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Production of PHB, PHBV, P(3HB-co-HH) and degradation of polyester films by thermophilic bacteria of Caldimonas manganoxidans and PHB nanocomposites
Degradation polyester films
PHB molecular weight
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|摘要:||由於石化塑膠廢棄不利分解，故需研究具有生物降解特性之材料以取代之。由微生物所自行合成的聚羥基脂肪酸酯 (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHAs)，其具生物可降解及生物可相容之特性，此外亦能儲存於菌體中並能作為碳源及能量的聚酯高分子，以解決當今重要之課題。本實驗研究菌株為Caldimonas manganoxidans，屬於格蘭氏陰性菌、好氧，是由溫泉發現所分離出來之嗜熱菌。由於Caldimonas manganoxidans能生產聚羥基丁酸酯 (Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate, PHB)，因此透過批次搖瓶實驗，在不同參數設計如碳源種類、碳源濃度、初始pH、碳氮比、工作體積等因素下，進而得出PHB濃度。其中，當葡萄糖或甘油作為主要單一碳源時，可獲得PHB濃度各別為5.41 ± 1.11 g/L及8.35 ± 1.51 g/L。當甘油50 g/L與戊酸為雙碳源時，僅有在12小時才有PHBV合成，依不同戊酸濃度10、20和30 mM獲得3-HV (%)各占88.08 %、82.08 %和86.09 %。而甘油50 g/L與己酸為雙碳源時，至12~48小時之間皆有P(3-HB-co-3HH)產生，其中含有己酸30 mM在12小時下3-HH (%)可高達為92.14 %。在初始葡萄糖濃度、初始甘油濃度、葡萄糖與溫度、葡萄糖與初始pH、葡萄糖與碳氮比、甘油與初始pH效應中測試PHB分子量，以葡萄糖與初始pH效應之pH 6，雖對細菌代謝生長較不利其產生PHB含量只有19.88 %，但卻可在培養效應中獲得高PHB分子量為975 kDa (PDI為1.13)。實驗設計「菌液培養降解法」，藉由Caldimonas manganoxidans所分泌出的PHB depolymerase，對聚酯高分子如PHB、PCL、PLA、PBSA和PET薄膜進行降解測試。結果PHB薄膜只需6天即可被完全降解，而PCL薄膜則需52天。PLA和PBSA薄膜在76天後，其降解各別為97.7%±0.046和73.8%±0.268。然而，PET薄膜不被PHB depolymerase所降解，雖有10.5% ± 0.029之重量損失，但原因是受到外力撞擊損毀影響，而並非由PHB depolymerase降解所致。TGA熱性質分析發現，當PHB參混OLDH比例越多則熱穩定性就越低，PHB與添加OLDH至5 %之PHB奈米複材，其熱損失5 %之溫度 (T5d)由280.2℃下降到231.9℃。主要是OLDH含有鎂離子具有催化裂解作用，導致其添加比例越多裂解溫度往低溫位移。在DSC分析中一次降溫與二次升溫指出，當OLDH添加至5%時PHB結晶度從58.3 %下降到40.5 %，表示OLDH會阻礙高分子鏈移動性而影響PHB奈米複材之結晶程度，此外進入二次升溫時添加OLDH之PHB會產生熔融再結晶峰，且隨OLDH添加則熔點往低溫位移。利用DMA分析在-10℃時，PHB未加入OLDH之儲存模數為2.52 GPa，而添加OLDH至5 %則提高到22.12 GPa，表示OLDH之二維層狀結構對PHB具有一定支撐作用，以助於PHB奈米複材之機械性質提升。在玻璃轉移溫度Tg中，其隨OLDH比例增加而往低溫位移，PHB之Tg為44.6℃，添加OLDH至5%之Tg為27.3℃。顯示改質LDH中之油酸扮演塑化劑角色導致高分子鏈移動性提高，因此不須在高溫條件下即可讓高分子移動，使得玻璃態轉變為橡膠態，造成玻璃轉移溫度隨OLDH增加而趨於低溫位移。|
Due to petrochemical plastic waste is unfavorable to be decomposed, degradation characteristics of the material have to be studied in order to replace petrochemical plastic waste. Microorganisms are able to synthesize polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and then it can be stored in the bacteria as a polyester polymer of carbon and energy, also has biodegradable properties and is biocompatible with the features to address today''s important issues. This study strain is Caldimonas manganoxidans. The strain belongs to Gram-negative bacteria, aerobic, was found in the hot springs and are separated out of the thermophilic bacteria. Because Caldimonas manganoxidans can produce Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), and therefore by batch shake flask experiments under different of parameter design circumstances, such as carbon source, carbon concentration, initial pH, carbon and nitrogen ratio, working volume and other factors, afterwards derive PHB concentration. When glucose or glycerol as the main carbon source for the individual PHB concentration were 5.41 ± 1.11 g/L and 8.35 ± 1.51 g/L. Only the 12 hours had PHBV synthesis when glycerol 50 g/L mixed with