Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/93002
標題: The studies on the efficacy, toxicity, and residue of tricaine methanesulfonate (TMS;MS-222) in the tilapia, Oreochromis hybrids
三卡因甲磺酸鹽(Tricaine methanesulfonate;MS-222)在吳郭魚之麻醉效力、毒性與殘留研究
作者: Chin-Fu Cheng
鄭清福
關鍵字: 三卡因甲磺酸鹽
tricaine methanesulfonate
引用: 台灣魚產。2005。http://root.etaiwanfish.com/fish/home.nsf。 台灣魚類資料庫。http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw/chi/home.php。 台灣鰻訊。2007。http://www.eel.org.tw/。 ?政院農委會漁業署2007?資?。http://www.fa.gov.tw/chn/index.php ?政院農委會漁業署2004?資?。http://www.coa.gov.tw/pda_index.php 行政院農業委員會水產試驗所。2008。吳郭魚168。 朱鴻鈞、陳葦芋、陳政忻。2009。台灣鯛產業概況及趨勢。農業生技產業季刊。19:16-23。 李健全。1979。吳郭魚單性養殖之理論與實際。中國水產。322:11-13。 李武忠。1989。吳郭魚飼育與營養需求探討。飼料營養雜誌。89(4):94-103。 陳政忻。2008。農業生技產業「水產種苗」領域研究成果產業化虛擬平台之營運規劃(以食用魚苗與觀賞魚苗之開發為重點發展項目)。行政院農委會97年度期末報告。 郭建賢。2008。台灣鯛品種之 DNA 鑑定。生技研發成果產業化季刊。1:39-45。 郭河。1973。福壽魚(改良種吳郭魚)之養殖。魚牧科學。1(4):42-69。 許應哲。2007。我國臺灣鯛產業之發展現況與未來展望。136:70-82。 黃世鈴。2003。鰻魚養殖管理與病害防治(一)台灣鰻訊。223:01-10。 黃世鈴、陳秀男。2006。鰻魚養殖之檢康管理。水產試驗所特刊。8:01-245。 黃美瑩、陳柏璇、黃詩涵、林金榮、潘崇良。2011。海水吳郭魚養殖池中果聚醣生產菌之篩選。水產研究。19:77-91。 曾福生、周賢鏘、盧民益、李憶如、朱惠真、林瑩祝、林金榮。2011。以全同胞近親育種選育高度近親紅色吳郭魚品系。水產研究。 張湧泉、張格銓、劉富光。2008。吳郭魚雜交與自交系的成長比較--快速成長品系之研發。水產研究。16:41-47。 張格詮、張湧泉、劉富光。2008。分子標記篩選技術於水產養殖之應用。農業生技產業季刊。18:30-33。 張瑞宗、丁惠茹、郭建賢。2010。利用四組微衛星基因座探討歐利亞吳郭魚(Oreochromis aureus)、尼羅吳郭魚(O. niloticus)與台灣鯛(Taiwan tilapia)之間的差異。魚類學會年會。 崔冶建、付亞平、施群、羅峻、胡建民、劉春新、任潔。1996。反相高效液相色譜法測定魚腦中MS-222的濃度。中南民族學院學報。自然科學版(03):65-68。 湯保貴、陳剛、張健東、施鋼、黃建盛、周暉、潘傳豪、王忠良。2010。兩種麻醉劑對羅非魚的急性毒性及聯合毒性研究。水產科技情報。37(3): 111-114。 蔡添財。2002。吳郭魚之育種。養魚世界。44-49。 蔡添財。2011。吳郭魚的養殖管理。水產動物防疫簡訊。06:12-13。 劉春新、強世偉、崔冶建。1998。高效液相色譜法測定魚體中魚用麻醉劑的濃度。中南民族學院學報(自然科學版)。17(3):13-16。 劉長琳、陳四清、何力。2008。MS-222對半滑舌?成?的麻醉效果研究。中國水產科?。(1):92-99。 AFS (American Fisheries Society), 2011. Guide to using drugs, biologics, and other chemicals in aquaculture, FCS Working Group On Aquaculture Drugs, Chemicals, and Biologics, pp. 65 February 2011. Available at: http://www.fws.gov/fisheries/aadap/ AFS-FCS%20documents/GUIDE_FEB_2011.pdf (accessed on 8 June 2011). AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association), 2007. AVMA guidelines on euthanasia (Formerly: report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia) June 2007, pp. 39 Available at: http://www.avma.org/issues/animal_welfare/euthanasia.pdf (accessed on 28 April 2011). Alpharma, 2001: Alpharma Animal Health Ltd. MS222 (Tricaine methane sulphonate) Technical Bulletin 5 ? 2001, Revised 9 ? 01, pp. 6 Available at: http://www.europharma.no/fiskehelse/datablad/bedovelse/MS222.pdf (accessed on 12 May 2011). Amend D.F., Goven B.A. and Elliot D.G. 1982. Effective dosages for a new fish anesthetic. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 111:337-341. Anderson, W.G., McKinley R.S., Colavecchia M. 1997. The use of clove oil as an anesthetic for rainbow trout and its effects on swimming performance. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 17(2):301-307. AQUI-S New Zealand Ltd. (2004) Electronic document, http://www.aqui-s.com Abraham, M.H., Chadha, H.S. 1996. Applications of a solvation equation to drug transport properties. In Lipophilicity in Drug Action and Toxicity (V. Pliska, B. Testa, and H.van de Waterbeemd, eds.), VCH, Weinheim.311-337. Brown, R. S., Eppard, M. B., Murchie, K. J., Nielsen, J. L., Cooke, S. J. 2011. An introduction to the practical and ethical perspectives on the need to advance and standardize the intracoelomic surgical implantation of electronic tags in fish. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 21: 1-9. Barreto, R. E., Gontijo, A. M. M. C., Alves-de-Lima, R. O., Raymundi, V. C., Pinhal, D., Reyes, V. A. V., Volpato, G. L., Salvadori, D. M. F. 2007. MS-222 does not induce primary DNA damage in fish. Aquacult. Internat. 