Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/93089
標題: Evaluation of Genotype III Vaccine against Newly Emerged Genotype I and Development of Genotype I Vaccine Candidate to Improve Vaccine Potency against Genotype I and III of Japanese Encephalitis Viruses
評估第三型基因型疫苗對抗新興第一型基因型及開發 第一型基因型候選疫苗以提升疫苗對抗第一型和第三 型基因型日本腦炎病毒之效力
作者: 范怡琴
Yi-Chin Fan
關鍵字: 
no
引用: 1. Pan XL, Liu H, Wang HY, Fu SH, Liu HZ, Zhang HL, Li MH, Gao XY, Wang JL, Sun XH, Lu XJ, Zhai YG, Meng WS, He Y, Wang HQ, Han N, Wei B, Wu YG, Feng Y,Yang DJ, Wang LH, Tang Q, Xia G, Kurane I, Rayner S, Liang GD. 2011. Emergence of genotype I of Japanese encephalitis virus as the dominant genotype in Asia. Journal of virology 85:9847-9853. 2. Chen YY, Fan YC, Tu WC, Chang RY, Shih CC, Lu IH, Chien MS, Lee WC, Chen TH,Chang GJ, Chiou SS. 2011. Japanese encephalitis virus genotype replacement,Taiwan, 2009-2010. Emerging infectious diseases 17:2354-2356. 3. Fauquet CM, Fargette D. 2005. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses and the 3,142 unassigned species. Virology journal 2:64. 4. Kuno G, Chang GJ, Tsuchiya KR, Karabatsos N, Cropp CB. 1998. Phylogeny of the genus Flavivirus. Journal of virology 72:73-83. 5. Buescher EL, Scherer WF, Rosenberg MZ, Gresser I, Hardy JL, Bullock HR. 1959. Ecologic studies of Japanese encephalitis virus in Japan. II. Mosquito infection. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 8:651-664. 6. Buescher EL, Scherer WF. 1959. Ecologic studies of Japanese encephalitis virus in Japan. IX. Epidemiologic correlations and conclusions. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 8:719-722. 7. Burns KF. 1950. Congenital Japanese B encephalitis infection of swine. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 75:621-625. 8. Ding D, Hong Z, Zhao SJ, Clemens JD, Zhou B, Wang B, Huang MS, Zeng J, Guo QH, Liu W, Tao FB, Xu ZY. 2007. Long-term disability from acute childhood Japanese encephalitis in Shanghai, China. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 77:528-533. 9. Parida M, Dash PK, Tripathi NK, Ambuj, Sannarangaiah S, Saxena P, Agarwal S, Sahni AK, Singh SP, Rathi AK, Bhargava R, Abhyankar A, Verma SK, Rao PV, Sekhar K. 2006. Japanese Encephalitis Outbreak, India, 2005. Emerging infectious diseases 12:1427-1430. 10. Grossman RA, Edelman R, Chiewanich P, Voodhikul P, Siriwan C. 1973. Study of Japanese encephalitis virus in Chiangmai valley, Thailand. II. Human clinical infections. Am J Epidemiol 98:121-132. 11. Huang CH. 1982. Studies of Japanese encephalitis in China. Advances in virus research 27:71-101. 12. Halstead SB, Grosz CR. 1962. Subclinical Japanese encephalitis. I. Infection of Americans with limited residence in Korea. American journal of hygiene 75:190-201. 13. Chambers TJ, Hahn CS, Galler R, Rice CM. 1990. Flavivirus genome organization, expression, and replication. Annual review of microbiology 44:649-688. 14. Yu IM, Zhang W, Holdaway HA, Li L, Kostyuchenko VA, Chipman PR, Kuhn RJ, Rossmann MG, Chen J. 2008. Structure of the immature dengue virus at low pH primes proteolytic maturation. Science 319:1834-1837. 15. Li L, Lok SM, Yu IM, Zhang Y, Kuhn RJ, Chen J, Rossmann MG. 2008. The flavivirus precursor membrane-envelope protein complex: structure and maturation. Science 319:1830-1834. 16. Lorenz IC, Allison SL, Heinz FX, Helenius A. 2002. Folding and dimerization of tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope proteins prM and E in the endoplasmic reticulum. Journal of virology 76:5480-5491. 17. Dejnirattisai W, Jumnainsong A, Onsirisakul N, Fitton P, Vasanawathana S, Limpitikul W, Puttikhunt C, Edwards C, Duangchinda T, Supasa S,Chawansuntati K, Malasit P, Mongkolsapaya J, Screaton G. 2010. Cross-reacting antibodies enhance dengue virus infection in humans. Science 328:745-748. 18. Konno J EK, Agatsuma H, et al. 1966. Cyclic outbreaks of Japanese encephalitis among pigs and humans. Am J Epidemiol:292-300. 19. Mani TR, Rao CV, Rajendran R, Devaputra M, Prasanna Y, Hanumaiah, Gajanana A, Reuben R. 1991. Surveillance for Japanese encephalitis in villages near Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 85:287-291. 20. Hoke CH, Nisalak A, Sangawhipa N, Jatanasen S, Laorakapongse T, Innis BL, Kotchasenee S, Gingrich JB, Latendresse J, Fukai K, et al. 1988. Protection against Japanese encephalitis by inactivated vaccines. The New England journal of medicine 319:608-614. 21. Solomon T, Ni H, Beasley DW, Ekkelenkamp M, Cardosa MJ, Barrett AD. 2003. Origin and evolution of Japanese encephalitis virus in southeast Asia. Journal of virology 77:3091-3098. 22. Takhampunya R, Kim HC, Tippayachai B, Kengluecha A, Klein TA, Lee WJ, Grieco J, Evans BP. 2011. Emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus genotype V in the Republic of Korea. Virology journal 8:449. 23. Li MH, Fu SH, Chen WX, Wang HY, Guo YH, Liu QY, Li YX, Luo HM, Da W, Duo Ji DZ, Ye XM, Liang GD. 2011. Genotype v Japanese encephalitis virus is emerging. PLoS neglected tropical diseases 5:e1231. 24. Ritchie SA, Rochester W. 2001. Wind-blown mosquitoes and introduction of Japanese encephalitis into Australia. Emerging infectious diseases 7:900-903. 25. Asahina S, Noguchi, K. 1968. Long distance flight of Culex tritaeniorynchus. Jpn. J. Sanit. Zool. :110–112. 26. Nga PT, del Carmen Parquet M, Cuong VD, Ma SP, Hasebe F, Inoue S, Makino Y, Takagi M, Nam VS, Morita K. 2004. Shift in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype circulating in northern Vietnam: implications for frequent introductions of JEV from Southeast Asia to East Asia. The Journal of general virology 85:1625-1631. 27. Rappole JH, Hubalek Z. 2003. Migratory birds and West Nile virus. Journal of applied microbiology 94 Suppl:47S-58S. 28. Pealer LN, Marfin AA, Petersen LR, Lanciotti RS, Page PL, Stramer SL, Stobierski MG, Signs K, Newman B, Kapoor H, Goodman JL, Chamberland ME, West Nile Virus Transmission Investigation T. 2003. Transmission of West Nile virus through blood transfusion in the United States in 2002. The New England journal of medicine 349:1236-1245. 29. Iwamoto M, Jernigan DB, Guasch A, Trepka MJ, Blackmore CG, Hellinger WC, Pham SM, Zaki S, Lanciotti RS, Lance-Parker SE, DiazGranados CA, Winquist AG, Perlino CA, Wiersma S, Hillyer KL, Goodman JL, Marfin AA, Chamberland ME, Petersen LR, West Nile Virus in Transplant Recipients Investigation T. 2003. Transmission of West Nile virus from an organ donor to four transplant recipients. The New England journal of medicine 348:2196-2203. 30. Rosen L. 1987. Overwintering mechanisms of mosquito-borne arboviruses in temperate climates. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 37:69S-76S. 31. Hayashi K MK, Shichijo A, Suzuki H, Matsuo S, et al. . 1975. Ecology of Japanese encephalitis virus in Japan. III. The results of investigation in Amami island, southern part of Japan, from 1973 to 1975. Trop. Med. :129-142. 32. Weaver SC, Vasilakis N. 2009. Molecular evolution of dengue viruses: contributions of phylogenetics to understanding the history and epidemiology of the preeminent arboviral disease. Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 9:523-540. 33. Brault AC. 2009. Changing patterns of West Nile virus transmission: altered vector competence and host susceptibility. Veterinary research 40:43. 34. Bennett SN, Holmes EC, Chirivella M, Rodriguez DM, Beltran M, Vorndam V, Gubler DJ, McMillan WO. 2006. Molecular evolution of dengue 2 virus in Puerto Rico: positive selection in the viral envelope accompanies clade reintroduction. The Journal of general virology 87:885-893. 35. Rico-Hesse R, Harrison LM, Salas RA, Tovar D, Nisalak A, Ramos C, Boshell J, de Mesa MT, Nogueira RM, da Rosa AT. 1997. Origins of dengue type 2 viruses associated with increased pathogenicity in the Americas. Virology 230:244-251. 36. Myat Thu H, Lowry K, Jiang L, Hlaing T, Holmes EC, Aaskov J. 2005. Lineage extinction and replacement in dengue type 1 virus populations are due to stochastic events rather than to natural selection. Virology 336:163-172. 37. Thu HM, Lowry K, Myint TT, Shwe TN, Han AM, Khin KK, Thant KZ, Thein S, Aaskov J. 2004. Myanmar dengue outbreak associated with displacement of serotypes 2, 3, and 4 by dengue 1. Emerging infectious diseases 10:593-597. 38. Dash PK, Parida MM, Saxena P, Abhyankar A, Singh CP, Tewari KN, Jana AM, Sekhar K, Rao PV. 2006. Reemergence of dengue virus type-3 (subtype-III) in India: implications for increased incidence of DHF & DSS. Virology journal 3:55. 39. Messer WB, Gubler DJ, Harris E, Sivananthan K, de Silva AM. 2003. Emergence and global spread of a dengue serotype 3, subtype III virus. Emerging infectious diseases 9:800-809. 40. Vu TT, Holmes EC, Duong V, Nguyen TQ, Tran TH, Quail M, Churcher C, Parkhill J, Cardosa J, Farrar J, Wills B, Lennon NJ, Birren BW, Buchy P, Henn MR, Simmons CP. 2010. Emergence of the Asian 1 genotype of dengue virus serotype 2 in viet nam: in vivo fitness advantage and lineage replacement in South-East Asia. PLoS neglected tropical diseases 4:e757. 41. Zhang C, Mammen MP, Jr., Chinnawirotpisan P, Klungthong C, Rodpradit P, Monkongdee P, Nimmannitya S, Kalayanarooj S, Holmes EC. 2005. Clade replacements in dengue virus serotypes 1 and 3 are associated with changing serotype prevalence. Journal of virology 79:15123-15130. 42. Snapinn KW, Holmes EC, Young DS, Bernard KA, Kramer LD, Ebel GD. 2007. Declining growth rate of West Nile virus in North America. Journal of virology 81:2531-2534. 43. Fulmali PV, Sapkal GN, Athawale S, Gore MM, Mishra AC, Bondre VP. 2011. Introduction of Japanese encephalitis virus genotype I, India. Emerging infectious diseases 17:319-321. 44. Chen SP. 2012. Molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis of Japanese encephalitis virus in China. Epidemiology and infection 140:1637-1643. 45. Yun SM, Cho JE, Ju YR, Kim SY, Ryou J, Han MG, Choi WY, Jeong YE. 2010. Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus circulating in South Korea, 1983-2005. Virology journal 7:127. 46. Morita K. 2009. Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in East Asia. Vaccine 27:7131-7132. 47. Nitatpattana N, Dubot-Peres A, Gouilh MA, Souris M, Barbazan P, Yoksan S, de Lamballerie X, Gonzalez JP. 2008. Change in Japanese encephalitis virus distribution, Thailand. Emerging infectious diseases 14:1762-1765. 48. Ma SP, Yoshida Y, Makino Y, Tadano M, Ono T, Ogawa M. 2003. Short report: a major genotype of Japanese encephalitis virus currently circulating in Japan. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 69:151-154. 49. Huang JH, Lin TH, Teng HJ, Su CL, Tsai KH, Lu LC, Lin C, Yang CF, Chang SF, Liao TL, Yu SK, Cheng CH, Chang MC, Hu HC, Shu PY. 2010. Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus, Taiwan. Emerging infectious diseases 16:876-878. 50. Schuh AJ, Ward MJ, Brown AJ, Barrett AD. 2013. Phylogeography of Japanese encephalitis virus: genotype is associated with climate. PLoS neglected tropical diseases 7:e2411. 51. Nabeshima T, Loan HT, Inoue S, Sumiyoshi M, Haruta Y, Nga PT, Huoung VT, del Carmen Parquet M, Hasebe F, Morita K. 2009. Evidence of frequent introductions of Japanese encephalitis virus from south-east Asia and continental east Asia to Japan. The Journal of general virology 90:827-832. 52. Ebel GD, Carricaburu J, Young D, Bernard KA, Kramer LD. 2004. Genetic and phenotypic variation of West Nile virus in New York, 2000-2003. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 71:493-500. 53. Bernard KA, Maffei JG, Jones SA, Kauffman EB, Ebel G, Dupuis AP, 2nd, Ngo KA, Nicholas DC, Young DM, Shi PY, Kulasekera VL, Eidson M, White DJ, Stone WB, Kramer LD, Team NYSWNVS. 2001. West Nile virus infection in birds and mosquitoes, New York State, 2000. Emerging infectious diseases 7:679-685. 54. Seo HJ, Kim HC, Klein TA, Ramey AM, Lee JH, Kyung SG, Park JY, Cho YS, Cho IS, Yeh JY. 2013. Molecular detection and genotyping of Japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes during a 2010 outbreak in the Republic of Korea. PloS one 8:e55165. 55. Arai S, Matsunaga Y, Takasaki T, Tanaka-Taya K, Taniguchi K, Okabe N, Kurane I. 2008. Japanese encephalitis: surveillance and elimination effort in Japan from 1982 to 2004. Japanese journal of infectious diseases 61:333-338. 56. Zhang JS, Zhao QM, Guo XF, Zuo SQ, Cheng JX, Jia N, Wu C, Dai PF, Zhao JY. 2011. Isolation and genetic characteristics of human genotype 1 Japanese encephalitis virus, China, 2009. PloS one 6:e16418. 57. Kuwayama M, Ito M, Takao S, Shimazu Y, Fukuda S, Miyazaki K, Kurane I, Takasaki T. 2005. Japanese encephalitis virus in meningitis patients, Japan. Emerging infectious diseases 11:471-473. 58. Liu X, Yu Y, Li M, Liang G, Wang H, Jia L, Dong G. 2011. Study on the protective efficacy of SA14-14-2 attenuated Japanese encephalitis against different JE virus isolates circulating in China. Vaccine 29:2127-2130. 59. Beasley DW, Li L, Suderman MT, Guirakhoo F, Trent DW, Monath TP, Shope RE, Barrett AD. 2004. Protection against Japanese encephalitis virus strains representing four genotypes by passive transfer of sera raised against ChimeriVax-JE experimental vaccine. Vaccine 22:3722-3726. 60. Endy TP, Anderson KB, Nisalak A, Yoon IK, Green S, Rothman AL, Thomas SJ, Jarman RG, Libraty DH, Gibbons RV. 2011. Determinants of inapparent and symptomatic dengue infection in a prospective study of primary school children in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand. PLoS neglected tropical diseases 5:e975. 61. Armstrong PM, Rico-Hesse R. 2003. Efficiency of dengue serotype 2 virus strains to infect and disseminate in Aedes aegypti. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 68:539-544. 62. Kochel TJ, Watts DM, Halstead SB, Hayes CG, Espinoza A, Felices V, Caceda R,Bautista CT, Montoya Y, Douglas S, Russell KL. 2002. Effect of dengue-1 antibodies on American dengue-2 viral infection and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Lancet 360:310-312. 63. Cologna R, Armstrong PM, Rico-Hesse R. 2005. Selection for virulent dengue viruses occurs in humans and mosquitoes. Journal of virology 79:853-859. 