請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/92549
標題: 回收家用藥物計畫之探討-稅收與補貼的決策
Recycling of Unwanted Medicines from Households in Taiwan: Taxes and Subsidies Policy
作者: Wen-Hui Chang
張雯惠
關鍵字: 藥物再利用
賽局理論
逆物流
unused medicines
game theory
reverse logistic
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摘要: Storage of unwanted medicine can lead to medicine toxicity. If the medicine is left around, children can accidentally take medicine by mistake and aged consumers can be confused with many medications and lead to ineffective treatment. In addition, if people do not handle drugs properly, the environment may be exposed to drug residues. In this paper, we conduct a collection system for unwanted household medicines in reverse supply chain, which includes manufacturing, recycling, and governing entities. We suggest the government adopting the method of the taxation and incentive payments to increase recycling amounts thus the social welfare can be maximized. The patients' unused medicines induce the recycling issue. Many of the medicines in a contact condition are suitable for reusing. Many of the unused medicines are still in full effect. If the medicines are brought back to special hospitals for reusing, it may provide a low-cost source of the hospitals' medicine. As a result, the benefits shall include the reduction in reverse logistics cost, increasing environmental sustainability through the medicines recycling program. A social welfare maximization model is presented to determine the optimal taxes and subsidies policy, and ordering quantities for the government, pharmaceutical manufacturer, and recycling hospital respectively through the analysis of Stackelberg game. In this three-stage model, the first stage leader is Recycling Fund Management Board of the government; the follower is pharmaceutical manufacturer and recycling hospital. To maximize the social welfare, the government determines the taxes paid by the pharmaceutical manufacturer and the recycling hospital, and the subsidy fees for the recycling hospital when she sells products and processes unwanted medicines. The second stage decision maker is the recycling hospital and the follower is pharmaceutical manufacturer. The recycling hospital is responsible for recycling medicines as a recycling unit of leftover medicine from households. Before releasing the medicine for reusing, the pharmacists would examine the unused medicine. By reusing the unwanted medicines, it brings cost savings and considerable economic benefits for the recycling hospital. Finally, the third stage decision maker is the pharmaceutical manufacturer. After observing the government and recycling hospital's decision, the pharmaceutical manufacturer determines the optimal production/prices for her profit maximization This research assumes the demand being a linear function of price to simplify the problem complexity. We respectively explore the optimal characteristics of government tax and subsidy policies, and optimal pricing mechanism of pharmaceutical manufacturer and recycling hospital. The strategy mechanism of government, pharmaceutical manufacturers and recycling hospital are implicated by various environmental factors. By performing numerical demonstration and sensitivity analysis, we gain some insight and provide some managerial interpretation against the proposed model.
將不需要的藥物存放在家中可能導致藥物變質,且存在兒童可能因好奇而誤食放置家中過期和未使用藥物之疑慮。此外,老年人可能因對多種藥物的認知混淆而無法辨認新開立與舊有藥物。另外,消費者也可能不知如何正確處理藥物而隨意丟棄藥物造成環境汙染。因此本研究考慮社會福利績效並根據此項政府施政目標建立逆物流藥品回收模型,憑藉此一研究之分析結果,我們建議政府在家用藥物回收計畫可以考慮更新回收獎勵機制,對產業施予相互搭配的稅收價金與補貼政策或許更能有助於國計民生。 此類藥物回收來源自於病患停用或更換配方而剩下的藥物,剩餘的藥物之中有相當多的數量在藥效上依舊具有完整效力,這些藥物經由藥劑師的檢驗後可再利用,若能以較低的價格提供給需要的病患,如此一來,回收醫院的成本降低,而政府的健保負擔亦隨之減輕,也因為回收計畫的實行減少藥物丟棄量,讓環境受到保護,使民眾享有安全的居住環境,讓整體的社會福利提升。 本研究所建立的Stackelberg模型中角色包含政府、製藥商和回收醫院,政府作為領導者,製藥商和回收醫院則為追隨者。對政府而言其目標乃是以社會福利績效之最大化作為出發點,進而研擬稅收價金與回收補貼獎勵的最佳組合方略。對於此研究的三階的賽局模型具體說明,第一階段的領導者為政府的回收管理基金管理委員會,追隨者為回收醫院與製藥商,政府的目標乃是最大化社會福利績效函數,此階段政府可決定針對製藥商與回收醫院製造與販售產品所徵收的污染規費,並對回收醫院處理藥物給予補貼金。第二階段的決策者為回收醫院,追隨者為製藥商,回收醫院的目標乃是自我利潤之最大化,此階段回收醫院除了妥善處理回收藥物,另外擔任家用藥物的回收單位並給予民眾適度回饋獎勵,這些藥物將透過藥師檢驗再利用,為回收醫院節省成本並帶來經濟效益。第三階段,決策者是製藥商,其目標乃是自我利潤之最大化,此階段製藥商觀察政府與回收醫院決策後,最後決定生產量或售價。 在此模型中我們假設市場藥品的需求為價格的線性函數,此一表徵乃是對現實社會予以抽象簡化以利數理分析的進行,透過規劃分析,我們將分別探討最適化的政府稅收與補貼政策之特徵,以及製藥商與回收醫院的最適定價機制。最後本研究輔以數值分析以及敏感度分析了解各項環境因子對於政府、製藥商和回收醫院的策略機制之影響。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/92549
文章公開時間: 2017-12-18
顯示於類別:行銷學系所

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