valeric acid of concentrations such as 10 mM, 20 mM, or 30 mM. According to different valeric acid concentrations, 10 mM, 20 mM, and 30 mM obtained 3-HV (%) of 88.08 %, 82.08 %, and 86.09 % respectively. Another glycerol 50 g/L mixed with hexanoic acid, there are P (3-HB-co-3HH) between 12 to 48 hours, which contained 30 mM hexanoic acid in 12 hours could obtain 3-HH (%) as high as 92.14 %. In the effect of initial glucose concentration, initial concentration of glycerol, temperature, initial pH, carbon-nitrogen ratio and glycerol with initial pH for PHB molecular weight of the test. It is unfavorable to the growth of bacterial metabolism, which PHB content is only 19.88 %, the effect of initial pH is 6, but the effect of all cultures is the highest PHB Mw of 975 kDa (PDI is 1.13). Experimental design “Bacteria cultures degradation” by Caldimonas manganoxidans secreted out of the PHB depolymerase. Degradation tests were conducted for polyester polymers such as PHB, PCL, PLA, PBSA and PET films. As a result that PHB films were just six days to be completely degraded while PCL films needed 52 days. In 76 days of PLA and PBSA films, the degradation individual was 97.7% ± 0.046 and 73.8% ± 0.268. However, PET films were not degraded by PHB depolymerase. Although weight loss is 10.5% ± 0.029, the reason is affected by external impact damage rather than degraded by enzymes. TGA analysis of thermal properties found that thermal stability was the lower when PHB mixed with much OLDH proportion. Adding OLDH to 5 % of PHB, heat loss of 5 % temperature (T5d) decreased from 280.2℃ to 231.9℃. Mainly, OLDH contains magnesium ions which can have catalytic pyrolysis action. The addition of much OLDH results in shifting to the lower temperature of pyrolysis. In DSC analysis, the first cooling time and the secondary heating noted that when added OLDH to 5 % of PHB, crystallinity decreased from 58.3 % to 40.5 %. Indicating that OLDH hinder the mobility of the polymer chains to affect the degree of crystallinity of PHB nanocomposites. In addition, that PHB blended with OLDH produced into the secondary recrystallization temperature melt peaks. And with OLDH add to the melting point of the low-temperature shift. Using DMA analysis in the -10℃, PHB which the storage modulus of 2.52 GPa didn’t add OLDH. While adding OLDH to 5 % is increased to 22.12 GPa, showing that the two-dimensional layered structure OLDH for PHB has a supporting role to mechanically assist the nature of PHB nanocomposites upgrade. In the glass transition temperature Tg, and its proportion increases with OLDH to low displacement, Tg of PHB is 44.6℃, adding OLDH to 5 % of the Tg is 27.3℃. Display of the modified LDH in the plasticizer plays the role of oleic acid leads to improving the mobility of the polymer chain. Don’t be moved the polymer under high temperature conditions. Such as a rubber having a glass transition state, lead to increasing OLDH and then the glass transition temperature to low displacement.
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