64. Kilpatrick AM, Meola MA, Moudy RM, Kramer LD. 2008. Temperature, viral genetics, and the transmission of West Nile virus by Culex pipiens mosquitoes. PLoS pathogens 4:e1000092. 65. Moudy RM, Meola MA, Morin LL, Ebel GD, Kramer LD. 2007. A newly emergent genotype of West Nile virus is transmitted earlier and more efficiently by Culex mosquitoes. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 77:365-370. 66. Schuh AJ, Ward MJ, Leigh Brown AJ, Barrett AD. 2014. Dynamics of the Emergence and Establishment of a Newly Dominant Genotype of Japanese Encephalitis Virus throughout Asia. Journal of virology 88:4522-4532. 67. Yamaguchi Y, Nukui Y, Kotaki A, Sawabe K, Saijo M, Watanabe H, Kurane I, Takasaki T, Tajima S. 2013. Characterization of a serine-to-asparagine substitution at position 123 in the Japanese encephalitis virus E protein. The Journal of general virology 94:90-96. 68. Leung JY, Pijlman GP, Kondratieva N, Hyde J, Mackenzie JM, Khromykh AA. 2008. Role of nonstructural protein NS2A in flavivirus assembly. Journal of virology 82:4731-4741. 69. Liu WJ, Chen HB, Khromykh AA. 2003. Molecular and functional analyses of Kunjin virus infectious cDNA clones demonstrate the essential roles for NS2A in virus assembly and for a nonconservative residue in NS3 in RNA replication.Journal of virology 77:7804-7813. 70. Chambers TJ, Nestorowicz A, Amberg SM, Rice CM. 1993. Mutagenesis of the yellow fever virus NS2B protein: effects on proteolytic processing, NS2B-NS3 complex formation, and viral replication. Journal of virology 67:6797-6807. 71. Matusan AE, Pryor MJ, Davidson AD, Wright PJ. 2001. Mutagenesis of the Dengue virus type 2 NS3 protein within and outside helicase motifs: effects on enzyme activity and virus replication. Journal of virology 75:9633-9643. 72. Liu WJ, Sedlak PL, Kondratieva N, Khromykh AA. 2002. Complementation analysis of the flavivirus Kunjin NS3 and NS5 proteins defines the minimal regions essential for formation of a replication complex and shows a requirement of NS3 in cis for virus assembly. Journal of virology 76:10766-10775. 73. Pierson TC, Diamond MS. 2008. Molecular mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralisation of flavivirus infection. Expert reviews in molecular medicine 10:e12. 74. Pierson TC, Xu Q, Nelson S, Oliphant T, Nybakken GE, Fremont DH, Diamond MS. 2007. The stoichiometry of antibody-mediated neutralization and enhancement of West Nile virus infection. Cell host & microbe 1:135-145. 75. Halstead SB, O'Rourke EJ. 1977. Antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection in primate leukocytes. Nature 265:739-741. 76. Chiou SS, Fan YC, Crill WD, Chang RY, Chang GJ. 2012. Mutation analysis of the cross-reactive epitopes of Japanese encephalitis virus envelope glycoprotein. The Journal of general virology 93:1185-1192. 77. Trainor NB, Crill WD, Roberson JA, Chang GJ. 2007. Mutation analysis of the fusion domain region of St. Louis encephalitis virus envelope protein. Virology 360:398-406. 78. Crill WD, Chang GJ. 2004. Localization and characterization of flavivirus envelope glycoprotein cross-reactive epitopes. Journal of virology 78:13975-13986. 79. Libraty DH, Young PR, Pickering D, Endy TP, Kalayanarooj S, Green S, Vaughn DW, Nisalak A, Ennis FA, Rothman AL. 2002. High circulating levels of the dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 early in dengue illness correlate with the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever. The Journal of infectious diseases 186:1165-1168. 80. Chen HW, Pan CH, Liau MY, Jou R, Tsai CJ, Wu HJ, Lin YL, Tao MH. 1999. Screening of protective antigens of Japanese encephalitis virus by DNA immunization: a comparative study with conventional viral vaccines. Journal of virology 73:10137-10145. 81. Beltramello M, Williams KL, Simmons CP, Macagno A, Simonelli L, Quyen NT, Sukupolvi-Petty S, Navarro-Sanchez E, Young PR, de Silva AM, Rey FA, Varani L, Whitehead SS, Diamond MS, Harris E, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. 2010. The human immune response to Dengue virus is dominated by highly cross-reactive antibodies endowed with neutralizing and enhancing activity. Cell host & microbe 8:271-283. 82. Crill WD, Hughes HR, Delorey MJ, Chang GJ. 2009. Humoral immune responses of dengue fever patients using epitope-specific serotype-2 virus-like particle antigens. PloS one 4:e4991. 83. Lin CW, Wu SC. 2003. A functional epitope determinant on domain III of the Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein interacted with neutralizing-antibody combining sites. Journal of virology 77:2600-2606. 84. Nelson S, Jost CA, Xu Q, Ess J, Martin JE, Oliphant T, Whitehead SS, Durbin AP, Graham BS, Diamond MS, Pierson TC. 2008. Maturation of West Nile virus modulates sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization. PLoS pathogens 4:e1000060. 85. Sukupolvi-Petty S, Brien JD, Austin SK, Shrestha B, Swayne S, Kahle K, Doranz BJ, Johnson S, Pierson TC, Fremont DH, Diamond MS. 2013. Functional Analysis of Antibodies against Dengue Virus Type 4 Reveals Strain-Dependent Epitope Exposure That Impacts Neutralization and Protection. Journal of virology 87:8826-8842. 86. Austin SK, Dowd KA, Shrestha B, Nelson CA, Edeling MA, Johnson S, Pierson TC, Diamond MS, Fremont DH. 2012. Structural basis of differential neutralization of DENV-1 genotypes by an antibody that recognizes a cryptic epitope. PLoS pathogens 8:e1002930. 87. Wahala WM, Donaldson EF, de Alwis R, Accavitti-Loper MA, Baric RS, de Silva AM. 2010. Natural strain variation and antibody neutralization of dengue serotype 3 viruses. PLoS pathogens 6:e1000821. 88. Sukupolvi-Petty S, Austin SK, Engle M, Brien JD, Dowd KA, Williams KL, Johnson S, Rico-Hesse R, Harris E, Pierson TC, Fremont DH, Diamond MS. 2010. Structure and function analysis of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against dengue virus type 2. Journal of virology 84:9227-9239. 89. Brien JD, Austin SK, Sukupolvi-Petty S, O'Brien KM, Johnson S, Fremont DH, Diamond MS. 2010. Genotype-specific neutralization and protection by antibodies against dengue virus type 3. Journal of virology 84:10630-10643. 90. Rodenhuis-Zybert IA, van der Schaar HM, da Silva Voorham JM, van der Ende-Metselaar H, Lei HY, Wilschut J, Smit JM. 2010. Immature dengue virus: a veiled pathogen? PLoS pathogens 6:e1000718. 91. Chen MC, Lin CF, Lei HY, Lin SC, Liu HS, Yeh TM, Anderson R, Lin YS. 2009. Deletion of the C-terminal region of dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) abolishes anti-NS1-mediated platelet dysfunction and bleeding tendency. J Immunol 183:1797-1803. 92. Lin YL, Chen LK, Liao CL, Yeh CT, Ma SH, Chen JL, Huang YL, Chen SS, Chiang HY. 1998. DNA immunization with Japanese encephalitis virus nonstructural protein NS1 elicits protective immunity in mice. Journal of virology 72:191-200. 93. Barrett PN, Schober-Bendixen S, Ehrlich HJ. 2003. History of TBE vaccines. Vaccine 21 Suppl 1:S41-49. 