15: 163-168. Bowser, P. R. 2001. Anesthetic options for fish. In: Recent advances in veterinary anesthesia and analgesia: companion animals. R. D. Gleed, J. W. Ludders (Eds). International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca, NY, USA. 1-3. Bernstein, P. S., Digre, K. B., Creel, D. J. 1997. Retinal toxicity associated with occupational exposure to the fish anesthetic MS-222. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 12: 843-844. Burka, J. F., Hammel, K. L., Horsberg, T. E., Johnson, G. R., Rainnie, D. J., Spears, D. J. 1997. Drugs in salmonid aquaculture – a review. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 20: 333-349. Brown, L. A. 1993. Anaesthesia and restraint. In: Fish medicine, M. K. Stoskopf (Ed.). W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, USA. 79–90. Bell G. 1987. An outline of anesthetic and anesthesia for salmonids, a guide for fish culturists in British Columbia. 16pp. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries Aquatic Sciences. 1534. Barton B.A., Schreck C.B., Sigismondi L.A. 1986. Multiple acute disturbances evoke cumulative physiological stress responses in juvenile chinook salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 115:246-251. Bell G., Blackburn J. 1984. Anesthetizing chinook smolts. In: Salmonid Enhancement Program - Preliminary Notes on New Information in Salmonid Hatchery Propagation. (eds. D.F. Alderice, F.E.A. Wood & D.W. Narver). Canadian Data Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences . 496. Britton E. 1983. Constant carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) aeration to anaesthetize adult salmon. Vancouver: Canadian Department Fisheries and Oceans. Information News 49. Barton B.A., Helfrich H. 1981. Time-dose responses of juvenile rainbow trout to 2-phenoxyethanol. Progressive Fish-Culturist 43(4):223-231. Booke H.E. 1978. Sodium bicarbonate, an inexpensive fish anesthetic for field use. Progressive Fish-Culturist 40(1):11-13. Bisson P.A. 1976. Increased invertebrate drift in an experimental stream caused by electrofishing. Journal of the Research Board of Canada 33:1806-1808. Carter, K. M., Woodley, C. M., Brown, R. S. 2011. A review of tricaine methanesulfonate for anesthesia of fish. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 21: 51-59. Cotter, P. A., Rodnick, K. J. 2006. Differential effects of anaesthetics on electrical properties of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) heart. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. 145: 158-165. CEC (Council of the European Communities). 1990. Council Regulation No. 2377 ? 90 ? EEC laying down a community procedure for the establishment of maximum residue limits of veterinary medicinal products in foodstuffs of animal origin. Official J. European Communities L224: 1-8. Cowx I.G., Lamarque P. 1990. Fishing with electricity - applications in freshwater fisheries management.. Oxford: Fishing News Books. 248. Carrasco S., Sumano H., Navohro-Fierro R. 1984. The use of lidocaine-sodium bicarbonate as an anesthetic in fish. Aquaculture 41:161-163. Divers, S. J., Boone, S. S., Hoover, J. J., Boysen, K. A., Killgore, K. J., Murphy, C. E., George, S. G., Camus, A. C. 2009. Field endoscopy for identifying gender, reproductive stage and gonadal anomalies in free-ranging sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus) from the lower Mississippi River. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 25: 68-74. Davis, M. W., Stephenson, J., Noga, E. J. 2008. The effect of tricaine on use of the fluorescein test for detecting skin and corneal ulcers in fish. J. Aquat. Anim. Health 20: 86-95. EMEA (The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products). 1999. Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products, Tricaine Mesilate, Summary Report. 1-4 April 1999, pp. 4 Available at: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Maximum_Residue_Limits_-_Report/2009/11/WC500015660.pdf (accessed on 27 April 2011). FDA(U.S.Food and DrugAdministration). 2006. Databaseofapproved animal drug products. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine. VMRCVM Drug Information Laboratory. Available at: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/AnimalDrugsAtFDA/. (accessed on 15 April 2011). Fredricks K.T., Gingerich W.H. & Fater D.C. 1993. Comparative cardiovascular effects of four fishery anesthetics in spinally transected rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology 104C(3):477-483. Ferriera J.T., Smit G.L., Schoonbee H.J., Holzapfel C.W. 1979. Comparison of anesthetic potency of Benzocaine hydrochloride and MS-222 in two freshwater species. Progressive Fish-Culturist 41(3):161-163. Guo, F. C., Teo, L. H., Chen, T. W. 1995. Effects of anaesthetics on the water parameters in a simulated transport experiment of platyfish, Xiphophorus maculates (Guenther). Aquacult. Res. 26: 265-271. Gilderhus P.A. 1991. Benzocaine as an anesthetic for striped bass. Progressive Fish-Culturist 53(2):105-107. Gilderhus P.A. 1990. Benzocaine as a fish aneshetic: efficacy and safety for spawningphase salmon. Progressive Fish-Culturist 52(3):189-191. Graham M., Iwama G.K. 1990. The Physiologic effects of the anesthetic ketamine hydrochloride on two salmonid species. Aquaculture 90(3-4):323-331. Gilderhus P.A. 1989. Efficacy of benzocaine as an anesthetic for salmonid fishes. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 9:150-153. Gilderhus P.A., Marking L.L. 1987. Comparative efficacy of 16 anesthetic chemicals in rainbow trout. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 7:288-292. Gunstrom G.K., Bethers M. 1985. Electrical anesthesia for handling large salmonids. Progressive Fish-Culturist 47:67-69. Holloway, A. C., Keene, J. L., Noakes, D. G., Moccia, R. D. 2004. Effects of clove oil and MS-222 on blood hormone profiles in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum. Aquacult. Res. 35: 1025-1030 Hikasa, Y., Takase, K., Ogasawara, T., Ogasawara, S. 1986. Anesthesia and recovery with tricaine methanesulfonate, eugenol and thiopental sodium in the carp, Cyprinus carpio. Jpn. J. Vet.Sci. 48: 341-351. Houston, A. H., Woods, R. J. 1976. Influence of temperature upon tricaine methane sulphonate uptake and induction of anesthesia in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 54C:1-6. Houston, A. H., Corlett, J. T., Woods, R. J. 1976. Specimen weight and MS-222. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 33: 1403-1407. Hunn, J. B., R. A. Schoettger., E. W. Whealdon. 1968. Observations on the handling and maintenance of bioassay fish. Prog. Fish-Cult. 30(3): 164-167. Hunn, Joseph B. 1970. Dynamics of MS-222 in the blood and brain of freshwater fishes during anesthesia. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Investigations in Fish Control. No. 42. Hunn, J. B., R. A. Schoettger., W. A. Willford. 1968. Turnover and urinary excretion of free and acetylated M. S. 222 by rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 25: 25-31. Iwama G.K., Ackerman P.A. 1994. Anaesthesia. In: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, vol. 3. (eds. P.W. Hochachka & T.P. Mommsen): 1-15. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V. Iwama, G. K., McGeer, J. C., Pawluk, M. P. 1989. The effects of five fish anaesthetics on acid-base balance, hematocrit, blood gases, cortisol, and adrenaline in rainbow trout. Can. J. Zool. 67: 2065-2073. Itzawa Y., Takeda T. 1982. Respiration of carp under anesthesia induced by mixed bubbling of carbon dioxide and oxygen. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Science and Fisheries 48(4):489-493. Jennings, C. A., Looney, G. L. 1998. Evaluation of two types of anesthesia for performing surgery on striped bass. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 18: 187-190. Kiessling, A., Johansson, D., Zahl, I. H., Samuelsen, O. B. 2009. Pharmacokinetics, plasma cortisol and effectiveness of benzocaine, MS-222 and isoeugenol measured in individual dorsal aorta-cannulated Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) following bath administration. Aquaculture 286: 301-308. Kucuk, S. 2010. Efficacy of tricaine on Poecilia latipinna at different temperatures and concentrations. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 9: 755-759. Kolanczyk, R. C., Fitzsimmons, P. N., McKim, J. M., Erickson, R. J., Schmieder, P. K. 2003. Effects of anaesthesia (tricaine methanesulfonate, MS222) on liver biotransformation in rainbow trout (Onorhynchus mykiss). Aquat. Toxicol. 64: 177-184. Keene J.L., Noakes D.L.G., Moccia R.D., Soto C.G. 1998. The efficacy of clove oil as an anaesthetic for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquaculture Research 29(2):89-101. Lewbart, G. A., Butkus, D. A., Papich, M. G., Coleman, A. K., Krum, H. N., Noga, E. J. 2005. Evaluation of a method of intracoelomic catheterization in koi. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 226: 784-788. Lemm C.A.1993. Evaluation of five anesthetics on striped bass. National Fisheries Research Centre Technical Report 196: 17. Kearneysville, WV: National Fisheries Research Center B Leetown. Lamarque P.1990. Electrophysiology of fish in electric fields. In: Developments in electric fishing. (ed. I.G. Cowx), 4-33. Oxford: Fishing News Books. Limsuwan C., Grizzle J.M., Plumb J.A. 1983a. Etomidate as an anesthetic for fish – its toxicity and efficacy. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 112(4):544-550. Limsuwan C., Limsuwan T., Grizzle J.M., Plumb J.A.1983b. Stress response and blood characteristics of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after anesthesia with etomidate. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40(11-12):2105-2112. Laitinen M, Nieminen M, Pasanen P, Hietanen E. 1981. Tricaine (MS-222) induced modification on the metabolism of foreign compounds in the liver and duodenal mucosa of the splake (Salvelinus fontinalis X Salvelinus namaycush). Acta Pharmacol Toxicol;Aug;49(2):92-97. Maricchiolo, G., Genovese, L. 2011. Some contributions to knowledge of stress response in innovative species with particular focus on the use of the anaesthetics. Open Mar. Biol. J. 5: 24-33. McKim, J. M., Kolanczyk, R. C., Lien, G. J., Hoffman, A. D. 1999. Dynamics of renal excretion of phenol and major metabolites in the rainbow trout (Onorhynchus mykiss). Aquat. Toxicol. 45: 265-277. Macavoy S.E. 1997. Effects of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on hematocrit: First field measurements on blacknose dace. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126(3):500-503. Munday P.L., Wilson S.K. 1997. Comparative efficacy of clove oil and other chemicals in anaesthetization of Pomacentrus amboinensis, a coral reef fish. Journal of Fish Biology 51(5):931-938. Massee K.C., Rust M.B., Hardy R.W., Stickney R.R. 1995. The effectiveness of tricaine, quinaldine sulfate and metomidate as anesthetics for larval fish. Aquaculture 134(3-4):351-359. Molinero A., Gonzalez J. 1995. Comparative effects of MS 222 and 2-phenoxyethanol on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) during confinement. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A-Comparative Physiology 111A(3):405-414. Massee, K. C., Rust, M. B., Hardy, R. W., Stickney, R. R. 1995. The effectiveness of tricaine, quinadine sulphate and metomidate as anesthetics for larval fish. Aquaculture 134: 351-359. Malmstroem T., Salte R., Gjoeen H.M., Linseth A. 1993. A practical evaluation of metomidate and MS-222 as anaesthetics for Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.). Aquaculture 113(4):331-338. Mattson N.S., Riple T.H.1989. Metomidate, a better anesthetic for cod (Gadus Morhua) in comparison with benzocaine, MS-222, chlorobutanol, and phenoxyethanol. Aquaculture 83(1-2):89-94. Merck and Company.1989. The Merck Index, 11th ed. 1606. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck and Company. Mitsuda H., Ishida Y., Yoshikawa H., Ueno S. 1988. Effects of a high-concentration of CO2 on electrocardiograms in the carp, Cyprinus carpio. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A-Physiology 91A(4):749-757. Marking L.L., Meyer F.P.1985. Are better anesthetics needed in fisheries. Fisheries10(6):2-5. Milligan, C. L., Wood, C. M. 1982. Disturbances in haematology, fluid volume distribution and circulatory function associated with low environmental pH in the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. J. Exp. Biol. 99: 397-415. Mitsuda H., Ueno S., Mizuno H., Ueda T., Fujikawa H., Nohara T., Fukada C. 1982. Levels of Co2 in arterial blood of carp under carbon dioxide anesthesia. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 28(1):35-39. Mitsuda H., Nakajima K., Mizuno H., Kawai F., Yamamoto A. 1980.Effects of Carbon-Dioxide on Carp. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 26(1):99-102. Mittal A., Whitear M. 1978. A note on cold anaesthesia of poikilotherms. Journal of Fish Biology 13:519-520. Madden J.A., Houston A.H. 1976. Use of electroanesthesia with freshwater teleosts - some physiological consequences in rainbow-trout, Salmo-Gairdneri richardson. Journal of Fish Biology 9(6):457-462. McFarland W.N., Klontz G.W. 1969. Anesthesia in fishes. pp. 1535-1540. Federal Proceedings. McErlean A.J., Kennedy V.S. 1968. Comparison of some anesthetic properties of benzocaine and MS222. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 97:496-498. Marking L.L. 1967. Toxicity of MS-222 to selected fishes. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services, Investigations into Fish Control 12.NO.9. McFarl W.N. 1959. A study of the effects of anaesthetics on the behaviour and physiology of fishes. Publications of the Institute of Marine Sciences 6:22-55. Ortuno, J., Esteban, M. A., Meseguer, J. 2002. Effects of four anaesthetics on the innate immune response of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 12: 49-59. Coyle, S. D., Durborow, R. M., Tidwell, J. H. 2004. Anesthetics in aquaculture. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) 3900: 1-6. Olsen Y.A., Einarsdottir I.E., Nilssen K.J. 1995. Metomidate anaesthesia in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, prevents plasma cortisol increase during stress. Aquaculture 134(1-2):155-168. Orsi J.A., Short J.W.,1987: Modifications in electrical anesthesia for salmonids. Progressive Fish-Culturist 49(2):144-146. Ohr, E. A. 1976. Tricaine methanesulfonate-I. pH and its effect on aesthetic potency. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C. 54: 13-17. Pharmaq. 2010. Pharmaq Technical Bulletin, Pharmaq Ltd. United Kingdom,pp6Available at:http://www.vmd.defra.gov.uk/Product- InformationDatabase/SPC./SPC_88144.doc (accessed on April 10, 2011). Pramod, P. K., Sajeevan, T. P.; Ramachandran, A., Sunesh Thampy, A., Somnath Pai, S. 2010. Effects of two anesthetics on water quality during simulated transport of a tropical ornamental fish, the Indian tiger barb Puntius filamentosus. N. Am. J. Aquacult. 72: 290-297. Pirhonen, J., Schreck, C. B. 2003. Effects of anaesthesia with MS-222, clove oil and CO2 on feed intake and plasma cortisol in steelhead trout (Oncorchynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 220: 507-514. Piper, R. G., McElwain, I. B., Orme, L. E., McCraren, J. P., Fowler, L. G., Leonard, J. R. 2001. Hatchery requirements. In: Fish hatchery management, G. A. Wedemeyer (Ed.). American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD. 11-12. Pelster, B., Randall, D. 1998. The physiology of the root effect. In: Fish physiology, vol 17. S. F. Perry and B. Tufts (Eds). Academic Press, New York. 113-139. Plumb J.A., Schwedler T.E., Limsuwan C. 1983. Experimental anesthesia of three species of freshwater fish with etomidate. Progressive Fish-Culturist 45(1):30-33. Packer, R. K. 1979. Acid-base balance and gas exchange in brook trout (Salvelinus fontainalis) exposed to acidic environments. J. Exp. Biol. 79: 127-134. Post G. 1979. Carbonic acid anesthesia for aquatic organisms. Progressive Fish-Culturist 41(3):142-144. Rombough, P. J. 2007. Ontogenetic changes in the toxicity and efficacy of the anaesthetic MS222 (tricaine methanesulfonate) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A, 148: 463-469. Ross, L. G., Ross, B. 2008. Anaesthetic and Sedative Techniques for Aquatic Animals. 