請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/91679
標題: 厭氧氨氧化系統微生物組成及除氮效能之探討
Exploring the microbial community and nitrogen removal effiency for ANAMMOX system
作者: Shu-chuan Hsu
許淑娟
關鍵字: 厭氧氨氧化
微生物組成
除氮效能
Anammox
nirogen removal rate
Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus
引用: 中文文獻 王至誠 (2011) 建立同時部分硝化、厭氧氨氧化及脫硝系統. 國立交通大學, 新竹市. 王淳信 (2013) Anammox-MSBR系統中共存微生物結構與互動之研究. 中興大學, 台中市. 印緹卡 (2013) 亞硝酸化-厭氧氨氧化程序應用於煉焦廢水生物除氮研究. 國立成功大學, 台南市. 江逸羣 (2013) 廢水除氮固定化細胞之製作與評估. 東南科技大學, 新北市. 行政院環境保護署 (2012) 環保署發布訂定光電產業及科學園區放流水標準. URL http://ivy5.epa.gov.tw/enews/fact_Newsdetail.asp?inputtime=1011012104903 何俊明 (2004) 利用自營性薄膜生物反應槽進行除氮之研究. 國立臺灣大學, 台北市. 吳祚樟 (2007) 固定化細胞進行部份硝化與厭氧氨氧化程序之可行性評估. 臺灣大學, 台北市. 呂佳珊 (2013) 探討利用連續批次反應槽同時去除氨氮及硫酸鹽之可行性. 國立交通大學, 新竹市. 林志高 (2011a) 新穎厭氧氨氧化技術發展及應用. 2011年科學工業園區廠務技術研討會. 新竹: 新竹園區水電氣供應委員會. 林郁賢 (2013) 兩段式(部分硝化/厭氧氨氧化)生物除氮實驗室及模廠程序應用在高氮廢水處理之研究. 國立成功大學, 台南市. 林翰璘 (2011b) 三段式厭氧水解/亞硝酸化/厭氧氨氧化程序處理含氮光電廢水之永續技術開發. 國立成功大學, 台南市. 邱榆鈞 (2008) 不同型式無氧氨氧化系統之菌相結構分析. 中興大學, 台中市. 洪念慈 (2013) 結合部分硝化、厭氧氨氧化及脫硝程序於處理養豬場之厭氧出流廢水. 國立交通大學, 新竹市. 張育銘 (2011) 固定化微生物應用於水中去除氨氮之研究. 東南科技大學, 新北市. 張延欣 (2012) 強化ANAMMOX 去除碳氮磷程序及ANFIS預測之研究. 朝陽科技大學, 台中縣. 張彥文, 高國展, 及 鄒福生 (2009) 新生代生活污水處理系統. Industrial Technology. 新竹: 工研院, pp. 30-37. 張婷婷 (2009) 除氮系統中與無氧氨氧化菌共存之微生物組成分析. 中興大學, 台中市. 梁瑛璋 (2013) 結合部分硝化與厭氧氨氧化程序應用於半導體產業廢水. 國立交通大學, 新竹市. 許淑娟, 洪俊雄, 李王永泉, 鄭敦仁, 胡芳瑜, 及 林智崧 (2011) 以即時定量方法評估本土性無氧氨氧化菌-Candidatus Brocadia sp. 馴養之可行性. 廢水處理技術研討會. 臺灣屏東縣: 中華民國環境工程學會. 陳志祥 (2009) 厭氧氨氧化程序影響因子之探討. 東南科技大學, 新北市. 陳秀琇 (2012) 探討垃圾滲出水處理廠之厭氧氨氧化菌族群分布. 中原大學, 桃園縣. 陳毅謙 (2013) 快速啟動 SNAD 程序及鋅對於系統之影響於連續批次式反應槽. 國立交通大學, 新竹市. 馮宇柔 (2008) 利用通氣式薄膜生物反應槽與厭氧氨氧化程序進行廢水除氮之研究. 臺灣大學, 台北市. 黃郁雯 (2012) 有效控制部分硝化串聯厭氧氨氧化程序處理高氮廢水之研究. 國立成功大學, 台南市. 黃郁慈, 游勝傑, 及 陳秀琇 (2012) 探討垃圾滲出水處理廠之厭氧氨氧化菌族群分布. 廢水處理技術研討會. 桃園中壢: 中華民國環境工程學會. 楊盛行 (1994) 農業與環境保育. 台北: 華香園出版社. 經濟部水利署 (2012). URL http://hysearch.wra.gov.tw/uploadmedia/news01.asf 劉乃元 (2011) 結合厭氧氨氧化與薄膜過濾程序之生物反應槽進行廢水生物除氮之研究. 東南科技大學, 新北市. 蔡若琳 (2009) 氨氧化細菌的特性及新式生物脫氮技術之探討. 國立中山大學, 高雄市. 蔣建安 (2013) 探討懸浮式與固定化式之厭氧氨氧化薄膜生物反應槽進行廢水除氮之研究. 東南科技大學, 新北市. 鄭幸雄, 陳賢焜, 林郁賢, 王偉強, 文俊貴, 楊耿豪, 黃郁雯, 及 林翰璘 (2012) 評估部分硝化&厭氧氨氧化程序植種源: 石化污水處理廠污泥生物活性潛力分析. 廢水處理技術研討會. 桃園中壢: 中華民國環境工程學會. 鄭敦仁 (2012) Anammox-MSBR系統之除氮效率及菌群結構探討. 中興大學. 盧孟明, 卓盈旻, 李思瑩, 李清縢, 及 林昀靜 (2012) 臺灣氣候變化: 1911~ 2009 年資料分析. 大氣科學 40: 297-321. 藍茜茹 (2011) 結合部分硝化、厭氧氨氧化及脫硝作用於單一批次反應槽之發展. 國立交通大學, 新竹市. 蘇信翰 (2012) 結合部分硝化與厭氧氨氧化程序於處理高氮光電廢水之應用. 國立交通大學, 新竹市. 英文文獻 Aakra Agot, Utaker Janne B., and Nes Ingolf F. (2001) Comparative phylogeny of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A and 16S rRNA genes of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Letters 205: 237-242. Abma W. R., Schultz C. E., Mulder J. W., Van der Star W. R. L., Strous M., Tokutomi T., and Van Loosdrecht M. C. M. (2007) Full-Scale Granular Sludge Anammox Process. Water Science & Technology 55: 27-33. Aktan Cigdem, Yapsakli Kozet, and Mertoglu Bulent (2012) Inhibitory Effects of Free Ammonia on Anammox Bacteria. Biodegradation 23: 751-762. Ali Muhammad, Oshiki Mamoru, and Okabe Satoshi (2014) Simple, rapid and effective preservation and reactivation of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacterium “Candidatus Brocadia sinica”. Water Research 57: 215-222. Alzerreca J. Javier, Norton Jeanette M., and Klotz Martin G. (1999) The amo operon in marine, ammonia-oxidizing γ-proteobacteria. FEMS Microbiology Letters 180: 21-29. Amann R. I., Binder B. J., Olson R. J., Chisholm S. W., Devereux R., and Stahl D. A. (1990) Combination of 16S rRNA-Targeted Oligonucleotide Probes with Flow Cytometry for Analyzing Mixed Microbial Populations. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 56: 1919-1925. Amano Teruki, Yoshinaga Ikuo, Okada Kentaro, Yamagishi Takao, Ueda Shingo, Obuchi Akira, Sako Yoshihiko, and Suwa Yuichi (2007) Detection of Anammox Activity and Diversity of Anammox Bacteria-Related 16S rRNA Genes in Coastal Marine Sediment in Japan. Microbes and Environments 22: 232-242. Bonafonte M. Angeles, Solano Cristina, Sesma Begona, Alvarez Miguel, Montuenga Luis, Garcia-Ros David, and Gamazo Carlos (2000) The relationship between glycogen synthesis, biofilm formation and virulence in Salmonella enteritidis. FEMS Microbiology Letters 191: 31-36. Brandes Jay A., Devol Allan H., and Deutsch Curtis (2007) New Developments in the Marine Nitrogen Cycle. Chemical Reviews 107: 577-589. Broda E. (1977) Two Kinds of Lithotrophs Missing in Nature. Zeitschrift fur allgemeine Mikrobiologie 17: 491-493. Buys BR, Mosquera-Corral A, Sanchez M, and Mendez R (2000) Development and application of a denitrification test based on gas production. Water Science & Technology 41: 113-120. Canfield Donald E., Glazer Alexander N., and Falkowski Paul G. (2010) The Evolution and Future of Earth’s Nitrogen Cycle. Science 330: 192-196. Chain Patrick, Lamerdin Jane, Larimer Frank, Regala Warren, Lao Victoria, Land Miriam, Hauser Loren, Hooper Alan, Klotz Martin, Norton Jeanette, Sayavedra-Soto Luis, Arciero Dave, Hommes Norman, Whittaker Mark, and Arp Daniel (2003) Complete Genome Sequence of the Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium and Obligate Chemolithoautotroph Nitrosomonas europaea. Journal of Bacteriology 185: 2759-2773. Chamchoi N., Nitisoravut S., and Schmidt J. E. (2008) Inactivation of ANAMMOX Communities Under Concurrent Operation of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (ANAMMOX) and Denitrification. Bioresource Technology 99: 3331-3336. Chen Huihui, Liu Sitong, Yang Fenglin, Xue Yuan, and Wang Tao (2009) The development of simultaneous partial nitrification, ANAMMOX and denitrification (SNAD) process in a single reactor for nitrogen removal. Bioresource Technology 100: 1548-1554. Cho Sunja, Takahashi Yoshitaka, Fujii Naoki, Yamada Yohei, Satoh Hisashi, and Okabe Satoshi (2010) Nitrogen Removal Performance and Microbial Community Analysis of An Anaerobic Up-flow Granular Bed Anammox Reactor. Chemosphere 78: 1129-1135. Daims Holger, Bruhl Andreas, Amann Rudolf, Schleifer Karl-Heinz, and Wagner Michael (1999) The Domain-Specific Probe EUB338 is Insufficient for The Detection of all Bacteria: Development and Evaluation of A More Comprehensive Probe Set. Systematic and applied microbiology 22: 434-444. Dale Olivia R., Tobias Craig R., and Song Bongkeun (2009) Biogeographical Distribution of Diverse Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria in Cape Fear River Estuary. Environmental Microbiology 11: 1194-1207. Dalsgaard Tage, Canfield Donald E., Petersen Jan, Thamdrup Bo, and Acuna-Gonzalez Jenaro (2003) N2 Production by The Anammox Reaction in The Anoxic Water Column of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Nature 422: 606-608. Dapena-Mora A., Campos J. L., Mosquera-Corral A., Jetten M. S. M., and Mendez R. (2004a) Stability of the ANAMMOX Process in A Gas-Lift Reactor and A SBR. Journal of Biotechnology 110: 159-170. Dapena-Mora A., Fernandez I., Campos J. L., Mosquera-Corral A., Mendez R., and Jetten M. S. M. (2007) Evaluation of Activity and Inhibition Effects on Anammox Process by Batch Tests Based on The Nitrogen Gas Production. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 40: 859-865. Dapena-Mora Ana, Arrojo Belen, Campos Jose Luis, Mosquera-Corral Anuska, and Mendez Ramon (2004b) Improvement of The Settling Properties of Anammox Sludge in An SBR. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 79: 1417-1420. de Vet W. W. J. M., Dinkla I. J. T., Muyzer G., Rietveld L. C., and van Loosdrecht M. C. M. (2009) Molecular Characterization of Microbial Populations in Groundwater Sources and Sand Filters for Drinking Water Production. Water Research 43: 182-194. Dosta J., Fernandez I., Vazquez-Padin J. R., Mosquera-Corral A., Campos J. L., Mata-Alvarez J., and Mendez R. (2008) Short- and Long-Term Effects of Temperature on The Anammox Process. Journal of Hazardous Materials 154: 688-693. Egli Konrad, Fanger Urs, Alvarez Pedro J. J., Siegrist Hansruedi, van der Meer Jan R., and Zehnder Alexander J. B. (2001) Enrichment and Characterization of An Anammox Bacterium from A Rotating Biological Contactor Treating Ammonium-Rich Leachate. Archives of Microbiology 175: 198-207. Engstrom Pia, Dalsgaard Tage, Hulth Stefan, and Aller Robert C. (2005) Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation by Nitrite (Anammox): Implications for N2 Production in Coastal Marine Sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69: 2057-2065. Fernandez I., Dosta J., Fajardo C., Campos J. L., Mosquera-Corral A., and Mendez R. (2012) Short- and long-term effects of ammonium and nitrite on the Anammox process. Journal of Environmental Management 95, Supplement: S170-S174. Francis Christopher A., Beman J. Michael, and Kuypers Marcel M. M. (2007) New Processes and Players in The Nitrogen Cycle: the Microbial Ecology of Anaerobic and Archaeal Ammonia Oxidation. ISME J 1: 19-27. Fuchs W., Binder H., Mavrias G., and Braun R. (2003) Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewater with High Organic Content using A Stirred Tank Reactor Coupled with A Membrane Filtration Unit. Water Research 37: 902-908. Fuchsman Clara A., Murray James W., and Konovalov Sergey K. (2008) Concentration and natural stable isotope profiles of nitrogen species in theBlack Sea. Marine Chemistry 111: 90-105. Fujii Takao, Sugino Hiroyuki, Rouse Joseph D., and Furukawa Kenji (2002) Characterization of The Microbial Community in An Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Biofilm Cultured on A Nonwoven Biomass Carrier. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 94: 412-418. Furukawa Kenji, Rouse Joseph D., Yoshida Noriharu, and Hatanaka Hayato (2003) Mass Cultivation of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Sludge Using a Novel Nonwoven Biomass Carrier. JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN 36: 1163-1169. Fux C., and Siegrist H. (2004) Nitrogen Removal from Sludge Digester Liquids by Nitrification/Denitrification or Partial Nitritation/Anammox: Environmental and Economical Considerations. Water Science & Technology 50: 19-26. Guven Didem, Dapena Ana, Kartal Boran, Schmid Markus C., Maas Bart, van de Pas-Schoonen Katinka, Sozen Seval, Mendez Ramon, Op den Camp Huub J. M., Jetten Mike S. M., Strous Marc, and Schmidt Ingo (2005) Propionate Oxidation by and Methanol Inhibition of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71: 1066-1071. Glud Ronnie N, Thamdrup Bo, Stahl Henrik, Wenzhoefer Frank, Glud Anni, Nomaki Hidetaka, Oguri Kazumasa, Revsbech Niels Peter, and Kitazato Hiroshi (2009a) Nitrogen cycling in a deep ocean margin sediment (Sagami Bay, Japan). Limnology and Oceanography 54: 723-734. Glud Ronnie N., Thamdrup Bo, Stahl Henrik, Wenzhoefer Frank, Glud Anni, Nomaki Hidetaka, Oguri Kazumasa, Revsbech Niels Peter, and Kitazatoe Hiroshi (2009b) Nitrogen Cycling in A Deep Ocean Margin Sediment (Sagami Bay, Japan). Limnology and Oceanography 54: 723–734. Gonzalez-Domenech Carmen M., Martinez-Checa Fernando, Bejar Victoria, and Quesada Emilia (2010) Denitrification as an important taxonomic marker within the genus Halomonas. Systematic and applied microbiology 33: 85-93. Hagopian Daniel S., and Riley John G. (1998) A Closer Look at The Bacteriology of Nitrification. Aquacultural Engineering 18: 223-244. Hamersley M. Robert, Lavik Gaute, Woebken Dagmar, Rattray Jayne E., Lam Phyllis, Hopmans Ellen C., Damste Jaap S. Sinninghe, Kruger Siegfried, Graco Michelle, Gutierrez Dimitri, and Kuypers Marcel M. M. (2007) Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation in the Peruvian Oxygen Minimum Zone. Limnology and Oceanography 52: 923-933. Hanaki Keisuke, Wantawin Chalermraj, and Ohgaki Shinichiro (1990) Nitrification at Low Levels of Dissolved Oxygen with and without Organic Loading in A Suspended-Growth Reactor. Water Research 24: 297-302. Hao Xiaodi, Heijnen Joseph J., and van Loosdrecht Mark C. M. (2002) Sensitivity Analysis of A Biofilm Model Describing A One-Stage Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal (CANON) Process. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 77: 266-277. Harhangi Harry R., Le Roy Mathilde, van Alen Theo, Hu Bao-lan, Groen Joost, Kartal Boran, Tringe Susannah G., Quan Zhe-Xue, Jetten Mike S. M., and Op den Camp Huub J. M. (2012) Hydrazine Synthase, a Unique Phylomarker with Which To Study the Presence and Biodiversity of Anammox Bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78: 752-758. Harris J. Kirk, Kelley Scott T., and Pace Norman R. (2004) New Perspective on Uncultured Bacterial Phylogenetic Division OP11. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70: 845-849. Hein Ingeborg, Schneeweiss Wilfried, Stanek Christian, and Wagner Martin (2007) Ethidium Monoazide and Propidium Monoazide for Elimination of Unspecific DNA Background in Quantitative Universal Real-Time PCR. Journal of Microbiological Methods 71: 336-339. Hellinga C., Schellen A. A. J. C., Mulder J. W., van Loosdrecht M. C. M., and Heijnen J. J. (1998) The Sharon Process: An Innovative Method for Nitrogen Removal from Ammonium-Rich Waste Water. Water Science & Technology 37: 135-142. Hu Bao-lan, Zheng Ping, Tang Chong-jian, Chen Jian-wei, van der Biezen Erwin, Zhang Lei, Ni Bing-jie, Jetten Mike S. M., Yan Jia, Yu Han-Qing, and Kartal Boran (2010) Identification and Quantification of Anammox Bacteria in Eight Nitrogen Removal Reactors. Water Research 44: 5014-5020. Hugenholtz Philip, Goebel Brett M., and Pace Norman R. (1998) Impact of Culture-Independent Studies on the Emerging Phylogenetic View of Bacterial Diversity. Journal of Bacteriology 180: 4765-4774. Humbert Sylvia, Tarnawski Sonia, Fromin Nathalie, Mallet Marc-Philippe, Aragno Michel, and Zopfi Jakob (2010) Molecular Detection of Anammox Bacteria in Terrestrial Ecosystems: Distribution and Diversity. ISME J 4: 450-454. Humbert Sylvia, Zopfi Jakob, and Tarnawski Sonia-Estelle (2012) Abundance of Anammox Bacteria in Different Wetland Soils. Environmental Microbiology Reports 4: 484-490. Hwang Sunjin, Jang Kwangun, Jang Hyunsup, Song Jihyeon, and Bae Wookeun (2006) Factors Affecting Nitrous Oxide Production: A Comparison of Biological Nitrogen Removal Processes with Partial and Complete Nitrification. Biodegradation 17: 19-29. Iglesias Alberto A., and Preiss Jack (1992) Bacterial glycogen and plant starch biosynthesis. Biochemical Education 20: 196-203. Iino Takao, Mori Koji, Uchino Yoshihito, Nakagawa Tatsunori, Harayama Shigeaki, and Suzuki Ken-ichiro (2010) Ignavibacterium album gen. nov., sp. nov., a Moderately Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacterium Isolated from Microbial Mats at a Terrestrial Hot Spring and Proposal of Ignavibacteria classis nov., for a Novel Lineage at the Periphery of Green Sulfur Bacteria. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 60: 1376-1382. Imajo U., Tokutomi T., and Furukawa K. (2004) Granulation of Anammox Microorganisms in Up-Flow Reactors. Water Science & Technology 49: 155 - 163. Innerebner Gerd, Insam Heribert, Franke-Whittle Ingrid H., and Wett Bernhard (2007) Identification of Anammox Bacteria in A Full-Scale Deammonification Plant Making Use of Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation. Systematic and applied microbiology 30: 408-412. Isaka Kazuichi, Date Yasuhiro, Kimura Yuya, Sumino Tatsuo, and Tsuneda Satoshi (2008a) Nitrogen Removal Performance Using Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation at Low Temperatures. FEMS Microbiology Letters 282: 32-38. Isaka Kazuichi, Date Yasuhiro, Sumino Tatsuo, Yoshie Sachiko, and Tsuneda Satoshi (2006) Growth Characteristic of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria in An Anaerobic Biological Filtrated Reactor. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 70: 47-52. Isaka Kazuichi, Sumino Tatsuo, and Tsuneda Satoshi (2007) High Nitrogen Removal Performance at Moderately Low Temperature Utilizing Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Reactions. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 103: 486-490. Isaka Kazuichi, Suwa Yuichi, Kimura Yuya, Yamagishi Takao, Sumino Tatsuo, and Tsuneda Satoshi (2008b) Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) irreversibly inhibited by methanol. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 81: 379-385. Itokawa Hiroki, Hanaki Keisuke, and Matsuo Tomonori (2001) Nitrous Oxide Production in High-Loading Biological Nitrogen Removal Process Under Low COD/N Ratio Condition. Water Research 35: 657-664. Jaeschke Andrea, Op den Camp Huub J. M., Harhangi Harry, Klimiuk Adam, Hopmans Ellen C., Jetten Mike S. M., Schouten Stefan, and Sinninghe Damste Jaap S. (2009) 16S rRNA Gene and Lipid Biomarker Evidence for Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria (Anammox) in California and Nevada Hot Springs. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 67: 343-350. Jetten Mike S. M., Niftrik Laura van, Strous Marc, Kartal Boran, Keltjens Jan T., and Op den Camp Huub J. M. (2009) Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Anammox Bacteria. Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 44: 65-84. Jetten Mike S. M., Strous Marc, van de Pas-Schoonen Katinka T., Schalk Jos, van Dongen Udo G. J. M., van de Graaf Astrid A., Logemann Susanne, Muyzer Gerard, van Loosdrecht Mark C. M., and Kuenen J. Gijs (1998) The Anaerobic Oxidation of Ammonium. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 22: 421-437. Jetten Mike S. M., Wagner Michael, Fuerst John, van Loosdrecht Mark, Kuenen Gijs, and Strous Marc (2001) Microbiology and Application Of the Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (`Anammox'') Process. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 12: 283-288. Korner H, and Zumft W G (1989) Expression of Denitrification Enzymes in Response to The Dissolved Oxygen Level and Respiratory Substrate in Continuous Culture of Pseudomonas Stutzeri. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 55: 1670-1676. Kartal Boran, Geerts Wim, and Jetten Mike S. M. (2011a) Chapter four - Cultivation, Detection, and Ecophysiology of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria. In Methods in Enzymology. Martin, G.K. (ed): Academic Press, pp. 89-108. Kartal Boran, Koleva Mariana, Arsov Roumen, van der Star Wouter, Jetten Mike S. M., and Strous Marc (2006) Adaptation of A Freshwater Anammox Population to High Salinity Wastewater. Journal of Biotechnology 126: 546-553. Kartal Boran, Maalcke Wouter J., de Almeida Naomi M., Cirpus Irina, Gloerich Jolein, Geerts Wim, Op den Camp Huub J. M., Harhangi Harry R., Janssen-Megens Eva M., Francoijs Kees-Jan, Stunnenberg Hendrik G., Keltjens Jan T., Jetten Mike S. M., and Strous Marc (2011b) Molecular Mechanism of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation. Nature 479: 127-130. Kartal Boran, Rattray Jayne, van Niftrik Laura A., van de Vossenberg Jack, Schmid Markus C., Webb Richard I., Schouten Stefan, Fuerst John A., Damste Jaap Sinninghe, Jetten Mike S. M., and Strous Marc (2007) Candidatus “Anammoxoglobus propionicus” A New Propionate Oxidizing Species of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria. Systematic and applied microbiology 30: 39-49. Kartal Boran, Van Niftrik Laura, Rattray Jayne, Van De Vossenberg Jack L. C. M., Schmid Markus C., Sinninghe Damste Jaap, Jetten Mike S. M., and Strous Marc (2008) Candidatus ‘Brocadia fulgida’: an Autofluorescent Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidizing Bacterium. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 63: 46-55. Kawagoshi Yasunori, Nakamura Yasuhiro, Kawashima Hirotaka, Fujisaki Koichiro, Fujimoto Aya, and Furukawa Kenji (2009) Enrichment Culture of Marine Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Bacteria from Sediment of Sea-based Waste Disposal Site. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 107: 61-63. Klotz Martin G., and Stein Lisa Y. (2008) Nitrifier Genomics and Evolution of The Nitrogen Cycle. FEMS Microbiology Letters 278: 146-156. Kuai Linping, and Verstraete Willy (1998) Ammonium Removal by the Oxygen-Limited Autotrophic Nitrification-Denitrification System. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64: 4500-4506. Kučera Igor, Matyašek Roman, and Dadak Vladimir (1986) The Influence of pH on The Kinetics of Dissimilatory Nitrite Reduction in Paracoccus Denitrificans. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics 848: 1-7. Kumar Mathava, and Lin Jih-Gaw (2010) Co-existence of Anammox and Denitrification for Simultaneous Nitrogen and Carbon Removal—Strategies and Issues. Journal of Hazardous Materials 178: 1-9. Kuske C R, Barns S M, and Busch J D (1997) Diverse uncultivated bacterial groups from soils of the arid southwestern United States that are present in many geographic regions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63: 3614-3621. Kuypers Marcel M. M., Lavik Gaute, Woebken Dagmar, Schmid Markus, Fuchs Bernhard M., Amann Rudolf, Jorgensen Bo Barker, and Jetten Mike S. M. (2005) Massive Nitrogen Loss from The Benguela Upwelling System Through Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102: 6478-6483. Kuypers Marcel M. M., Sliekers A. Olav, Lavik Gaute, Schmid Markus, Jorgensen Bo Barker, Kuenen J. Gijs, Sinninghe Damste Jaap S., Strous Marc, and Jetten Mike S. M. (2003) Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation by Anammox Bacteria in The Black Sea. Nature 422: 608-611. Lopez Helio, Puig Sebastia, Ganigue Ramon, Ruscalleda Mael, Balaguer Maria D., and Colprim Jesus (2008) Start-up and Enrichment of A Granular Anammox SBR to Treat High NItrogen Load Wastewaters. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 83: 233-241. Laanbroek HendrikusJ, and Gerards Saskia (1993) Competition for Limiting Amounts of Oxygen between Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi Grown in Mixed Continuous Cultures. Archives of Microbiology 159: 453-459. Lam Phyllis, Lavik Gaute, Jensen Marlene M., van de Vossenberg Jack, Schmid Markus, Woebken Dagmar, Gutierrez Dimitri, Amann Rudolf, Jetten Mike S. M., and Kuypers Marcel M. M. (2009) Revising the Nitrogen Cycle in the Peruvian Oxygen Minimum Zone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 4752-4757. Li Hui, Chen Shuo, Mu Bo-Zhong, and Gu Ji-Dong (2010) Molecular Detection of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria in High-Temperature Petroleum Reservoirs. Microbial Ecology 60: 771-783. Li Lina, Kato Chiaki, and Horikoshi Koki (1999) Bacterial diversity in deep-sea sediments from different depths. Biodiversity & Conservation 8: 659-677. Li Meng, Ford Tim, Li Xiaoyan, and Gu Ji-Dong (2011) Cytochrome cd1-Containing Nitrite Reductase Encoding Gene nirS as a New Functional Biomarker for Detection of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria. Environmental Science & Technology 45: 3547-3553. Li Xiao-Ran, Du Bing, Fu Hai-Xia, Wang Ruo-Fan, Shi Jin-Huan, Wang Yue, Jetten Mike S. M., and Quan Zhe-Xue (2009) The bacterial diversity in an anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) reactor community. Systematic and applied microbiology 32: 278-289. Lindsay Margaret, Webb Richard, Strous Marc, Jetten Mike, Butler Margaret, Forde Rebecca, and Fuerst John (2001) Cell Compartmentalisation in Planctomycetes: Novel Types of Structural Organisation forTthe Bacterial Cell. Archives of Microbiology 175: 413-429. Liu Zhenfeng, Frigaard Niels-Ulrik, Vogl Kajetan, Iino Takao, Ohkuma Moriya, Overmann Joerg, and Bryant Donald A (2012) Complete genome of Ignavibacterium album, a metabolically versatile, flagellated, facultative anaerobe from the phylum Chlorobi. Frontiers in Microbiology 3. Mancini Silvia A., Devine Cheryl E., Elsner Martin, Nandi Monisha E., Ulrich Ania C., Edwards Elizabeth A., and Sherwood Lollar Barbara (2008) Isotopic Evidence Suggests Different Initial Reaction Mechanisms for Anaerobic Benzene Biodegradation. Environmental Science & Technology 42: 8290-8296. Metcalf, and Eddy (1991) Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse. New York: McGraw-Hill. Mobarry B. K., Wagner M., Urbain V., Rittmann B. E., and Stahl D. A. (1996) Phylogenetic Probes for Analyzing Abundance and Spatial Organization of Nitrifying Bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62: 2156-2162. Molinuevo Beatriz, Garcia Maria Cruz, Karakashev Dimitar, and Angelidaki Irini (2009) Anammox for Ammonia Removal from Pig Manure Effluents: Effect of Organic Matter Content on Process Performance. Bioresource Technology 100: 2171-2175. Mortenson Leonard E. (1964) Ferredoxin and ATP, Requirements for Nitrogen Fixation in Cell-Free Extracts of Clostridium pasteurianum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 52: 272-279. Mosier A., Schimel D., Valentine D., Bronson K., and Parton W. (1991) Methane and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Native, Fertilized and Cultivated Grasslands. Nature 350: 330-332 Mulder A., van de Graaf A. A., Robertson L. A., and Kuenen J. G. (1995) Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Discovered in a Denitrifying Fluidized Bed Reactor. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 16: 177-183. Mulder J. W., Van Loosdrecht M. C. M., Hellinga C., and Van Kempen R. (2001) Full-Scale Application of The SHARON Process for Treatment of Rejection Water of Digested Sludge Dewatering. Water Science & Technology 43: 127-134. Nagashima Sakiko, Kamimura Akiko, Shimizu Takayuki, Nakamura-Isaki Sanae, Aono Eiji, Sakamoto Koji, Ichikawa Natsuko, Nakazawa Hidekazu, Sekine Mitsuo, Yamazaki Shuji, Fujita Nobuyuki, Shimada Keizo, Hanada Satoshi, and Nagashima Kenji V. P. (2012) Complete Genome Sequence of Phototrophic Betaproteobacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus IL144. Journal of Bacteriology 194: 3541-3542. Neef Alexander, Amann Rudolf, Schlesner Heinz, and Schleifer Karl-Heinz (1998) Monitoring a Widespread Bacterial Group: In Situ Detection of Planctomycetes with 16S rRNA-Targeted Probes. Microbiology 144: 3257-3266. Nielsen Alex T., Liu Wen-Tso , Filipe Carlos, Grady L.J., Soren M., and Stahl D.A. (1999) Identification of a Novel Group of Bacteria in Sludge from a Deteriorated Biological Phosphorus Removal Reactor. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65: 1251-1258. Noophan Pongsak, Sripiboon Siriporn, Damrongsri Mongkol, and Munakata-Marr Junko (2009) Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation by Nitrosomonas spp. and Anammox Bacteria in A Sequencing Batch Reactor. Journal of Environmental Management 90: 967-972. Norton JeanetteM, Alzerreca JavierJ, Suwa Yuichi, and Klotz MartinG (2002) Diversity of ammonia monooxygenase operon in autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Archives of Microbiology 177: 139-149. Okamoto H, Nomura A, Nishimura T, Uchihashi Y, Sato H, Nishiyama T, Fujii T, and K Furukawa (2010) Studies on Operational Conditions for Single-stage Nitrogen Removal Process using the Anammox Reaction. Kagaku Kogaku Ronbunshu 36: 420-428. Okamoto Hiroyuki, Kawamura Kimito, Nishiyama Takashi, Fujii Takao, and Furukawa Kenji (2012) Development of a Fixed-bed Anammox Reactor with High Treatment Potential. Biodegradation: 1-12. Oshiki M., Ishii S., Yoshida K., Fujii N., Ishiguro M., Satoh H., and Okabe S. (2013a) Nitrate-Dependent Ferrous Iron Oxidation by Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79: 4087-4093. Oshiki Mamoru, Awata Takanori, Kindaichi Tomonori, Satoh Hisashi, and Okabe Satoshi (2013b) Cultivation of Planktonic Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Bacteria Using Membrane Bioreactor. Microbes and Environments. Oshiki Mamoru, Shimokawa Masaki, Fujii Naoki, Satoh Hisashi, and Okabe Satoshi (2011) Physiological Characteristics