94. Barrett AD. 1997. Yellow fever vaccines. Biologicals : journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization 25:17-25. 95. Halstead SB, Thomas SJ. 2010. New vaccines for Japanese encephalitis. Current infectious disease reports 12:174-180. 96. Fischer M, Lindsey N, Staples JE, Hills S. 2010. Japanese encephalitis vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control 59:1-27. 97. Schuller E, Jilma B, Voicu V, Golor G, Kollaritsch H, Kaltenbock A, Klade C, Tauber E. 2008. Long-term immunogenicity of the new Vero cell-derived, inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine IC51 Six and 12 month results of a multicenter follow-up phase 3 study. Vaccine 26:4382-4386. 98. Tauber E, Kollaritsch H, Korinek M, Rendi-Wagner P, Jilma B, Firbas C, Schranz S, Jong E, Klingler A, Dewasthaly S, Klade CS. 2007. Safety and immunogenicity of a Vero-cell derived,inactivated 91 Japanese encephalitis vaccine:a non-inferiority, phase III, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 370:1847-1853. 99. Zhao Z, Date T, Li Y, Kato T, Miyamoto M, Yasui K, Wakita T. 2005. Characterization of the E-138 (Glu/Lys) mutation in Japanese encephalitis virus by using a stable, full-length, infectious cDNA clone. The Journal of general virology 86:2209-2220. 100. Ng T, Hathaway D, Jennings N, Champ D, Chiang YW, Chu HJ. 2003. Equine vaccine for West Nile virus. Developments in biologicals 114:221-227. 101. Davis BS, Chang GJ, Cropp B, Roehrig JT, Martin DA, Mitchell CJ, Bowen R, Bunning ML. 2001. West Nile virus recombinant DNA vaccine protects mouse and horse from virus challenge and expresses in vitro a noninfectious recombinant antigen that can be used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Journal of virology 75:4040-4047. 102. Yoshida I, Takagi, M., Inokuma, E., Goda, H., Ono, K., Takaku, K., and Oku, J. 1981. Establishment of an attenuated ML-17 strain of Japanese encephalitis virus. Biken J. 24:47-67. 103. Hsu ST, Chang LC, Lin SY, Chuang TY, Ma CH, Inoue YK, Okuno T. 1972. The effect of vaccination with a live attenuated strain of Japanese encephalitis virus on stillbirths in swine in Taiwan. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 46:465-471. 104. Takahashi K MR, Kuma M, Baba J, Noguchi H, Taguchi S, Matsumoto H. Aizawa T. Hamasato T. 1968. Effects of immunization of swine upon the ecological cycle of Japanese encephalitis virus. I. Preliminary report. Trop Med 10:181-194. 105. Ueba N MB, Maeda A, Otsu K, Kimoto T, Fukunaga T, Kunita N, Fujito S, Buei K, Nakajima S, Ito S, Nakamura H, Yoshida M, Koni G, Hirai J. 1969. Studies on the ecology of Japanese encephalitis (The 5th Report). VIII. Experimental suppression of Japanese encephalitis virus amplification by swine vaccination. Report from 106. 7:69-74. Ueba N KT, Nakajima S, Kurimura T Kitaura T. 1978. Field experiments on live attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine for swine. Biken journal 21 95-103. 107. 108. Sciences NPIfPHaE. 1972. Annual Report XII. A. O. 1987. New development of criteria on Japanese encephalitis vaccine requirements in Japan. . JE & HFRS Bull 1987:11-13. 109. Kitano T YS, Kobayashi M, Oya A, Ogata T. 1986. Immunogenicity of JE Nakayama and Beijing-1 vaccines. JE & HFRS Bull 37-41. 110. Shyu WR, Wang YC, Chin C, Chen WJ. 1997. Assessment of neutralizing antibodies elicited by a vaccine (Nakayama) strain of Japanese encephalitis virus in Taiwan. Epidemiology and infection 119:79-83. 111. Nimmannitya S, Hutamai S, Kalayanarooj S, Rojanasuphot S. 1995. A field study on Nakayama and Beijing strains of Japanese encephalitis vaccines. The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health 26:689-693. 112. Ku CC, King CC, Lin CY, Hsu HC, Chen LY, Yueh YY, Chang GJ. 1994. Homologous and heterologous neutralization antibody responses after immunization with Japanese encephalitis vaccine among Taiwan children. Journal of medical virology 44:122-131. 113. Chiou SS, Tsai KH, Huang CG, Liao YK, Chen WJ. 2007. High antibody prevalence in an unconventional ecosystem is related to circulation of a low-virulent strain of Japanese encephalitis virus. Vaccine 25:1437-1443. 114. Erra EO, Askling HH, Yoksan S, Rombo L, Riutta J, Vene S, Lindquist L, Vapalahti O, Kantele A. 2013. Cross-protective capacity of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines against circulating heterologous JE virus genotypes. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 56:267-270. 115. Bonaparte M, Dweik B, Feroldi E, Meric C, Bouckenooghe A, Hildreth S, Hu B, Yoksan S, Boaz M. 2014. Immune response to live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (JE-CV) neutralizes Japanese encephalitis virus isolates from south-east Asia and India. BMC infectious diseases 14:156. 116. Erra EO, Askling HH, Yoksan S, Rombo L, Riutta J, Vene S, Lindquist L, Vapalahti O, Kantele A. 2013. Cross-protection elicited by primary and booster vaccinations against Japanese encephalitis: A two-year follow-up study. Vaccine. 117. Plotkin SA. 2010. Correlates of protection induced by vaccination. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 17:1055-1065. 118. Feroldi E, Pancharoen C, Kosalaraksa P, Watanaveeradej V, Phirangkul K, Capeding MR, Boaz M, Gailhardou S, Bouckenooghe A. 2012. Single-dose, live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine in children aged 12-18 months: randomized, controlled phase 3 immunogenicity and safety trial. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics 8:929-937. 119. Torresi J, McCarthy K, Feroldi E, Meric C. 2010. Immunogenicity, safety and tolerability in adults of a new single-dose, live-attenuated vaccine against Japanese encephalitis: Randomised controlled phase 3 trials. Vaccine 28:7993-8000. 120. Yang SE, Pan MJ, Tseng HF, Liau MY. 2006. The efficacy of mouse-brain inactivated Nakayama strain Japanese encephalitis vaccine--results from 30 years experience in Taiwan. Vaccine 24:2669-2673. 121. Ohrr H, Tandan JB, Sohn YM, Shin SH, Pradhan DP, Halstead SB. 2005. Effect of single dose of SA 14-14-2 vaccine 1 year after immunisation in Nepalese children with Japanese encephalitis: a case-control study. Lancet 366:1375-1378. 122. Wu YC, Huang YS, Chien LJ, Lin TL, Yueh YY, Tseng WL, Chang KJ, Wang GR. 1999. The epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis on Taiwan during 1966-1997. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 61:78-84. 123. Monath TP, Guirakhoo F, Nichols R, Yoksan S, Schrader R, Murphy C, Blum P, Woodward S, McCarthy K, Mathis D, Johnson C, Bedford P. 2003. Chimeric live, attenuated vaccine against Japanese encephalitis (ChimeriVax-JE): phase 2 clinical trials for safety and immunogenicity, effect of vaccine dose and schedule, and memory response to challenge with inactivated Japanese encephalitis antigen. The Journal of infectious diseases 188:1213-1230. 124. Kiermayr S, Stiasny K, Heinz FX. 2009. Impact of quaternary organization on the antigenic structure of the tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope glycoprotein E. Journal of virology 83:8482-8491. 