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標題: 座位選擇、閱讀行為與停留時間之關係-以咖啡廳為例
The Relationships between Table Selection, Reading Behavior and Duration in Coffee Shops
作者: Ping-Hsuan Chao
關鍵字: 咖啡廳
Coffee shop
Table selection
Reading behavior
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摘要: When people visit a coffee shop, do they choose where to sit according to what they want to do? And how does this behavior affect the revenue of the shop? A customer whose purpose is just enjoying a cup of coffee may choose a table where is totally different from the one whose purpose is spending his leisure afternoon in the shop. With the different characteristics of table locations, customers with various purposes may have various philosophies on choosing where to sit, and this may result in how long they will stay in the shop, which in turn affects the utilization of tables. However, previous studies have not discussed the relationship between table selection and consumer behavior. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to explore the relationships and interactions among reading behavior, table selection, SPM and Wi-Fi. Eventually, we propose four hypotheses: (1)H1:There is a relationship between reading behavior and table selection. (2)H2:Reading behavior has an effect on SPM. (3)H3: When a consumer does not read in a coffee shop, she or he will have a 'higher' SPM when sitting in an unanchored table; When a consumer reads in a coffee shop, she or he will have a 'lower' SPM when sitting in an anchored table. (4)H4:When a coffee shop provide Wi-Fi facilities, a consumer with reading will contribute a 'higher' SPM; When a customer does not read in a coffee shop, there has no significant difference on SPM whether providing Wi-Fi or not. For this study, the characteristics of tables were classified according to numbers of anchors. The data was collected by naturalistic observations, and customers' behaviors were observed and recorded in three types of coffee shops, including chain stores, specialty stores and combinational stores. A total of 310 customers were observed in this study, including 129 individuals and 181 in groups. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square Test, Simple Regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to analyze the observed data. Our results show that three of four hypotheses are supported:People who read or surf prefer to choose anchored seats;Reading has a negative effect on SPM; Reading has moderating effects on the relationship between table selection and SPM. Besides, we find that the differences of styles of coffee shops affect SPM, and the chain store type has the highest SPM. These findings could give implications for managers. When they want to set up a coffee shop that suit for reading they could arrange more seats with one anchor, but need to pay attention on lower SPM; and if their target is on no-reading consumers, they could arrange more seats without anchor. Regarding to the selection of type of coffee shop, we suggest that chain store is a better profitable model because of having the highest SPM.
當消費者走進一間咖啡廳時,他們是否會依據他們想要從事的行為而選擇特定的座位?而這樣座位選擇的行為是否會影響咖啡廳的收益呢?當消費者來到咖啡廳的目的是與朋友暢談聊天,其選擇座位的思考脈絡絕對與只是單純享受悠閒咖啡時光有所不同。因此,當消費者擁有不同目的或情境,搭配上不同的座位特性,可能衍生出多種的座位選擇的哲學,而這些因素都很有可能影響他們於咖啡廳的SPM,進一步影響咖啡廳的翻桌率和收益。但以往餐飲研究並未探討座位與從事行為的關係,進而產生了研究缺口。 因此,本研究以咖啡廳作為研究地點,研究目的則是以閱讀行為為主要觀察行為,探討閱讀行為、座位選擇、SPM和Wi-Fi之間的關係和交互作用,並提出四個待驗證的假設:(1)假設1:閱讀行為與座位選擇有相關。 (2)假設2:閱讀行為對SPM產生顯著差異。 (3)假設3:無閱讀行為時,消費者對座位選擇以無固定點的座位相較於有固定點的座位具較高的SPM;有閱讀行為時,消費者對座位選擇以有固定點的座位相較於無固定點的座位具較低的SPM。 (4)假設4:有閱讀行為時,消費者在有提供Wi-Fi的咖啡廳相較於沒提供Wi-Fi的咖啡廳具較高的SPM;無閱讀行為時,是否有提供Wi-Fi對於SPM沒有顯著差異。 為達到此目的,座位類型依據固定點的多寡來進行分類(無固定點卅一個固定點卅兩個固定點卅三個固定點),而研究方法採用自然觀察法(naturalistic observation),觀察地點則選在三種咖啡廳類型(連鎖、複合、個性)各三家,於觀察期間內蒐集310份以桌為單位的有效樣本。 結果使用SPSS統計軟體進行描述性統計、卡方分析(Chi-square Test)、簡單迴歸(Simple Regression)和單變量變異數分析(ANOVA)進行結果分析。最後,結果顯示,四個假設唯有假設4不成立:閱讀人口偏好擁有固定點的座位,特別是一個固定點的座位;閱讀行為會對SPM產生負影響;閱讀行為確實能當作調節變數,影響座位選擇和SPM之間的關係;此外,亦額外發現不同的咖啡廳型態會對SPM產生顯著差異,其中連鎖咖啡廳的SPM最高。 管理意涵上,咖啡廳管理者若想打造適合閱讀人口光顧的咖啡廳,可以多設置一個固定點的座位,但要注意SPM較低的現象,而若鎖定的族群為非閱讀客群,則可多提供無固定點座位,至於咖啡廳型態的選擇以連鎖咖啡廳最佳,因其SPM最高,但仍可考慮時間和成本因素而選擇次佳的複合咖啡廳為經營型態。
文章公開時間: 2017-07-16
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