Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/93122
標題: 印度共黨運動的發展與現況之研究
Developments and Current Status of Communist Movement in India
作者: 楊瑜涵
Yu-Han Yang
關鍵字: 印度政治
印度共產黨
納薩爾派
左派政治運動
Indian politics
Communist Party of India
Naxalites
Leftist political movements
引用: 壹、中文部分 一、專書和專書論文 大陸工作會匪俄問題研究中心(1978),《亞太地區共黨》。台北:中國國民黨中央委員會,大陸工作會匪俄問題研究中心。 亢生(2009),《印度 崛起中的亞洲巨象》。香港:香港城市大學出版社。 尤清鑫(2008),〈政黨與政黨制度〉,收於陳義彥編,《政治學》。台北:五南。 文選德(2001),《國際共產主義運動史簡讀》。湖南:湖南人民出版社。 伊薩克著,王逸洲譯(1993),《政治學概論》。台北:五南出版社。 艾里曼(Bruce Elleman)著,李厚壯譯(2002),《近代中國的軍事與戰爭》。台北:時英出版社。 吳永年(2010),《變化中的印度─21世紀印度國家新論》。北京:人民出版社。 沈玄池(2002),《國際關係》。台北:高立圖書有限公司。 沈開艷(2011),《印度經濟改革發展二十年:理論、實證與比較(1991-2010)》。上海:人民出版社。 周言(2011),〈士林的沒落:革命時代的知識人〉。臺北市:秀威資訊。 拉吉.帕特爾(2009),《糧食戰爭》。台北:高寶。 林承節(2004),《殖民統治時代的印度史》。北京:北京大學出版社。 芭芭拉‧麥卡夫和湯瑪斯‧馬卡夫(2011),《蒙兀兒之後─印度五百年的蛻變,從伊斯蘭帝國、東印度公司統治、英國殖民地到全球最大民主國家的誕生》。新北市:左岸文化。 苗光新(2008),《印共(馬)「人民民主革命」理論與實踐研究》。北京:中國社會科學出版社。 耿向東(2010),《圖解當代中國外交》。香港:中華書局。 張豈之(2002),《中華人民共和國》。台北:五南。 張敏秋(2004),《中印關係研究(1947-2003)》。北京:北京大學。 曹小冰(2005),《印度特色的政黨和政黨政治》。北京:當代世界出版社 湯馬斯‧佛里曼(2007),楊振富與潘勛譯,《世界是平的》。台北:雅言文化。 賈瓦哈拉爾‧尼赫魯著,齊文譯(1958),《印度的發現》。北京:世界知識出版社。 趙明義(2001),《當代國際法導論》。台北:五南。 蔡東杰(2006),《西洋外交史》。臺北市:風雲論壇。 鄭端耀(2008),《印度》。台北:財團法人兩岸交流遠景基金會。 薩爾瓦多雷著,殷海光譯(2009),〈共產國際觀〉。臺北市:國立臺灣大學出版中心。 羅易(1978),山東師範學院外文系與福建師範大學合譯,〈羅易回憶錄〉。北京:商務印書館。 二、期刊論文 〈世界被抹平了〉(2005),《天下雜誌》,第328期,頁142。 毛悦(2012),〈印度土地改革的結果分析:利益集團的視角〉,《當代世界社會主義問題》,第2期,頁77。 李因才(2009),〈民主政體內的印度共產黨〉,《南風窗》,第24期,頁46。 李西林(2007年),〈印度農業支援政策改革的經驗及對中國的啟示〉,《世界農業》,第10期,頁30。 李登科(1999),〈五十年的「中」、美、蘇(俄)關係〉,《中國大陸研究》,第42卷第10期,頁47。 苗光新(2007),〈印共(馬)在發展中遭遇的問題及成因探析〉,《社會主義研究》,第7期,頁8-11。 時宏遠(2009),〈印度左派的「紅色」天空〉,《南方窗》,第8期,頁86-87。 高子平(2008),〈印共(馬)執政理念研究:以西孟加拉為例〉,《河南師範大學學報》,第35卷第3期,頁74-77。 高鵬懷、宮玉濤(2008),〈印度共產黨的執政實踐與後冷戰時代的策略調整〉,《北京教育學院學報》,第22卷第2期,頁11。 陳明華(1988),〈印度國大黨對穆斯林的政策與穆斯林分離意識的確立〉,《南亞研究季刊》,第3期,頁63。 陳牧民(2009),〈領土主權與區域安全──中印領土爭議分析〉,《台灣國際研究季刊》,第5卷第1期,頁169-170。 三、學位論文 張文賢(2008),《中印關係中的地緣政治因素研究》。台北:政治大學國家安全與大陸研究碩士論文。 曾隆盛(2005),《印度經濟改革與自由化之研究,1991-2004年》。台北:國立台灣大學政治學研究所碩士論文。 