125. Hunt AR, Cropp CB, Chang GJ. 2001. A recombinant particulate antigen of Japanese encephalitis virus produced in stably-transformed cells is an effective noninfectious antigen and subunit immunogen. Journal of virological methods 97:133-149. 126. Chang GJ, Hunt AR, Davis B. 2000. A single intramuscular injection of recombinant plasmid DNA induces protective immunity and prevents Japanese encephalitis in mice. Journal of virology 74:4244-4252. 127. Mutoh E, Ishikawa T, Takamizawa A, Kurata T, Sata T, Kojima A. 2004. Japanese encephalitis subunit vaccine composed of virus-like envelope antigen particles purified from serum-free medium of a high-producer J12#26 cell clone. Vaccine22:2599-2608. 128. Kojima A, Yasuda A, Asanuma H, Ishikawa T, Takamizawa A, Yasui K, Kurata T. 2003. Stable high-producer cell clone expressing virus-like particles of the Japanese encephalitis virus e protein for a second-generation subunit vaccine. Journal of virology 77:8745-8755. 129. Konishi E, Yamaoka M, Khin Sane W, Kurane I, Takada K, Mason PW. 1999. The anamnestic neutralizing antibody response is critical for protection of mice from challenge following vaccination with a plasmid encoding the Japanese encephalitis virus premembrane and envelope genes. Journal of virology 73:5527-5534. 130. Konishi E, Yamaoka M, Khin Sane W, Kurane I, Mason PW. 1998. Induction of protective immunity against Japanese encephalitis in mice by immunization with a plasmid encoding Japanese encephalitis virus premembrane and envelope genes. Journal of virology 72:4925-4930. 131. Konishi E, Yamaoka M, Kurane I, Mason PW. 2000. Japanese encephalitis DNA vaccine candidates expressing premembrane and envelope genes induce virus-specific memory B cells and long-lasting antibodies in swine. Virology 268:49-55. 132. Villa LL, Costa RL, Petta CA, Andrade RP, Ault KA, Giuliano AR, Wheeler CM, Koutsky LA, Malm C, Lehtinen M, Skjeldestad FE, Olsson SE, Steinwall M, Brown DR, Kurman RJ, Ronnett BM, Stoler MH, Ferenczy A, Harper DM, Tamms GM, Yu J, Lupinacci L, Railkar R, Taddeo FJ, Jansen KU, Esser MT, Sings HL, Saah AJ, Barr E. 2005. Prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine in young women: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre phase II efficacy trial. The lancet oncology 6:271-278. 133. McAleer WJ, Buynak EB, Maigetter RZ, Wampler DE, Miller WJ, Hilleman MR. 1984. Human hepatitis B vaccine from recombinant yeast. Nature 307:178-180. 134. Van Gessel Y, Klade CS, Putnak R, Formica A, Krasaesub S, Spruth M, Cena B, Tungtaeng A, Gettayacamin M, Dewasthaly S. 2011. Correlation of protection against Japanese encephalitis virus and JE vaccine (IXIARO((R))) induced neutralizing antibody titers. Vaccine 29:5925-5931. 135. Misra UK, Kalita J. 2010. Overview: Japanese encephalitis. Progress in neurobiology 91:108-120. 136. van den Hurk AF, Ritchie SA, Mackenzie JS. 2009. Ecology and geographical expansion of Japanese encephalitis virus. Annual review of entomology 54:17-35. 137. 1993. Inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control 42:1-15. 138. Erlanger TE, Weiss S, Keiser J, Utzinger J, Wiedenmayer K. 2009. Past, present, and future of Japanese encephalitis. Emerging infectious diseases 15:1-7. 139. Halstead SB, Thomas SJ. 2011. New Japanese encephalitis vaccines: alternatives to production in mouse brain. Expert review of vaccines 10:355-364. 140. Chen SP. 2011. Molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis of Japanese encephalitis virus in China. Epidemiol Infect:1-7. 141. Chiou SS, Chen WJ. 2007. Phenotypic changes in the Japanese encephalitis virus after one passage in Neuro-2a cells: generation of attenuated strains of the virus. Vaccine 26:15-23. 142. Yasui K. 2002. Neuropathogenesis of Japanese encephalitis virus. Journal of neurovirology 8 Suppl 2:112-114. 143. Chiou SS, Chen WJ. 2001. Mutations in the NS3 gene and 3'-NCR of Japanese encephalitis virus isolated from an unconventional ecosystem and implications for natural attenuation of the virus. Virology 289:129-136. 144. Chiou SS, Liu H, Chuang CK, Lin CC, Chen WJ. 2005. Fitness of Japanese encephalitis virus to Neuro-2a cells is determined by interactions of the viral envelope protein with highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans on the cell surface. Journal of medical virology 76:583-592. 145. Luca VC, AbiMansour J, Nelson CA, Fremont DH. 2012. Crystal structure of the Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein. Journal of virology 86:2337-2346. 146. Konishi E, Tabuchi Y, Yamanaka A. 2010. A simple assay system for infection-enhancing and -neutralizing antibodies to dengue type 2 virus using layers of semi-adherent K562 cells. Journal of virological methods 163:360-367. 147. Huisman W, Martina BE, Rimmelzwaan GF, Gruters RA, Osterhaus AD. 2009. Vaccine-induced enhancement of viral infections. Vaccine 27:505-512. 148. Nerome R, Tajima S, Takasaki T, Yoshida T, Kotaki A, Lim CK, Ito M, Sugiyama A, Yamauchi A, Yano T, Kameyama T, Morishita I, Kuwayama M, Ogawa T, Sahara K, Ikegaya A, Kanda M, Hosoya Y, Itokazu K, Onishi H, Chiya S, Yoshida Y, Tabei Y, Katsuki K, Tabata K, Harada S, Kurane I. 2007. Molecular epidemiological analyses of Japanese encephalitis virus isolates from swine in Japan from 2002 to 2004. The Journal of general virology 88:2762-2768. 149. Saito M, Taira K, Itokazu K, Mori N. 2007. Recent change of the antigenicity and genotype of Japanese encephalitis viruses distributed on Okinawa Island, Japan. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 77:737-746. 150. Nalca A, Fellows PF, Whitehouse CA. 2003. Vaccines and animal models for arboviral encephalitides. Antiviral research 60:153-174. 151. Darwish MA, Hammon WM. 1966. Japanese B encephalitis virus vaccines from tissue culture. VII. Formalin inactivated Nakayama strain vaccine. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 122:813-816. 152. Okuno Y, Okamoto Y, Yamada A, Baba K, Yabuuchi H. 1987. Effect of current Japanese encephalitis vaccine on different strains of Japanese encephalitis virus. Vaccine 5:128-132. 153. Monath TP. 2002. Japanese encephalitis vaccines: current vaccines and future prospects. Current topics in microbiology and immunology 267:105-138. 154. Diamond MS, Pierson TC, Fremont DH. 2008. The structural immunology of antibody protection against West Nile virus. Immunological reviews 225:212-225. 155. Throsby M, Geuijen C, Goudsmit J, Bakker AQ, Korimbocus J, Kramer RA, Clijsters-van der Horst M, de Jong M, Jongeneelen M, Thijsse S, Smit R, Visser TJ, Bijl N, Marissen WE, Loeb M, Kelvin DJ, Preiser W, ter Meulen J, de Kruif J. 2006. Isolation and characterization of human monoclonal antibodies from individuals infected with West Nile Virus. Journal of virology 80:6982-6992. 