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標題: 不同生育地台灣海棗葉功能特性及生長之研究
Leaf traits and growth of the Taiwan palm Phoenix hanceana Naudin in different habitats
作者: Su-Ya Liao
關鍵字: 台灣海棗
Taiwan date palm
Phoenix hanceana Naudin
environmental factor
leaf functional trait
seasonal changes
palm age
growth model
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摘要: Taiwan date palm, Phoenix hanceana Naudin (Arecaceae) is a native palm widely distributed in lowland Taiwan. Compared to most palm trees growing in tropical regions, P. hanceana found in subtropical habitats is a chilling tolerant indicator plant of its family. This species can serve as a valuable indicator to study the effects of global warming and changing environments and to provide a better understanding of how these changes affect the future populations of species in Arecacae and their growth strategies. In this study, P. hanceana from seven selected study sites in Taiwan (including western and eastern coastal areas and an outlying island), and cultivated individuals with different treatments, were used to monitor. The aim was to explore the association between growth strategy and leaf functional traits of P. hanceana and compare sapling growth responses. In addition, the tree age modeling and age estimation of local populations of P. hanceana were first reported. Results showed that the plants growing in eastern Taiwan (Nantian, Guanshan and Baxiandong) had slower leaf growth rates. Among these sites, the plants growing in Baxiandong with relative shaded environments and those in the 21st- 25th plots of Guanshan had higher values of mature leaf length, leaf petiole length, leaf life span, leaf area and specific leaf area (SLA), but smaller leaflet frequency. The plants growing at Tongxiao, Dadu, Ludao (island) and Dulan had higher leaf growth rates. The two western sites (Dadu and Tongxiao) had experienced long term disturbance from human activity and fire, and gave the highest leaf dry matter content and low specific leaf area. Stepwise regression predicted that annual mean temperature, cumulative days of temperature < 12℃ per year, annual max temperature and min temperature were the main factors significantly related to leaf traits. A similar result was found from Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The seven study sites can be classified as coming from three geographic regions: eastern coastal, Guanshan, and western coastal regions. Among the classified ranks of the plant trunk height, there were no significant differences between leaf traits and trunk heights in western coastal and in Guanshan regions, but the leaf growth rate and leaf area increased with trunk height of the plants growing in eastern coastal region and the 14-16th plots of Guanshan. No matter leaf growth rate or green leaf number of any nursery saplings increase as trunk height increases. Those plants cultivated in eastern Taiwan treated with [sunny + moist] had a higher growth rate and green leaf number; while the plants treated with [sunny + water logging] had the shorter leaf life span than the others. The seasonal growth surveys during 2011 to 2013 showed that the highest leaf growth rate appeared in the summer of 2012, while the slowest one was in the winter of 2012. In summer and in fall of 2012, leaf growth rate was faster than those of the previous year. This study revealed that P. hanceana has different growth strategies in response to different environments and seasonal changes, and these responses may affect the trunk height. Moreover, temperature is the most important factor for palm growth. Light shapes the leaf. Precipitation promotes leaf growth, and the rainy days affect the leaf growth strategies: to increase the leaf number or to elongate leaf length. However, if precipitation is excessive, and the trunk bases are soaked, gas exchange rates are reduced, thus reducing leaf longevity. Based on the growth modeling of P. hanceana constructed in this study, the young tree will not form a significant trunk until the growth of the 79th leaf. It is estimated that the ages of the existing populations of P. hanceana in Taiwan are at least 94- 273 years. Estimation of the oldest trunk age allows inference of the minimum local population survival time. In summary, these results of growth strategies and plant age composition of this species provide valuable insights for a better understanding of plant adaptive plasticity and for future conservation.
台灣海棗(Phoenix hanceana Naudin)為廣泛分布於台灣低海拔的原生棕櫚科(Arecaceae)植物。相對於一般的棕櫚科為熱帶植物,分布至亞熱帶地區的台灣海棗是本科植物可耐臨界低溫的指標物種,對於日趨嚴重的全球暖化及氣候劇烈動盪,值得探討其生長適應及族群延續策略。本研究以監測生長於台灣本島東西岸、離島等七個地區不同生育地的台灣海棗成株,並且加入人工種植的植株,探討其生長策略與葉功能特性的相關性。此外,本研究亦首次建構海棗樹齡的推算模式,並推估各地族群存活或形成的時間。 結果顯示生長在東部南田、關山及八仙洞地區的台灣海棗有顯著較緩慢的葉增加速率;其中較具遮陰的八仙洞及關山第21?25樣區,有顯著較大的成熟葉長度、葉柄長度、葉面積、比葉面積值及較小的小葉排列頻度。而生長在通霄、大肚、綠島及都蘭地區的台灣海棗具較快的葉增加速率,其中以長期受到干擾的西部大肚及通霄地區有較大的葉乾含量及較小的比葉面積。逐步回歸分析顯示年平均溫度、日平均溫度低於12℃的年累積天數百分比、年最高溫度及年最低溫度為主要影響葉特性的因子,與CCA第一軸有相似的結果。依結果大致可將調查的樣區劃分為三大地理區域:東部濱海、關山地區、西部濱海。而依植株高度區分的七個等級中,西部及關山地區均無任一葉特性在高度分級間有顯著差異,僅在東部及關山第14?16樣區之葉增加速率及葉面積隨著高度分級而增加。人工栽種的幼株也隨植株高度的增加,其葉增加速率及綠葉宿存數量均隨之增加。此外,在東部全日光、給水環境的人工處理組尤具明顯較快的葉增加速率及較多的綠葉宿存數量;然而在全光照、泡水組中的葉壽命明顯較其他處理組短。在二年(2011?2013年)葉特性的調查中,最快的葉增加速率出現於2012年夏季,而同年的冬季則最慢;葉增加速率及綠葉宿存數量在2012年夏季及秋季均較前一年大。推測季節變化可能和溫度及雨量豐沛與否有關,另外成熟葉長度及葉伸長速率均受到雨量因子的影響。以上得知台灣海棗植株在不同環境、桿高及季節變換均會採取不同的生長策略,溫度為重要影響生長的因子,光線改變葉片之形態塑形,雨量除促進生長外,降雨天數的多寡會影響增加葉數量或增長葉片長度而影響葉片的生長策略,但泡水導致換氣差而降減葉壽命。 經由生長觀測推算模式得知,台灣海棗約長出79片葉子才形成明顯的桿,並推估現存族群約有94?273年,由最大樹齡可推斷各族群在該地近期存活的時間。綜合了解此物種的生長策略及其樹齡結構,對台灣海棗族群的可塑性、未來動向和保育工作具有重要意義。
文章公開時間: 2017-08-31
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