of the Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacterium ‘Candidatus Brocadia sinica’. Microbiology 157: 1706-1713. Park Hongkeun, Rosenthal Alex, Ramalingam Krish, Fillos John, and Chandran Kartik (2010) Linking Community Profiles, Gene Expression and N-Removal in Anammox Bioreactors Treating Municipal Anaerobic Digestion Reject Water. Environmental Science & Technology 44: 6110-6116. Penton C. Ryan, Devol Allan H., and Tiedje James M. (2006) Molecular Evidence for the Broad Distribution of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria in Freshwater and Marine Sediments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 6829-6832. Phan The-Nhat, Nguyen Phuoc-Dan, Bui Xuan-Thanh, Hira Daisuke, and Furukawa Kenji (2012) Study on the Application of Anammox Process Using Polyester Non-woven Biomass Carrier Reactor (PNBCR) for Latex Processing Wastewater Treatment. Journal of Water and Environment Technology 10: 217-227. Pratscher Jennifer, Stichternoth Catrin, Fichtl Katrin, Schleifer Karl-Heinz, and Braker Gesche (2009) Application of Recognition of Individual Genes-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (RING-FISH) To Detect Nitrite Reductase Genes (nirK) of Denitrifiers in Pure Cultures and Environmental Samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 802-810. Prosser J. I. (1990) Autotrophic Nitrification in Bacteria. In Advances in Microbial Physiology. Rose, A.H., and Tempest, D.W. (eds): Academic Press, pp. 125-181. Purkhold Ulrike, Pommerening-Roser Andreas, Juretschko Stefan, Schmid Markus C., Koops Hans-Peter, and Wagner Michael (2000) Phylogeny of All Recognized Species of Ammonia Oxidizers Based on Comparative 16S rRNA and amoA Sequence Analysis: Implications for Molecular Diversity Surveys. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66: 5368-5382. Quan Zhe-Xue, Rhee Sung-Keun, Zuo Jian- E., Yang Yang, Bae Jin-Woo, Park Ja Ryeong, Lee Sung-Taik, and Park Yong-Ha (2008) Diversity of Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria in A Granular Sludge Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Reactor. Environmental Microbiology 10: 3130-3139. Rattray Jayne, van de Vossenberg Jack, Hopmans Ellen, Kartal Boran, van Niftrik Laura, Rijpstra W., Strous Marc, Jetten Mike, Schouten Stefan, and Damste Jaap (2008) Ladderane Lipid Distribution in Four Genera of Anammox Bacteria. Archives of Microbiology 190: 51-66. Risgaard-Petersen Nils, Meyer Rikke Louise, Schmid Markus, Jetten Mike S. M., Enrich-Prast Alex, Rysgaard Soren, and Revsbech Niels Peter (2004) Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation in An Estuarine Sediment. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 36: 293-304. Ritchie G. A. F., and Nicholas D. J. D. (1972) Identification of The Sources of Nitrous Oxide Produced by Oxidative and Reductive Processes In Nitrosomonas europaea. Biochemical Journal 126: 1181-1191. Rosenthal Alex, Ramalingam Krish, Park Hongkeun, Deur Allen, Beckmann Keith, Chandran Kartik, and Fillos John (2009) Anammox Studies Using New York City Centrate to Correlate Performance, Population Dynamics and Impact of Toxins. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation 2009: 120-128. Rothrock Michael, Vanotti Matias, Szogi Ariel, Gonzalez Maria, and Fujii Takao (2011) Long-Term Preservation of Anammox Bacteria. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 92: 147-157. Rotthauwe J H, Witzel K P, and Liesack W (1997) The Ammonia Monooxygenase Structural Gene amoA as A Functional Marker: Molecular Fine-Scale Analysis of Natural Ammonia-Oxidizing Populations. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63: 4704-4712. Rysgaard Soren, Glud Ronnie Nohr, Risgaard-Petersen Nils, and Dalsgaard Tage (2004) Denitrification and Anammox Activity in Arctic Marine Sediments. Limnology and Oceanography 49: 1493-1502. Sanchez-Melsio Alexandre, Caliz Joan, Balaguer M. Dolors, Colprim Jesus, and Vila Xavier (2009) Development of Batch-culture Enrichment Coupled to Molecular Detection for Screening of Natural and Man-made Environments in Search of Anammox Bacteria for N-removal Bioreactors Systems. Chemosphere 75: 169-179. Sabumon P.C (2007) Anaerobic Ammonia Removal in Presence of Organic Matter: A Novel Route. Journal of Hazardous Materials 149: 49-59. Sato Yoshinori, Nishihara Hirofumi, Yoshida Masao, Watanabe Makiko, Rondal Jose D., Concepcion Rogelio N., and Ohta Hiroyuki (2006) Cupriavidus pinatubonensis sp. nov. and Cupriavidus laharis sp. nov., novel hydrogen-oxidizing, facultatively chemolithotrophic bacteria isolated from volcanic mudflow deposits from Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 56: 973-978. Schalk Jos, de Vries Simon, Kuenen J. Gijs, and Jetten Mike S. M. (2000) Involvement of a Novel Hydroxylamine Oxidoreductase in Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation. Biochemistry 39: 5405-5412. Schmid M, Twachtmann U, Klein M, Strous M, Juretschko S, Jetten M, Metzger J. W, Schleifer K. H, and Wagner M. (2000) Molecular Evidence for Genus Level Diversity of Bacteria Capable of Catalyzing Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation. Systematic and applied microbiology 23: 93-106 Schmid Markus C., Hooper Alan B., Klotz Martin G., Woebken Dagmar, Lam Phyllis, Kuypers Marcel M. M., Pommerening-Roeser Andreas, Op Den Camp Huub J. M., and Jetten Mike S. M. (2008) Environmental Detection of Octahaem Cytochrome C Hydroxylamine/Hydrazine Oxidoreductase Genes of Aerobic and Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria. Environmental Microbiology 10: 3140-3149. Schmid Markus C., Maas Bart, Dapena Ana, van de Pas-Schoonen Katinka, van de Vossenberg Jack, Kartal Boran, van Niftrik Laura, Schmidt Ingo, Cirpus Irina, Kuenen J. Gijs, Wagner Michael, Sinninghe Damste Jaap S., Kuypers Marcel, Revsbech Niels Peter, Mendez Ramon, Jetten Mike S. M., and Strous Marc (2005) Biomarkers for In Situ Detection of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71: 1677-1684. Schmid Markus C., Risgaard-Petersen Nils, Van De Vossenberg Jack, Kuypers Marcel M. M., Lavik Gaute, Petersen Jan, Hulth Stefan, Thamdrup Bo, Canfield Don, Dalsgaard Tage, Rysgaard Soren, Sejr Mikael K., Strous Marc, Op den Camp Huub J. M., and Jetten Mike S. M. (2007) Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria in Marine Environments: Widespread Occurrence but Low Diversity. Environmental Microbiology 9: 1476-1484. Schmid Markus, Walsh Kerry, Webb Rick, Rijpstra W. Irene, van de Pas-Schoonen Katinka, Verbruggen Mark Jan, Hill Thomas, Moffett Bruce, Fuerst John, Schouten Stefan, Sinninghe Damste Jaap S., Harris James, Shaw Phil, Jetten Mike, and Strous Marc (2003) Candidatus 'Scalindua brodae', sp. nov., Candidatus 'Scalindua wagneri', sp. nov., Two New Species of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria. Systematic and applied microbiology 26: 529-538. Schmidt Ingo, and Bock E. (1997) Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation with Nitrogen Dioxide by Nitrosomonas eutropha. Archives of Microbiology 167: 106-111. Schmidt Ingo, Sliekers Olav, Schmid Markus, Bock Eberhard, Fuerst John, Kuenen J. Gijs, Jetten Mike S. M., and Strous Marc (2003) New Concepts of Microbial Treatment Processes for The Nitrogen Removal in Wastewater. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 27: 481-492. Schmidt Ingo, Sliekers Olav, Schmid Markus, Cirpus Irina, Strous Marc, Bock Eberhard, Kuenen J. Gijs, and Jetten Mike S. M. (2002) Aerobic and Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria – Competitors or Natural Partners? FEMS Microbiology Ecology 39: 175-181. Schouten Stefan, Strous Marc, Kuypers Marcel M. M., Rijpstra W. Irene C., Baas Marianne, Schubert Carsten J., Jetten Mike S. M., and Sinninghe Damste Jaap S. (2004) Stable Carbon Isotopic Fractionations Associated with Inorganic Carbon Fixation by Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70: 3785-3788. Shimamura Munetaka, Nishiyama Takashi, Shigetomo Hiroyuki, Toyomoto Takeshi, Kawahara Yuka, Furukawa Kenji, and Fujii Takao (2007) Isolation of a Multiheme Protein with Features of a Hydrazine-Oxidizing Enzyme from an Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Enrichment Culture. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73: 1065-1072. Shuval H.I., and Gruener N. (1977) Infant Methemoglobinemia and Other Health Effects of Nitrates in Drinking water. Progress in Water Technology 8: 183-193. Sinninghe Damste Jaap S., Strous Marc, Rijpstra W. Irene C., Hopmans Ellen C., Geenevasen Jan A. J., van Duin Adri C. T., van Niftrik Laura A., and Jetten Mike S. M. (2002) Linearly Concatenated Cyclobutane Lipids form A Dense Bacterial Membrane. Nature 419: 708-712. Sliekers A. Olav, Derwort N., Gomez J. L. Campos, Strous M., Kuenen J. G., and Jetten M. S. M. (2002) Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal Over Nitrite in One Single Reactor. Water Research 36: 2475-2482. Sliekers A. Olav, Third K. A., Abma W., Kuenen J. G., and Jetten M. S. M. (2003) CANON and Anammox in a Gas-Lift Reactor. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 218: 339-344. Sri Shalini S., and Joseph Kurian (2012) Nitrogen management in landfill leachate: Application of SHARON, ANAMMOX and combined SHARON–ANAMMOX process. Waste Management 32: 2385-2400. Strous M., Heijnen J. J., Kuenen J. G., and Jetten M. S. M. (1998) The Sequencing Batch Reactor as A Powerful Tool for The Study of Slowly Growing Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Microorganisms. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 50: 589-596. Strous M., Van Gerven E., Kuenen J. G., and Jetten M. (1997a) Effects of Aerobic and Microaerobic Conditions on Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Sludge. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63: 2446-2448. Strous Marc, Fuerst John A., Kramer Evelien H. M., Logemann Susanne, Muyzer Gerard, van de Pas-Schoonen Katinka T., Webb Richard, Kuenen J. Gijs, and Jetten Mike S. M. (1999a) Missing Lithotroph Identified as New Planctomycete. Nature 400: 446-449. Strous Marc, Kuenen J. Gijs, and Jetten Mike S. (1999b) Key Physiology of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65: 3248-3250. Strous Marc, Pelletier Eric, Mangenot Sophie, Rattei Thomas, Lehner Angelika, Taylor Michael W., Horn Matthias, Daims Holger, Bartol-Mavel Delphine, Wincker Patrick, Barbe Valerie, Fonknechten Nuria, Vallenet David, Segurens Beatrice, Schenowitz-Truong Chantal, Medigue Claudine, Collingro Astrid, Snel Berend, Dutilh Bas E., Op den Camp Huub J. M., van der Drift Chris, Cirpus Irina, van de Pas-Schoonen Katinka T., Harhangi Harry R., van Niftrik Laura, Schmid Markus, Keltjens Jan, van de Vossenberg Jack, Kartal Boran, Meier Harald, Frishman Dmitrij, Huynen Martijn A., Mewes Hans-Werner, Weissenbach Jean, Jetten Mike S. M., Wagner Michael, and Le Paslier Denis (2006) Deciphering the Evolution and Metabolism of An Anammox Bacterium From a Community Genome. Nature 440: 790-794. Strous Marc, Van Gerven Eric, Zheng Ping, Kuenen J. Gijs, and Jetten Mike S. M. (1997b) Ammonium Removal from Concentrated Waste Streams with The Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Process in Different Reactor Configurations. Water Research 31: 1955-1962. Tang Chong-Jian, Zheng Ping, Hu Bao-Lan, Chen Jian-Wei, and Wang Cai-Hua (2010) Influence of Substrates on Nitrogen Removal Performance and Microbiology of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation by Operating Two UASB Reactors Fed with Different Substrate Levels. Journal of Hazardous Materials 181: 19-26. Terada Akihiko, Zhou Sheng, and Hosomi Masaaki (2011) Presence and detection of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria and appraisal of anammox process for high-strength nitrogenous wastewater treatment: a review. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 13: 759-781. Third K. A., Paxman J., Schmid M., Strous M., Jetten M. S. M., and Cord-Ruwisch R. (2005) Enrichment of Anammox from Activated Sludge and Its Application in the CANON Process. Microbial Ecology 49: 236-244. Third K. A., Sliekers A. Olav, Kuenen J. G., and Jetten M. S. M. (2001) The CANON System (Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen-Removal Over Nitrite) Under Ammonium Limitation: Interaction and Competition between Three Groups of Bacteria. Systematic and applied microbiology 24: 588-596. Throback Ingela Noredal, Enwall Karin, Jarvis Asa, and Hallin Sara (2004) Reassessing PCR Primers Targeting nirS, nirK and nosZ Genes for Community Surveys of Denitrifying Bacteria with DGGE. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 49: 401-417. Tomonori Kindaichi, Shota Yuri, Noriatsu Ozaki, and Ohashi Akiyoshi (2011) Ecophysiological Role and Function of Uncultured Chloroflexi in an Anammox Reactor. In The 4th IWA-ASPIRE Conference & Exhibition. Tokyo, Japan: International water association asia pacific regional group, p. 94. Trigo C., Campos J. L., Garrido J. M., and Mendez R. (2006) Start-Up of The Anammox Process in A Membrane Bioreactor. Journal of Biotechnology 126: 475-487. Tsushima Ikuo, Kindaichi Tomonori, and Okabe Satoshi (2007a) Quantification of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria in Enrichment Cultures by Real-Time PCR. Water Research 41: 785-794. Tsushima Ikuo, Ogasawara Yuji, Kindaichi Tomonori, Satoh Hisashi, and Okabe Satoshi (2007b) Development of High-Rate Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Biofilm Reactors. Water Research 41: 1623-1634. van de Graaf A A, Mulder A, de Bruijn P, Jetten M S, Robertson L A, and Kuenen J G (1995) Anaerobic Oxidation of Ammonium is a Biologically Mediated Process. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61: 1246-1251. van de Graaf A. A., de Bruijn P., Robertson L. A., Jetten M. S. M., and Kuenen J. G. (1997) Metabolic Pathway of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation on Basis of 15N-Studies in A Fluidized Bed Reactor. Microbiology 143: 2415-2421. van de Graaf Astrid A., de Bruijn Peter, Robertson Lesley A., Jetten Mike S. M., and Kuenen J. Gijs (1996) Autotrophic Growth of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Microorganisms in a Fluidized Bed Reactor. Microbiology 142: 2187-2196. van de Vossenberg Jack, Rattray Jayne E., Geerts Wim, Kartal Boran, Van Niftrik Laura, Van Donselaar Elly G., Sinninghe Damste Jaap S., Strous Marc, and Jetten Mike S. M. (2008) Enrichment and characterization of marine anammox bacteria associated with global nitrogen gas production. Environmental Microbiology 10: 3120-3129. van de Vossenberg Jack, Woebken Dagmar, Maalcke Wouter J., Wessels Hans J. C. T., Dutilh Bas E., Kartal Boran, Janssen-Megens Eva M., Roeselers Guus, Yan Jia, Speth Daan, Gloerich Jolein, Geerts Wim, van der Biezen Erwin, Pluk Wendy, Francoijs Kees-Jan, Russ Lina, Lam Phyllis, Malfatti Stefanie A., Tringe Susannah Green, Haaijer Suzanne C. M., Op den Camp Huub J. M., Stunnenberg Henk G., Amann Rudi, Kuypers Marcel M. M., and Jetten Mike S. M. (2012) The metagenome of the marine anammox bacterium ‘Candidatus Scalindua profunda’ illustrates the versatility of this globally important nitrogen cycle bacterium. Environmental Microbiology: no-no. van der Star Wouter R. L., Abma Wiebe R., Blommers Dennis, Mulder Jan-Willem, Tokutomi Takaaki, Strous Marc, Picioreanu Cristian, and van Loosdrecht Mark C. M. (2007) Startup of Reactors for Anoxic Ammonium Oxidation: Experiences from The First Full-Scale Anammox Reactor in Rotterdam. Water Research 41: 4149-4163. van der Star Wouter R. L., Miclea Andreea I., van Dongen Udo G. J. M., Muyzer Gerard, Picioreanu Cristian, and van Loosdrecht Mark C. M. (2008) The Membrane Bioreactor: A Novel Tool to Grow Anammox Bacteria as Free Cells. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 101: 286-294. van Dongen U. , Jetten M.S.M. , and Van Loosdrecht M.C.M. (2001) The SHARON-Anammox Process for Treatment of Ammonium Rich Wastewater. Water Science & Technology 44 153–160. Van Hulle Stijn W. H., Vandeweyer Helge J. P., Meesschaert Boudewijn D., Vanrolleghem Peter A., Dejans Pascal, and Dumoulin Ann (2010) Engineering Aspects and Practical Application of Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal from Nitrogen Rich Streams. Chemical Engineering Journal 162: 1-20. van Niftrik Laura A., Fuerst John A., Damste Jaap S. Sinninghe, Kuenen J. Gijs, Jetten Mike S. M., and Strous Marc (2004) The Anammoxosome: An Intracytoplasmic Compartment in Anammox Bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Letters 233: 7-13. van Niftrik Laura, Geerts Willie J. C., van Donselaar Elly G., Humbel Bruno M., Webb Richard I., Fuerst John A., Verkleij Arie J., Jetten Mike S. M., and Strous Marc (2008) Linking Ultrastructure and Function in Four Genera of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria: Cell Plan, Glycogen Storage, and Localization of Cytochrome C Proteins. Journal of Bacteriology 190: 708-717. Vandamme P., Goris J., Coenye T., Hoste B., Janssens D., Kersters K., De Vos P., and Falsen E. (1999) Assignment of Centers for Disease Control group IVc-2 to the genus Ralstonia as Ralstonia paucula sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 49: 663-669. Vaneechoutte Mario, Kampfer Peter, De Baere Thierry, Falsen Enevold, and Verschraegen Gerda (2004) Wautersia gen. nov., a novel genus accommodating the phylogenetic lineage including Ralstonia eutropha and related species, and proposal of Ralstonia [Pseudomonas] syzygii (Roberts et al. 1990) comb. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 54: 317-327. Vanotti MB, Szogi AA, and Rothrock MJ Jr (2011) Novel Anammox Bacterium Isolate. Washington, US Patent and Trademark Office. Vitousek Peter M., Aber John D., Howarth Robert W., Likens Gene E., Matson Pamela A., Schindler David W., Schlesinger William H., and Tilman David G. (1997) Human Alteration of The Global Nitrogen Cycle: Sources and Consequences. Ecological Applications 7: 737-750. Wagner Michael, Rath Gabriele, Koops Hans-Peter, Flood Janine, and Amann Rudolf (1996) In Situ Analysis of Nitrifying Bacteria in Sewage Treatment Plants. Water Science & Technology 34: 237-244. Wang Chih-Cheng, Lee Po-Heng, Kumar Mathava, Huang Yu-Tzu, Sung Shihwu, and Lin Jih-Gaw (2010) Simultaneous Partial Nitrification, Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation and Denitrification (SNAD) in a Full-scale Landfill-leachate Treatment Plant. Journal of Hazardous Materials 175: 622-628. Watson StanleyW, Bock Eberhard, Valois FredericaW, Waterbury JohnB, and Schlosser Ursula (1986) Nitrospira marina gen. nov. sp. nov.: A Chemolithotrophic Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterium. Archives of Microbiology 144: 1-7. Wenk Christine B., Blees Jan, Zopfi Jakob, Veronesi Mauro, Bourbonnais Annie, Schubert Carsten J. , Niemann Helge , and Lehmann Moritz F. (2013) Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria and sulfide-dependent denitrifiers coexist in the water column of a meromictic south-alpine lake. Limnology and Oceanography 58: 1-12. Wett B. (2007) Development and implementation of a robust deammonification process. Water Science & Technology 56: 81-88. Windey Kim, De Bo Inge, and Verstraete Willy (2005) Oxygen-Limited Autotrophic Nitrification–Denitrification (OLAND) in a Rotating Biological Contactor Treating High-Salinity Wastewater. Water Research 39: 4512-4520. Woebken Dagmar, Fuchs Bernhard M., Kuypers Marcel M. M., and Amann Rudolf (2007) Potential Interactions of Particle-Associated Anammox Bacteria with Bacterial and Archaeal Partners in the Namibian Upwelling System. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73: 4648-4657. Wolthoorn Anke, Temminghoff Erwin J. M., and van Riemsdijk Willem H. (2004) Effect of Synthetic Iron Colloids on The Microbiological NH4+ Removal Process during Groundwater Purification. Water Research 38: 1884-1892. Yang Qing, Liu Xiuhong, Peng Chengyao, Wang Shuying, Sun Hongwei, and Peng Yongzhen (2009) N2O Production during Nitrogen Removal via Nitrite from Domestic Wastewater: Main Sources and Control Method. Environmental Science & Technology 43: 9400-9406. Youssef Noha H., Blainey Paul C., Quake Stephen R., and Elshahed Mostafa S. (2011) Partial Genome Assembly for a Candidate Division OP11 Single Cell from an Anoxic Spring (Zodletone Spring, Oklahoma). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77: 7804-7814. Zehr Jonathan P., and Ward Bess B. (2002) Nitrogen Cycling in the Ocean: New Perspectives on Processes and Paradigms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68: 1015-1024. Zumft W G (1997) Cell Biology and Molecular Basis of Denitrification. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 61: 533-616.