156. Shrestha B, Brien JD, Sukupolvi-Petty S, Austin SK, Edeling MA, Kim T, O'Brien KM, Nelson CA, Johnson S, Fremont DH, Diamond MS. 2010. The development of therapeutic antibodies that neutralize homologous and heterologous genotypes of dengue virus type 1. PLoS pathogens 6:e1000823. 157. Alvarez M, Pavon-Oro A, Rodriguez-Roche R, Bernardo L, Morier L, Sanchez L, Alvarez AM, Guzman MG. 2008. Neutralizing antibody response variation against dengue 3 strains. Journal of medical virology 80:1783-1789. 158. Lobigs M, Pavy M, Hall RA, Lobigs P, Cooper P, Komiya T, Toriniwa H, Petrovsky N. 2010. An inactivated Vero cell-grown Japanese encephalitis vaccine formulated with Advax, a novel inulin-based adjuvant, induces protective neutralizing antibody against homologous and heterologous flaviviruses. The Journal of general virology 91:1407-1417. 159. Ueba N, Kimura T, Nakajima S, Kurimura T, Kitaura T. 1978. Field experiments on live attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine for swine. Biken journal 21:95-103. 160. Bista MB, Banerjee MK, Shin SH, Tandan JB, Kim MH, Sohn YM, Ohrr HC, Tang JL, Halstead SB. 2001. Efficacy of single-dose SA 14-14-2 vaccine against Japanese encephalitis: a case control study. Lancet 358:791-795. 161. Ashok MS, Rangarajan PN. 1999. Immunization with plasmid DNA encoding the envelope glycoprotein of Japanese Encephalitis virus confers significant protection against intracerebral viral challenge without inducing detectable antiviral antibodies. Vaccine 18:68-75. 162. Liu W, Clemens JD, Yang JY, Xu ZY. 2006. Immunization against Japanese encephalitis in China: a policy analysis. Vaccine 24:5178-5182. 163. Tandan JB, Ohrr H, Sohn YM, Yoksan S, Ji M, Nam CM, Halstead SB. 2007. Single dose of SA 14-14-2 vaccine provides long-term protection against Japanese encephalitis: a case-control study in Nepalese children 5 years after immunization. drjbtandan@yahoo.com. Vaccine 25:5041-5045. 164. Sohn YM, Tandan JB, Yoksan S, Ji M, Ohrr H. 2008. A 5-year follow-up of antibody response in children vaccinated with single dose of live attenuated SA14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis vaccine: Immunogenicity and anamnestic responses. Vaccine 26:1638-1643. 165. Kissling RE, Reese DR. 1963. Anti-Rabies Vaccine of Tissue Culture Origin. J Immunol 91:362-368. 166. Ogra PL, Ogra SS. 1973. Local antibody response to poliovaccine in the human female genital tract. J Immunol 110:1307-1311. 167. Murphey-Corb M, Martin LN, Davison-Fairburn B, Montelaro RC, Miller M, West M, Ohkawa S, Baskin GB, Zhang JY, Putney SD, et al. 1989. A formalin-inactivated whole SIV vaccine confers protection in macaques. Science 246:1293-1297. 168. Werzberger A, Mensch B, Kuter B, Brown L, Lewis J, Sitrin R, Miller W, Shouval D, Wiens B, Calandra G, et al. 1992. A controlled trial of a formalin-inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in healthy children. The New England journal of medicine 327:453-457. 169. Takada A, Matsushita S, Ninomiya A, Kawaoka Y, Kida H. 2003. Intranasal immunization with formalin-inactivated virus vaccine induces a broad spectrum of heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A virus infection in mice. Vaccine 21:3212-3218. 170. Schioler KL, Samuel M, Wai KL. 2007. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev:CD004263. 171. Metz B, Kersten GF, Hoogerhout P, Brugghe HF, Timmermans HA, de Jong A, Meiring H, ten Hove J, Hennink WE, Crommelin DJ, Jiskoot W. 2004. Identification of formaldehyde-induced modifications in proteins: reactions with model peptides. The Journal of biological chemistry 279:6235-6243. 172. Ramos-Vara JA. 2005. Technical aspects of immunohistochemistry. Veterinary pathology 42:405-426. 173. Tano Y, Shimizu H, Martin J, Nishimura Y, Simizu B, Miyamura T. 2007.Antigenic characterization of a formalin-inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from live-attenuated Sabin strains. Vaccine 25:7041-7046. 174. Peterson DL, Paul DA, Lam J, Tribby, II, Achord DT. 1984. Antigenic structure of hepatitis B surface antigen: identification of the 'd' subtype determinant by chemical modification and use of monoclonal antibodies. J Immunol 132:920-927. 175. Furuya Y, Regner M, Lobigs M, Koskinen A, Mullbacher A, Alsharifi M. 2010. Effect of inactivation method on the cross-protective immunity induced by whole 'killed' influenza A viruses and commercial vaccine preparations. The Journal of general virology 91:1450-1460. 176. Duque H, Marshall RL, Israel BA, Letchworth GJ. 1989. Effects of formalin inactivation on bovine herpes virus-1 glycoproteins and antibody response elicited by formalin-inactivated vaccines in rabbits. Vaccine 7:513-520. 177. Appaiahgari MB, Vrati S. 2004. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice of a formaldehyde-inactivated Indian strain of Japanese encephalitis virus grown in Vero cells. Vaccine 22:3669-3675. 178. Chen WJ, Dong CF, Chiou LY, Chuang WL. 2000. Potential role of Armigeres subalbatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus in the absence of rice culture on Liu-chiu islet, Taiwan. J Med Entomol 37:108-113. 179. Gentry MK, Henchal EA, McCown JM, Brandt WE, Dalrymple JM. 1982. Identification of distinct antigenic determinants on dengue-2 virus using monoclonal antibodies. Am J Trop Med Hyg 31:548-555. 180. Roehrig JT, Mathews JH, Trent DW. 1983. Identification of epitopes on the E glycoprotein of Saint Louis encephalitis virus using monoclonal antibodies.Virology 128:118-126. 181. Kimura-Kuroda J, Yasui K. 1983. Topographical analysis of antigenic determinants on envelope glycoprotein V3 (E) of Japanese encephalitis virus, using monoclonal antibodies. J Virol 45:124-132. 182. Roberson JA, Crill WD, Chang GJ. 2007. Differentiation of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis virus infections by use of noninfectious virus-like particles with reduced cross-reactivity. J Clin Microbiol 45:3167-3174. 183. Chiou SS, Fan YC, Crill WD, Chang RY, Chang GJ. 2012. Mutation Analysis of the Cross Reactive Epitopes of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Envelope Glycoprotein. J Gen Virol. 184. Chiou SS, Crill WD, Chen LK, Chang GJ. 2008. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using novel Japanese encephalitis virus antigen improve the accuracy of clinical diagnosis of flavivirus infections. Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI 15:825-835. 185. Toews J, Rogalski JC, Clark TJ, Kast J. 2008. Mass spectrometric identification of formaldehyde-induced peptide modifications under in vivo protein cross-linking conditions. Analytica chimica acta 618:168-183. 186. Lobigs M, Usha R, Nestorowicz A, Marshall ID, Weir RC, Dalgarno L. 1990. Host cell selection of Murray Valley encephalitis virus variants altered at an RGD sequence in the envelope protein and in mouse virulence. Virology 176:587-595. 187. Nybakken GE, Oliphant T, Johnson S, Burke S, Diamond MS, Fremont DH. 2005. Structural basis of West Nile virus neutralization by a therapeutic antibody. Nature 437:764-769. 188. Stiasny K, Brandler S, Kossl C, Heinz FX. 2007. Probing the flavivirus membrane fusion mechanism by using monoclonal antibodies. Journal of virology 81:11526-11531. 