3rd edn. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK. 240. Redman S.D., Meinertz J.R., Gaikowski M.P. 1998. Effects of immobilization by electricity and MS-222 on brown trout broodstock and their progeny. Progressive Fish-Culturist 60(1):44-49. Reynolds J. 1996. Electrofishing. In: Fisheries Techniques, 2nd ed. (eds. B. Murphy & D. Willis). 221-253. Bethesda: American Fisheries Society. Ross L.G., Ross B. 1984. Anaesthetic and sedative techniques for fish. 35pp. University of Stirling, Scotland: Institute of Aquaculture. Sigma. 2007. Material Safety Data Sheet, Sigma-Aldrich Corporation. Availableat:http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/ProductDetail.do?D7=0&N5=SEARCH_CONCAT_PNO|BRAND_KEY&N4=A5040|FLUKA&N25=0&QS=ON&F=SPEC. (accessed on June 10, 2011). Son, M.-H.; Park, M.-W., Myeong, J.-I., Kim, D.-J., Kim, B.-H., Jo, Q., Jeon, I.-G. 2001. Anaesthetic tolerance of juvenile black rockfish Sebastess schlegeli produced for wild stock enhancement. Ocean Polar Res. 23: 285-290. Sinclair, L. 2004. Euthanasia in the animal shelter. In: Shelter medicine for veterinarians and staff. L. Miller and S. Zawistowski (Eds), Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Oxford, UK. 389-410. Smith, D. A., Smith, S. A., Holladay, S. D. 1999. Effect of previous exposure to tricaine methanesulfonate on time to anaesthesia in hybrid tilapias. J. Aquat. Anim. Health. 11: 183-186. Soto C.G., Burhanuddin C.G. 1995. Clove oil as a fish anaesthetic for measuring length and weight of rabbitfish (Siganus lineatus). Aquaculture 136(1-2):149-152. Sterritt D.A., Eliot S.T., Schmidt A.E. 1994. Electrical anesthesia for immobilizing adult coho salmon in freshwater. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 14(2):453-456. Summerfelt R.C., Smith L.S. 1990. Anaesthesia, surgery and related techniques. In: Methods for Fish Biology. (eds. C.B. Schreck & P.B. Moyle), pp. 213-272. Bethesda MD:American Fisheries Society. Siwicki A. 1984. New anesthetic for fish. Aquaculture 38(2):171-176. Sylvester, J. R., Holland, L. E. 1982. Influence of temperature, water hardness, and stocking density on MS-222 response in three species of fish. Prog. Fish-Cult. 44: 138-141. Smit, G. L., Hattingh, J. 1979. Anaesthetic potency of MS 222 and neutralized MS 222 as studied in three freshwater species. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 62C: 237-241. Smit, G. L., Schoonbee, H. J., Barham, W. T. 1977. Some effects of the anaesthetic MS 222 on freshwater bream. S. Afr. J. Sci. 73: 351–352. Schreck C.B., Whaley R.A., Maughan O.E., Solazzi M.1976. Physiological responses of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to electroshock. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 33:76-84. Schoettger R.A., Julin A.M. 1968. Efficacy of quinaldine as an anesthetic for seven species of fish. Report no.22, 9pp. U.S. Fisheries and Wildlife Services. Schoettger R.A., Julin A.M. 1967. Efficacy of MS-222 as an anaesthetic on four salmonids. Report no.13, 13pp. U.S. Fisheries and Wildlife Services. Sehdev H.S., McBride J.R., Fagerland U.H.M. 1963. 2-phenoxyethanol as a general anaesthetic for sockeye salmon. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 20(6):1435-1440 Treves-Brown, K. M. 2000. Applied fish pharmacology. Kluwer Acad. Publishers, Dordrecht ? London. 