Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/92101
標題: 以體色為媒介之物種間互利共生: 赤腹寄居姬蛛對宿主人面蜘蛛覓食之影響
Body coloration mediated interspecific mutualism: Effects of Argyrodes miniaceus on foraging of Nephila pilipes
作者: Yin-Chin Leu
呂盈靜
關鍵字: 偷竊寄生
赤腹寄居姬蛛
人面蜘蛛
kleptoparasitism
Argyrodes miniaceus
Nephila pilipes
mutualism
symbiosis
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摘要: Kleptoparasites are organisms which steal food from others. In spiders, the well-known kleptoparasites are members of genus Argyrodes (Theridiidae). Most previous studies showed that Argyrodes spiders tend to bring negative effects to their host. However, a recent study showed that Argyrodes fissifrons had conspicuous silver patches and such body color can attract prey to Cyrtophora host's webs to increase their foraging success. Nevertheless, Nephila philipes ─ host of Argyrodes miniaceus , has conspicuous body color which functions to lure prey. In this study, I tested whether the conspicuously orange-red colored A. miniaceus can increase foraging success of hosts by visually attracting prey to webs of N. philipes. I conducted field experiments in Huoyen Mountain, Sanyi Township, Miaoli county , Taiwan, in July and August of 2012, 2013, and 2014 in which the presence or body color of A. miniaceus were manipulated. Interception rates of diurnal and nocturnal prey of N. philipes webs receiving different treatments on A. miniaceus were monitored by video cameras. The results showed that although presence of A. miniaceus had no effect on N. philipes's diurnal prey interception, they significantly increased host's nocturnal prey interception. Moreover, nocturnal prey interception rate was significantly increased when A. miniaceus was unpainted. According to these results, since A. miniaceus with orange-red body coloration can potentially enhance foraging of N. philipes, the interactions between these two spiders indicate a color-mediated interspecific mutualism.
有些蜘蛛會生活在其他蜘蛛的網上,並以竊取網上獵物來獲得食物,稱之為偷竊寄生者(kleptoparasitism)。其中以姬蛛科Argyrodes屬的蜘蛛最具代表性。過去的研究結果顯示,偷竊寄生者常給宿主帶來負面效益,很少有研究認為兩者間存在著共生關係。然而,近年來的研究中證實,具醒目銀斑的裂額寄居姬蛛(Argyrodes fissifrons)能夠幫助體色較暗的宿主雲斑蛛(Cyrtophora)吸引獵物,並增加其網的獵物攔截率。不過,對於本身就具有醒目體色,能夠吸引獵物功能的宿主─人面蜘蛛(Nephila pilipes)來說,生活於其網上,具橙紅體色的偷竊寄生蜘蛛─赤腹寄居姬蛛(Argyrodes miniaceus),是否能夠藉由其顯眼的體色幫助宿主增加覓食效益,為本次所要探討的方向。本實驗在苗栗三義火炎山之步道進行,分為(1)操控赤腹寄居姬蛛的存在是否會影響宿主獵物獲得量以及(2)操控赤腹寄居姬蛛之體色是否會影響宿主獵物獲得量兩部分,並以攝影機分別記錄白天和晚上在不同處理下人面蜘蛛網的獵物獲得量。結果顯示,在白天皆有宿主的情況下,不論赤腹寄居姬蛛是否存在,皆無法顯著地增加宿主網的獵物攔截率;並且,宿主亦沒有因赤腹寄居姬蛛醒目體色而顯著增加網的獵物攔截率。然而,在夜間皆有宿主的情況下,赤腹寄居姬蛛的存在可顯著地增加宿主網的獵物攔截率;另外,當赤腹寄居姬蛛體色受到塗色改變後,宿主網的獵物攔截率有顯著減少。因此從實驗結果得知雖然在白天赤腹寄居姬蛛可能沒有辦法利用體色增加其宿主網的獵物攔截率,然而赤腹寄居姬蛛體色在夜間能夠幫助宿主獲得更多食物來源。總結來說,赤腹寄居姬蛛可能和宿主人面蜘蛛有著互利共生的關係,而這樣共生的關係是由體色作為媒介所建立的。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/92101
文章公開時間: 2018-02-03
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