189. Takasuka N, Fujii H, Takahashi Y, Kasai M, Morikawa S, Itamura S, Ishii K, Sakaguchi M, Ohnishi K, Ohshima M, Hashimoto S, Odagiri T, Tashiro M, Yoshikura H, Takemori T, Tsunetsugu-Yokota Y. 2004. A subcutaneously injected UV-inactivated SARS coronavirus vaccine elicits systemic humoral immunity in mice. International immunology 16:1423-1430. 190. Jones BG, Sealy RE, Zhan X, Freiden PJ, Surman SL, Blanchard JL, Hurwitz JL. 2012. UV-inactivated vaccinia virus (VV) in a multi-envelope DNA-VV-protein (DVP) HIV-1 vaccine protects macaques from lethal challenge with heterologous SHIV. Vaccine 30:3188-3195. 191. Amanna IJ, Raue HP, Slifka MK. 2012. Development of a new hydrogen peroxide-based vaccine platform. Nature medicine 18:974-979. 192. McDonnell G, Russell AD. 1999. Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance. Clinical microbiology reviews 12:147-179. 193. Lobigs M, Diamond MS. 2012. Feasibility of cross-protective vaccination against flaviviruses of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex. Expert review of vaccines 11:177-187. 194. Chang GJ, Kuno G, Purdy DE, Davis BS. 2004. Recent advancement in flavivirus vaccine development. Expert review of vaccines 3:199-220. 195. Marfin AA, Gubler DJ. 2005. Japanese encephalitis: the need for a more effective vaccine. Lancet 366:1335-1337. 196. Moghaddam A, Olszewska W, Wang B, Tregoning JS, Helson R, Sattentau QJ, Openshaw PJ. 2006. A potential molecular mechanism for hypersensitivity caused by formalin-inactivated vaccines. Nat Med 12:905-907. 197. Oliphant T, Nybakken GE, Engle M, Xu Q, Nelson CA, Sukupolvi-Petty S, Marri A, Lachmi BE, Olshevsky U, Fremont DH, Pierson TC, Diamond MS. 2006. Antibody recognition and neutralization determinants on domains I and II of West Nile Virus envelope protein. Journal of virology 80:12149-12159. 198. Ohtaki N, Takahashi H, Kaneko K, Gomi Y, Ishikawa T, Higashi Y, Kurata T, Sata T, Kojima A. 2010. Immunogenicity and efficacy of two types of West Nile virus-like particles different in size and maturation as a second-generation vaccine candidate. Vaccine 28:6588-6596. 199. Zlatkovic J, Stiasny K, Heinz FX. 2011. Immunodominance and functional activities of antibody responses to inactivated West Nile virus and recombinant subunit vaccines in mice. Journal of virology 85:1994-2003. 200. Ofek G, Guenaga FJ, Schief WR, Skinner J, Baker D, Wyatt R, Kwong PD. 2010. Elicitation of structure-specific antibodies by epitope scaffolds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107:17880-17887. 201. Ma BJ, Alam SM, Go EP, Lu X, Desaire H, Tomaras GD, Bowman C, Sutherland LL, Scearce RM, Santra S, Letvin NL, Kepler TB, Liao HX, Haynes BF. 2011. Envelope deglycosylation enhances antigenicity of HIV-1 gp41 epitopes for both broad neutralizing antibodies and their unmutated ancestor antibodies. PLoS pathogens 7:e1002200. 202. Hughes HR, Crill WD, Chang GJ. 2012. Manipulation of immunodominant dengue virus E protein epitopes reduces potential antibody-dependent enhancement. Virology journal 9:115. 203. Crill WD, Hughes HR, Trainor NB, Davis BS, Whitney MT, Chang GJ. 2012. Sculpting humoral immunity through dengue vaccination to enhance protective immunity. Frontiers in immunology 3:334. 204. Vogt MR, Dowd KA, Engle M, Tesh RB, Johnson S, Pierson TC, Diamond MS. 2011. Poorly neutralizing cross-reactive antibodies against the fusion loop of West Nile virus envelope protein protect in vivo via Fcgamma receptor and complement-dependent 85:11567-11580. 205. Pan CH, Chen HW, Huang HW, Tao MH. 2001. Protective mechanisms induced by a Japanese encephalitis virus DNA vaccine: requirement for antibody but not CD8(+) cytotoxic T-cell responses. Journal of virology 75:11457-11463. 206. Harty JT, Plagemann PG. 1988. Formalin inactivation of the lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus reveals a major neutralizing epitope not recognized during natural infection. Journal of virology 62:3210-3216. 207. Khoroshilova EV, Repeev Iu A, Nikogosian DN. 1990. [UV-photolysis of amino acids and peptides. Cleavage of peptide bond during laser irradiation]. Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR 312:484-488. 208. Rule Wigginton K, Menin L, Montoya JP, Kohn T. 2010. Oxidation of virus proteins during UV(254) and singlet oxygen mediated inactivation. effector mechanisms. Journal of virology Environmental science & technology 44:5437-5443. 209. Sarkar A, Taraphdar D, Mukhopadhyay SK, Chakrabarti S, Chatterjee S. 2012. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of Japanese encephalitis virus genotype I and III infection associated with acute encephalitis in patients of West Bengal, India, 2010. Virology journal 9:271. 210. Lindahl JF, Stahl K, Chirico J, Boqvist S, Thu HT, Magnusson U. 2013. Circulation of Japanese encephalitis virus in pigs and mosquito vectors within Can Tho city, Vietnam. PLoS neglected tropical diseases 7:e2153. 211. Fan YC, Chen JM, Chen YY, Lin JW, Chiou SS. 2013. Reduced neutralizing antibody titer against genotype I virus in swine immunized with a live-attenuated genotype III Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine. Veterinary microbiology 163:248-256. 212. Fan YC, Chen JM, Chiu HC, Chen YY, Lin JW, Shih CC, Chen CM, Chang CC, Chang GJ, Chiou SS. 2012. Partially neutralizing potency against emerging genotype I virus among children received formalin-inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine. PLoS neglected tropical diseases 6:e1834. 213. Blaney JE, Jr., Matro JM, Murphy BR, Whitehead SS. 2005. Recombinant, live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus vaccine formulations induce a balanced, broad, and protective neutralizing antibody response against each of the four serotypes in rhesus monkeys. Journal of virology 79:5516-5528. 214. Ao J YY, Tang YS, Cui BC, Jia DJ, Li HM. 1983. Selection of a better immunogenic and highly attenuated live vaccine strain of Japanese encephalitis II: safety and immunogenicity of live JBE vaccine SA 14-14-2 observed in inoculated children. Chin J Microbiol Immunol Lett 3:245-248. 215. Schuh AJ, Guzman H, Tesh RB, Barrett AD. 2013. Genetic diversity of Japanese encephalitis virus isolates obtained from the indonesian archipelago between 1974 and 1987. Vector borne and zoonotic diseases 13:479-488. 216. Sultana H, Foellmer HG, Neelakanta G, Oliphant T, Engle M, Ledizet M, Krishnan MN, Bonafe N, Anthony KG, Marasco WA, Kaplan P, Montgomery RR, Diamond MS, Koski RA, Fikrig E. 2009. Fusion loop peptide of the West Nile virus envelope protein is essential for pathogenesis and is recognized by a therapeutic 183:650-660. 107 cross-reactive human monoclonal antibody. J Immunol 217. Roehrig JT, Bolin RA, Kelly RG. 1998. Monoclonal antibody mapping of the envelope glycoprotein of the dengue 2 virus, Jamaica. Virology 246:317-328. 218. Roehrig JT, Johnson AJ, Hunt AR, Bolin RA, Chu MC. 1990. Antibodies to dengue 2 virus E-glycoprotein synthetic peptides identify antigenic conformation. Virology 177:668-675. 