309. Tapper, M. A., Sheedy, B. R., Hammermeister, D. E., Schmieder, P. K. 2000. Depletion of cellular protein thiols as an indicator of arylation in isolated trout hepatocytes exposed to 1,4-benzoquinone. Toxicol. Sci. 55: 327-334. Tipping J.M., Gilhuly G.J. 1996. Survival of electroanesthetized adult steelhead and eggs of fall chinook salmon. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 16(2):469-472. Turvey D., Genoe H.S. 1984. Fish Culture Anesthesia. In: Salmonid Enhancement Program – Preliminary Notes on New Information in Salmonid Hatchery Propagation. (eds. D.F. Alderice, F.E.A. Wood & D.W. Narver). 70. Canadian Data Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No.496. Thienpont D., Niemegeers C.J.E. 1965. Propoxate (R7467): a new potent agent in cold blooded vertebrates. Nature 25:1018-1019. Wilson, J. M., Bunte, R. M., Carty, A. J. 2009. Evaluation of rapid cooling and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) as methods of euthanasia in zebrafish (Danio rerio). J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci. 48: 785-789. Western Chemical. 2008. Tricaine-S, fact sheet. Western Chemical,Inc. WA, USA. 9 Available at: http://www.wchemical.com/Assets/File/tricaineS_instructions.pdf (accessed on June 10, 2011). Wagner, G. N., Singer, T. D., McKinley, R. S. 2003. The ability of clove oil and MS-222 to minimize handling stress in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). Aquacult. Res. 34: 1139-1146. Weber, R. A., Peleteiro, J. B., Garcia Martin, L. O., Aldegunde, M. 2009. The efficacy of 2-phenoxyethanol, metomidate, clove oil and MS-222 as anaesthetic agents in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858). Aquaculture 288: 147-150. Wagner, E., Arndt, R., Hilton, B. 2002. Physiological stress responses, egg survival and sperm motility for rainbow trout broodstock anesthetized with clove oil, tricaine methanesulfonate or carbon dioxide. Aquaculture 211: 353-366. Western Chemical. 2008. Tricaine-S, fact sheet. Western Chemical, Inc. WA, USA, pp. 9 Available at: http://www.wchemical.com/ Assets/File/tricaineS_instructions.pdf (accessed on June 10, 2011). Weyl O., Kaiser H., Hecht T. 1996. On the efficacy and mode of action of 2-phenoxyethanol as an anaesthetic for goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.), at different temperatures and concentrations. Aquaculture Research 27(10):757-764. Walker M.K., Yanke E.A., Gingerich W.H. 1994. Use of electronarcosis to immobilize juvenile and adult northern pike. Progressive Fish-Culturist 56(4):237-243. Williams T.D., Christiansen J., Nygen S. 1988. Intermuscular anesthesia of teleosts and elasmobranchs using ketamine hydrochloride. (Monterey Bay Aquarium, ed.), 135pp. Monterey, CA: Proceedings of the Western Regional Conference, American Association of Zoological Park and Aquariums. Xu, D. H., Shoemaker, C. A., Klesius, P. H. 2008. Effect of tricaine methanesulfonate on survival and reproduction of the fish ectoparasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Parasitol. Res. 103: 979-982. Yoshikawa H., Yokoyama Y., Ueno S., Mitsuda H. 1991. Changes of blood gas in carp,Cyprinus carpio anesthetized with carbon dioxide. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 98A(3-4):431-436. Yesaki T. 1988. A detailed description of the efficacy of five anaesthetics on juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). 54. University of British Columbia, Vancouver: Department of Animal Science Report. Yoshikawa H., Ishida Y., Ueno S., Mitsuda H. 1988. Changes in the depth of anesthesia of the carp anesthetized with a constant level of CO2. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Science and Fisheries 55(3):457-462. Yoshimura, H., Nakamura, M., Koeda, T. 1981. Mutagenicity screening of anesthetics for fishes. Mutat. Res. 90: 119-124. Zahl, I. H., Kiessling, A., Samuelsen, O. B., Hansen, M. K. 2009. Anaesthesia of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) – Effect of preanaesthetic sedation, and importance of body weight, temperature and stress. Aquaculture 295: 62-69.
