Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/91139
標題: 矽氫結構控制與雜質污染對氫化非晶矽薄膜太陽電池特性之影響
The Influence of Controlling Silicon-Hydrogen Bonding and Impurities Contamination on the Characteristics of a-Si:H Thin-Film Solar Cells
作者: 郭泰照
Tai-Chao Kuo
關鍵字: hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells
pulse-wave modulation plasma technique
Si-H bonding
interface buffer layer
residual impurities
氫化非晶矽薄膜太陽電池
脈波調變電漿技術
矽氫鍵結
介面緩衝層
雜質污染
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摘要: The important factors to obtain high quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films and solar cells are controlling of Si-H bonding, Si-H composition ratio, lower impurity doping and modify the characteristics between the interfaces. In this thesis, the Si-H bonding and Si-H composition ratio of a-Si:H thin films were controlled by single-chamber plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with pulse-wave modulation plasma technique. The Si-H bonding and Si-H composition ratio of a-Si:H thin films were altered to investigate their influence on the performance of a-Si:H thin films and a-Si:H thin-film solar cells. The influence of p/i interface, i-layer bulk region and i/n interface with different Si-H bonding and Si-H composition ratio on the a-Si:H thin-film solar cells performance were presented and discussed. The effect of real residual impurities in the process chamber and outgassing from chamber wall after loading sample in atmosphere on the performance of solar cells was investigated. The results showed that in pulse-wave modulation plasma techniques, modulation plasma turn-on time (ton) could effectively control the Si-H bonds and the Si-H composition ratio of a-Si:H thin films. With ton increases, single silicon-hydrogen (SiH) bonds were reduced, while the double silicon-hydrogen (SiH2) bonds or its clusters ((SiH2)n) were increased, which resulted in the increasing of the hydrogen content and structural defects. The optical energy gap was increased, but refractive index and the real and imaginary part of dielectric constant peak intensity were decreased. The increasing of SiH2 or (SiH2)n bonds leaded to increase of open-circuit voltage (Voc), but drop of short-circuit current density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF) of a-Si:H solar cells. The conversion efficiency (?) and spectral response were decreased. For the a-Si:H solar cell with i-layer deposited at low ton time had the high single SiH bonds which could obtain better performance of Jsc, Voc, FF and ?. The results of changing Si-H bonds at p/i and i/n interfaces in a i-layer of a-Si:H p-i-n solar cells showed that inserted a buffer i-layer of high SiH2 bonds into the high SiH bonds i-layer effectively increased the built-in potential (Vbi), Voc and ?. The inserted buffer layer at p/i interface played the key role for the change of the performance of solar cell. Inserting a buffer i-layer with high SiH bonds at p/i interface into the high SiH2 bonds i-layer reduced the Voc, FF and ?. The results might be attributed to more carriers recombination at the quantum well produced at p/i interface. For the more SiH bonds i bulk layer with inserting high SiH2 bonds buffer i-layer at p/i and i/n interfaces could obtain a better solar cell performance. For the influence of residual impurities in a single-chamber PECVD system on the performance of a-Si:H p-i-n solar cells, the results demonstrated high levels of oxygen impurities were significantly doped into a-Si:H solar cells by residual H2O. The residual N2 and O2 only contributed the basic nitrogen and oxygen contamination levels. The oxygen atoms strongly affected the solar cell quality. High concentrations of oxygen atoms and non-uniform doping from the p/i to the i/n interface effectively reduced the FF and ?, and increased the series resistance of the cell. To obtain high performance a-Si:H solar cells, the residual water vapor should be carefully maintained at a considerably low level.
要得到品質良好的氫化非晶矽(a-Si:H)薄膜及太陽電池的關鍵為控制矽氫鍵結、組成比例、降低雜質摻雜及改善介面間之特性。 本論文以單一腔體的電漿加強化學氣相沉積搭配脈波調變電漿技術,控制a-Si:H薄膜的矽氫鍵結及組成比例,探討矽氫鍵結及組成比例對a-Si:H薄膜及太陽電池特性的影響。並將不同的矽氫鍵結薄膜,置放於a-Si:H薄膜太陽電池的p/i及i/n介面,探討p/i及i/n介面的矽氫鍵結及組成比例對太陽電池特性的影響。雜質摻雜則以控制腔體空氣殘留雜質量,測量太陽電池p層製程前腔體內的殘氣狀態,探討不同殘留雜質對a-Si:H薄膜太陽電池的影響差異。 研究結果顯示,以脈波調變電漿技術,固定電漿關閉(toff)時間並調變電漿開啟(ton)時間,可以有效地控制a-Si:H薄膜的矽氫鍵結及組成比例。隨著ton時間增加,a-Si:H薄膜內的單氫鍵結減少,而雙氫鍵結增加。使得a-Si:H薄膜內的氫含量及微結構參數上升,折射率、介電係數實與虛部的峰值強度下降及光能隙上升。製作成a-Si:H薄膜太陽電池,則使得短路電流密度與填充因子下降及開路電壓提升,但光電轉換效率及光譜響應下降。以較低的ton所製作的a-Si:H薄膜,可以得到較多單氫鍵結及較佳的薄膜品質,採用其做為p-i-n a-Si:H薄膜太陽電池的i層,可得到較佳的太陽電池光電轉換特性。 探討介面矽氫鍵結構的部份顯示,在以單氫鍵為主體的i層之太陽電池,在其介面間置放單氫鍵與雙氫鍵混合鍵結之緩衝層。緩衝層的加入提升了內建電位差,可以有效的提升太陽電池的開路電壓,且短路電流僅微量的減少,而填充因子亦未明顯變化,進而使得整體太陽電池光電轉換效率提升。於p/i介面加入緩衝層較i/n介面加入緩衝層的效果較佳。而以單氫鍵與雙氫鍵混合鍵結為主體的i層之太陽電池,在其介面間置放單氫鍵之緩衝層。p/i介面緩衝層的加入造成了位能井,造成開路電壓及填充因子下降,使得整體太陽電池光電轉換特性的減少。變化介面矽氫鍵結構的太陽電池中,以單氫鍵為主體的i層之太陽電池,且在p/i及i/n介面均加入緩衝層的太陽電池,得到較佳的太陽電池光電轉換效率。 探討不同殘留雜質的部份則顯示,a-Si:H太陽電池內高氧原子摻雜的關鍵是因為高的腔體殘餘水氣量。腔體殘餘氮氣及氧氣僅貢獻基礎的氮原子與氧原子的污染。太陽電池內的氧原子強烈地影響太陽電池的品質,高濃度且由p/i介面至i/n介面的非均勻摻雜的氧原子降低了太陽電池的填充因子和光電轉換效率,並增加了串聯電阻。因此要獲得高效能的a-Si:H太陽電池,腔體殘餘水氣需要控制在相當低的濃度。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/91139
其他識別: U0005-2811201416181341
文章公開時間: 10000-01-01
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