219. Roehrig JT, Hunt AR, Johnson AJ, Hawkes RA. 1989. Synthetic peptides derived from the deduced amino acid sequence of the E-glycoprotein of Murray Valley encephalitis virus elicit antiviral antibody. Virology 171:49-60. 220. Stiasny K, Kiermayr S, Holzmann H, Heinz FX. 2006. Cryptic properties of a cluster of dominant flavivirus cross-reactive antigenic sites. J Virol 80:9557-9568. 221. Crill WD, Trainor NB, Chang GJ. 2007. A detailed mutagenesis study of flavivirus cross-reactive epitopes using West Nile virus-like particles. The Journal of general virology 88:1169-1174. 222. Lai CY, Tsai WY, Lin SR, Kao CL, Hu HP, King CC, Wu HC, Chang GJ, Wang WK. 2008. Antibodies to envelope glycoprotein of dengue virus during the natural course of infection are predominantly cross-reactive and recognize epitopes containing highly conserved residues at the fusion loop of domain II. J Virol 82:6631-6643. 223. Kim JM, Yun SI, Song BH, Hahn YS, Lee CH, Oh HW, Lee YM. 2008. A single N-linked glycosylation site in the Japanese encephalitis virus prM protein is critical for cell type-specific prM protein biogenesis, virus particle release, and pathogenicity in mice. J Virol 82:7846-7862. 224. Hanna SL, Pierson TC, Sanchez MD, Ahmed AA, Murtadha MM, Doms RW. 2005. N-linked glycosylation of west nile virus envelope proteins influences particle assembly and infectivity. Journal of virology 79:13262-13274. 225. Goto A, Yoshii K, Obara M, Ueki T, Mizutani T, Kariwa H, Takashima I. 2005. Role of the N-linked glycans of the prM and E envelope proteins in tick-borne encephalitis virus particle secretion. Vaccine 23:3043-3052. 226. Calvert AE, Huang CY, Blair CD, Roehrig JT. 2012. Mutations in the West Nile prM protein affect VLP and virion secretion in vitro. Virology 433:35-44. 227. Lin YJ, Peng JG, Wu SC. 2010. Characterization of the GXXXG motif in the first transmembrane segment of Japanese encephalitis virus precursor membrane (prM) protein. Journal of biomedical science 17:39. 228. Op De Beeck A, Rouille Y, Caron M, Duvet S, Dubuisson J. 2004. The transmembrane domains of the prM and E proteins of yellow fever virus are endoplasmic reticulum localization signals. Journal of virology 78:12591-12602. 229. Chang GJ, Davis BS, Hunt AR, Holmes DA, Kuno G. 2001. Flavivirus DNA vaccines: current status and potential. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 951:272-285.
摘要: Genotype I (GI) Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which has replaced genotype III (GIII) virus, has become the dominant circulating virus in Asia. Vaccination was the most effective method to control JEV transmission, but currently only GIII JEV-derived vaccines are available for human and animal use. Based on molecular survey data of mosquitoes, GI virus was first identified in Taiwan during 2008 and became the only circulating genotype within one year. In Taiwan, annual vaccination of sows and the compulsory vaccination of children has been implemented using GIII JEV-derived vaccines. Thus, the potential impact(s) of and solution(s) to the genotype replacement event in terms of JEV vaccines were evaluated in this study. Initially, serum samples from vaccinated pigs and humans were collected in order to assess the potency of the live-attenuated GIII at222 virus vaccine and the formalin-inactivated GIII Nakayama virus vaccine, respectively. A reduced seropositivity rate and neutralizing activity against GI wild-type (WT) TC2009-1 virus were observed in immunized pigs as well as in vaccinated children as compared to against the vaccine strain or against the GIII WT CJN virus. Before developing a GI-derived vaccine in order to enhance GI-specific neutralizing activity, it was important to investigate the antigenic and immunogenic impact on JEV of formalin inactivation in order to help with choosing the type of vaccine. We found a decreased binding activity of the T16 murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) against commercial formalin-inactivated Nakayama virus vaccines (FICV), and the formalin-treated JEV (FIV-JEV) Nakayama, SA14-14-2, T1P1, and YL2009-4 strains, when compared to untreated JE viruses (IV-JEV). The contribution of the neutralizing activity of IgG antibodies elicited by the residues 329/331/389 epitope in domain III of E protein (EDIII 329/331/389), which is recognized by T16 mAb, was found to be higher among mice immunized with formalin-untreated Nakayama virus than among mice immunized with formalin-treated virus or the commercial JEV vaccine. We concluded that the formalin-inactivation process introduces antigenic modification(s) of EDIII of JEV and distorts the profile of vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies after the formalin-inactivated vaccine. Based on the above results, we utilized a virus-like particle (VLP) expression plasmid to construct a GI-derived JEV vaccine and established JEV mutant VLP-expression plasmids that encoded fusion peptide mutants in order to reduce the immunogenicity of low-neutralizing or non-neutralizing epitopes in the fusion peptide(FP). Four JEV DNA vaccines were evaluated as part of this study; these consisted of plasmids expressing the GI WT YL2009-4 virus VLP (pJGI WT), the GIII WT SA14 virus VLP (pJGIII WT), the GI FP mutant VLP (pJGI GKD), and the GIII FP mutant VLP (pJGIII GKD). The geometric mean titer (GMT) of the PRNT50 against the GI and GIII viruses among pJGI WT immunized mice was higher than among pJGIII WT immunized mice; however, it was significantly reduced among pJGI GKD and pJGIII GKD immunized mice. In addition, only 43% (3/7) of the pJGIII WT immunized mice were able to survive challenge with the GI and GIII JEVs; in contrast, 100% (12/12) and 92% (11/12) of pJGI WT immunized mice survived GI and GIII JEVs infection,respectively. Among the JEV WT and mutant VLP-expression plasmids, pJGI WT was the most potent vaccine in terms of evoking cross-neutralizing antibodies and protecting mice from GI and GIII JEVs infection. This study included a serosurvey of GI JEV infection in pigs together with an analysis of the vaccine efficacies of inactivated vaccine and of live-attenuated vaccine against GI WT JEVs, which are the first time such investigations have been carried out in Taiwan. One important concern that arose from these results was the poor vaccine potency of the commercial GIII vaccine when challenged with GI WT JEVs and future monitoring of JEV activity in pigs and mosquitoes is important. In terms of a future JEV vaccine, there is a need to search for an antigenically stable inactivation method that can be used to produce an effective inactivated vaccine and it will also be very valuable to evaluate any developed GI virus-derived vaccine in pigs as well as humans.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/93089
文章公開時間: 2018-05-11
Appears in Collections:微生物暨公共衛生學研究所

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.