摘要: 本研究之目的在探討三卡因甲磺酸鹽(tricaine methanesulfonate, TMS)對吳郭魚之麻醉效力及毒性,並開發以高效液相色譜法(high- performance liquid chromatography, HPLC) 搭配紫外光偵測器檢測其血清及組織之 TMS,進而分析吳郭魚經浸泡 TMS 8小時後之體內殘留情形。根據吳郭魚在最終麻醉狀態及復甦過程中的行為特徵,將麻醉及復甦過程分為6個及4個時期,結果顯示,不同水溫下(15℃、20℃、25℃)及不同濃度之 TMS 對於吳郭魚的麻醉效力不同,麻醉到達A4期所需時間隨著濃度增加及水溫增加而越短,復甦時間於濃度340 ppm 時,均需5分鐘後魚隻才會復甦。不同水溫下,吳郭魚於3分鐘達到麻醉A4期及5分鐘內復甦達R3期之有效濃度均為260~300 ppm,搭配適當的麻醉維持,可應用於吳郭魚深度麻醉手術等應用之參考。根據麻醉效力之觀察,以包含最高安全濃度及最低致死濃度範圍之5個等對數濃度,進行 TMS 對吳郭魚24及96小時之毒性試驗,結果顯示,24小時及96小時之半致死濃度分別為79.23 ppm 及78.06 ppm,顯示暴露時間越長,其半致死劑量之濃度越低。以 McIIvaine buffer (0.1 M citric acid/ 0.2 M disodium hydrogen phosphate, 1:1) 萃取,並經 C18固相萃取管過濾沖提等,以高效液相色譜法搭配紫外光偵測器波長220 nm檢測連續浸泡 TMS 30 ppm 8小時後之殘留情形。結果顯示,利用所開發的高效液相色譜法來測定 TMS 是相當具有精確性的,並且最低檢測極限為 0.01 ppm。TMS 在吳郭魚的血清、肝臟和肌肉中分別於48、192和24 小時,就低於最低檢測極限值。本研究除建立吳郭魚臨床不同應用所需劑量使用之參考外,所開發之檢測方法確能有效應用於吳郭魚或相關水產品組織內 TMS 之殘留檢測之應用。
This study is to research the toxicity and anesthetic effectiveness of TMS (tricaine methanesulfonate, TMS) on tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids). The method applied was high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) plus ultraviolet detector to examine and the residues of TMS in the tissue and serum of tilapia after eight hours of immersion in TMS. Then after, by analyzing the behavior of tilapia during the final anesthesia and resuscitation, we can divide it in to 6 and 4 stages respectively. The results show that under different temperatures and concentrations of TMS, the effectiveness of anesthesia and time of resuscitation varies. The result reveals that the time needed to reach stage A4 of anesthesia shortens as concentration of TMS and temperature rise. Also, the time needed for resuscitation is fixated around five minutes at a concentration of 340 ppm. Furthermore, when the concentration of TMS is controlled around 260~300 ppm, the time needed for tilapia to reach A4 stage and R3 stage is 3 minutes and 5 minutes respectively. These results consistent under different temperatures, thus, under proper maintenance of anesthesia, we may be able to apply it to surgery for tilapia. After observing the effectiveness of anesthesia, we performed tests based on 5 log concentration between maximum safety dose and minimum lethal dose and aimed at the toxicity of TMS for tilapia were run under a 24 hour and 96 hour time frame. The results show that the LD50 for 24 hour and 96 hour exposure were 79.23 ppm and 78.06 ppm respectively. This indicates that under the longer the exposure, the concentration for LD50 decreases. The methodology used to examine the residue of an eight hour long exposure to 30 ppm of TMS was HPLC. HPLC is the method of using McIIvaine buffer (0.1 M citric acid/ 0.2 M disodium hydrogen phosphate, 1:1) for extraction, then filtered through C18 cartridges, and set with ultraviolet detector at a wavelength of 220 nm. The results indicate that such a method is both accurate and precise, plus it also has a minimum detection limit of 0.01 ppm. TMS residues in serum, liver, and muscle of tilapia are under the minimum detection limit after 48, 192, and 24 hours respectively. This study, in addition to the establishment of the necessary reference tilapia clinical doses of different applications, the detection method can be effectively applied to the tilapia fish tissue residues or relevant aquatic products for the detection of TMS.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/93002
其他識別: U0005-2811201416185978
文章公開時間: 2017-08-31
Appears in Collections:獸醫學系所

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.