摘要: 傳統生物除氮程序是利用微生物的硝化和脫氮能力淨化水中含氮污染物質,因具有高效率、低費用等優點,故長久以來被廣泛應用於廢水處理系統。然而,利用生物處理氨氮廢水實例中,近年來以厭氧氧氨氧化程序(ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation, ANAMMOX程序)最受重視,此程序具有高效能除氮能力,且毋須額外添加有機碳源,其產生之污泥量更是遠少於傳統除氮程序所產生之污泥量,具節省成本等優點。現今國外有很多對於ANAMMOX之相關研究及將厭氧氨氧化微生物應用於實場的例子,但國內外的生物處理系統操作條件及厭氧氨氧化菌種類等環境因素有所差異,為此,本研究著手針對台灣地區厭氧氨氧化微生物進行調查。 本研究首先採集台灣地區可能具有厭氧氨氧化菌的環境樣本,並由實驗證實確具具有厭氧氨氧化微生物族群存在於樣本中,且其存在的數量亦有所不同。經由調查結果顯示,存在台灣地區環境樣本中的厭氧氨氧化微生物種類大多為Candidatus Brocadia sp.,數量可達104 ~ 108 copies/μg DNA。由於垃圾滲出水污泥樣本中存在的厭氧氨氧化微生物數量最高,因此,本研究後續試驗將以垃圾滲出水污泥樣本作為菌種來源,進行厭氧氨氧化微生物相關試驗。 選定菌種來源後,利用500 mL批次反應槽進行培養條件試驗,實驗證實培養條件可成功馴養厭氧氨氧化微生物。進一步提升批次反應槽體積至1000 mL,亦成功馴養厭氧氨氧化微生物Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus,其數量最高可達2.87 ± 0.74 × 1010 copies/μg DNA,且此系統之氨氮去除率達92%,亞硝酸鹽氮去除率達100%,硝酸鹽氮無生成率,反而約有去除率15%。而15 L膜薄反應槽進行大量厭氧氨氧化微生物馴養方面,成功馴養出厭氧氨氧化微生物Candidatus Brocadia sp.,包含Candidatus Brocadia sp. 40、Candidatus Brocadia anammoxcidans及Candidatus Brocadia sinica三類菌種,數量最高可達3.23 ± 0.01 × 108 copies/μg DNA,目前系統最大氮負荷可達0.7 g-N/L/day,氨氮及亞硝酸鹽氮總去除率達96%。於氮負荷140 mg-N/L/d條件下,單一批次中,系統於進流基質後5小時,其氨氮及亞硝酸鹽氮去除率達95%,且anammox bacteria基因表現與產氣速率呈正比,而SAA為0.94 ± 0.24 g N2-N (g VSS)-1d-1。 本研究所建立兩個不同的ANAMMOX系統,其菌種植種來源相同,使用的培養基成份相同,可培養出不同的厭氧氨氧化微生物種類,存在於AR系統中為Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus,而存在MS系統中則為Candidatus Brocadia sp.。由於本研究所馴養之厭氧氨氧化微生物Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus顯少被文獻所提及,且其存在之系統具有良好的除氮效能,因此特針對AR系統進行與厭氧氨氧化微生物共存之微生物族群分析。研究顯示,系統中與其共存之微生物以屬於Chloroflexi門的絲狀菌族群為主,另有Acidobacteria、Actinobacteria、Azospirillum brasilense、Ignavibacteria、Nitrosomonas sp.、Nitrospirae bacteria、Pseudomonas stutzeri、Rubrivivax gelatinosus等微生物族群存在,其中厭氧氨氧化微生物存在比例已達89 ± 15%,而AOB及NOB族群總比例為10%,由此顯示系統中以厭氧氨氧化微生物為主要族群。此外,本研究特針對Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus設計專一性引子組Amx368F/Apr1023R。經由實驗證實此引子組專一性佳,可順利量測AR系統中Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus的數量變化。藉由Real-Time PCR分析結果可知,系統中的Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus數量已達108 copies/μg DNA以上,其氨氮及亞硝酸鹽氮去除率仍維持95%以上,且其數量愈高,系統產氣量愈多。綜合本研究成果已順利推測AR系統中微生物與氮化物轉換的關係,及各微生物族群的互動模式。
In traditional biological wastewater treatment, nitrification/denitrification processes have been widely used for removing nitrogen compounds due to its high efficiency and low operating cost. On the other hand, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is a new biological wastewater treatment technology developed in recent years. The ANAMMOX process is markedly superiority for the treatment of nitrogenous wastewater, being associated with a significant savings of aeration energy as well as obviating the need for organic carbon and producing less sludge compared with the conventional nitrification and denitrification processes. Full scale plants have been implemented for ANAMMOX process abroad. However, the operating of biological treatment system, anammox bacteria strains and other environmental factors at Taiwan and abroad could be different. Therefore, the possible anammox bacterial diversity in Taiwan is worth being investigated. In this study, sediments were collected from the natural ecosystems for identifying anammox microorganism. The cell counts of anammox bacteria from the natural ecosystems were significantly different. The major anammox bacteria strain in the sediments from Taiwan was Candidatus Brocadia sp. and the cell counts of anammox bacteria was 104 ~ 108 copies/μg DNA. Because of the highest cell number of anammox bacteria was identified from a particular landfill-leachate treatment plan, sludge from this site was selected as seeding for this study. First, batch incubations for the enrichment of anammox bacteria were successfully achieved using 500 mL serum bottles. Then, a laboratory-scale reactor (1000 mL, labelled as AR reactor) was used to increase the biomass. In this 1000 mL reactor, the existence of anammox bacterial community was identified as Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus, its cell counts was 2.87 ± 0.74 × 1010 copies/μg DNA. Results showed that the system could keep an average removal efficiency of ammonium and nitrite between 90% and 100% stably and 15% of nitrate was removed. Finally, an anammox membrane bioreactor (Anammox-MSBR, 15 L, labelled as MS reactor) was prepared and the bacterial community structure within the reactor was expolred. In this reactor, the existence of anammox bacterial community included Candidatus Brocadia sp. 40、Candidatus Brocadia anammoxcidans and Candidatus Brocadia sinica, the cell counts of anammox bacteria was 3.23 ± 0.01 × 108 copies/μg DNA, the nitrogen loading rate was 0.7 g-N/L/day and the removal efficiency of ammonium and nitrite was 96%, SAA was 0.94 ± 0.24 g N2-N (g VSS)-1d-1. In this study, two different ANAMMOX systems (AR and MS) were established using same seeding and mineral medium, but the final outcomes of anammox bacterial community were different, Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus existed in AR reactor and Candidatus Brocadia sp. existed in MS system. The rarely found anammox microorganism Ca. Anammoxoglobus propionicus is an anammox species that have been reported once in the reference. The high nitrogen removal rate was attained in AR reactor and bacterial community structure and interaction of co-existing microorganisms on this anammox system were studied as well. The results showed that the main co-existing microorganism was Chloroflexi. Other microbial communities in this system included Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Azospirillum brasilense, Ignavibacteria, Nitrosomonas sp., Nitrospirae bacteria, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Rubrivivax gelatinosus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that ratio of anammox bacteria to total eubacteria reached 89 ± 15%, while the ratio of AOB and NOB was 10%. In addition, a specific real-time PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA of Ca. Anammoxoglobus propionicus was designed and tested in this thesis to quantify this specific microorganism in AR reactor. In this reactor, the cell concentrations of anammox bacteria reached 108 copies/μg DNA, the nitrogen removal rate remained above 95%. Overall, the results showed the community structure and interaction of co-existing microorganisms as well as their effects on this anammox system performance and various microbial communities in interactive mode.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/91679
文章公開時間: 2017-06-19
顯示於類別:環境工程學系所

文件中的檔案:
檔案 描述 大小格式 
nchu-103-8095063003-1.pdf4.61 MBAdobe PDF檢視/開啟


在 DSpace 系統中的文件,除了特別指名其著作權條款之外,均受到著作權保護,並且保留所有的權利。