占市場之公司。微生物肥料產業之外部機會包括業者會根據顧客需求開發產品,技術變化將帶給產業機會等。外部威脅則包括價格競爭是微生物肥料產業的特徵,微生物肥料產業競爭激烈,有許多促銷戰及市場變化大等特性,農民需要再教育指導以利推廣使用微生物肥料產品各家廠商商品功能類似無區隔性,國內缺乏研發人才,且政府沒推廣微生物肥料等。受訪農民已普遍接受微生物肥料可減少化學肥料使用量之觀念而認為目前微生物肥料在應用上面臨的主要問題依序為微生物肥料之功效、價格、使用方法、菌數及安全性。 綜合本研究分析之結果,建議政府應在此初始階段扶持企業進入微生物肥料產業,並提供微生物肥料在使用上之補助,此外應持續輔導農民使用合法的微生物肥料,培育微生物肥料相關研發人才。微生物肥料業者應進行微生物肥料商品之多角化經營,透過與學校、研究單位或企業合作以開發更多元且多功能之複合微生物肥料,提供農民在微生物肥料使用上正確之方法並進行後續產品功效之追蹤,可針對微生物肥料商品嘗試發展新的管理與組織流程,避免削價競爭。農民應選擇品質較有保障之合法微生物肥料商品。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/90408
文章公開時間: 10000-01-01
顯示於類別:農業企業經營管理碩士在職專班

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