四、網路資料 〈中共黨史人物傳(第72卷)〉,《中國幹部學習網》(2013/09/23),http://study.ccln.gov.cn/danganziliao/laobaokan/27712.shtml 〈中國宣導和平共處五項原則〉,《中華人民共和國外交部》(2013/10/14),http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_chn/ziliao_611306/wjs_611318/2159_611322/t8987.shtml 〈中蘇兩國關於締結友好同盟互助條約及協定的公告〉,《維基文庫》(2013/10/11),http://zh.wikisource.org/wiki/%E4%B8%AD%E8%8B%8F%E5%8F%8B%E5%A5%BD%E5%90%8C%E7%9B%9F%E4%BA%92%E5%8A%A9%E6%9D%A1%E7%BA%A6 〈中蘇關于共建超長波電台分歧始末〉《中華人民共和國國防部》(2013/10/11),http://www.mod.gov.cn/big5/hist/2009-07/22/content_4006420_2.htm 〈印度:沿著社會主義與資本主義之間的中間道路前行〉,《鳳凰網》(2013/10/10), http://big5.ifeng.com/gate/big5/news.ifeng.com/history/special/fazhanmoshi/200909/0910_7964_1343906.shtml 〈印度〉,全球台商服務網(2012/06/22),http://twbusiness.nat.gov.tw/countryPage.do?id=10&country=IN 〈印度總理促增加支出改造基礎設施〉,美國之音(2013/11/16),http://www.voafanti.com/gate/big5/m.voachinese.com/a/464586.html 〈俄國十月革命和歐亞革命浪潮的興起〉,《中國共產黨歷史網》(2013/9/23),http://www.zgdsw.org.cn/BIG5/n/2013/0129/c244520-20365444.html 〈背景資料:印度納薩爾派反政府武裝〉,新華網(2012/06/22),http://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2010-04/06/c_1219875.htm 〈新民主主義的理論〉,中國共產黨新聞網(2013/10/2),http://cpc.people.com.cn/BIG5/69112/70190/70192/70270/4763924.html 〈路透社:印共(馬)慘敗教訓深刻〉,《新華網》(2013/11/25),http://big5.xinhuanet.com/gate/big5/news.xinhuanet.com/world/2009-05/20/content_11405348.htm 〈選前貧窮人口大減 印度惹議〉,《美國之音》(2013/11/21),http://www.voachinese.com/content/article-20120320-india--poverty-143544326/948192.html 〈蘇共二十大的內外反響和中蘇關系〉,《中國共產黨新聞》(2013/10/11),http://cpc.people.com.cn/BIG5/68742/112510/112512/7151051.htm 〈蘇共領導是當代最大的分裂主義者──七評蘇共中央的公開信〉,《中國共產黨新聞》(2013/10/21),http://cpc.people.com.cn/BIG5/64184/64186/66673/4493708.html# 李東朗,〈斯大林與共產國際的解散〉,《百年潮》(2013/9/24),http://www.eywedu.com/bainianchao/banc2003/banc20030711.html 汪恒祥,〈印度高科技綠色革命的省思〉,台灣環境資訊中心(2013/11/17),http://e-info.org.tw/node/70785 許詠翔,〈37%下降至22% 印度貧窮人口報告遭質疑〉,《新新聞》(2013/11/21),http://www.new7.com.tw/NewsView.aspx?t=03&i=TXT2013073114034518P 陳牧民,〈印度那薩爾Naxalite毛派游擊隊〉,《台灣的印度及南亞研究資訊平台》(2014/1/5),http://www.southasiawatch.tw/detail/599/1 劉焱,〈論周恩來關於人民戰爭的思想理論與實踐〉,《中國共產黨新聞》(2013/11/20),http://cpc.people.com.cn/BIG5/69112/75843/75873/5168817.html 貳、西文部分 一、專書和專書論文 Batabyal, Rakesh (2005), Communalism in Bengal: From Famine To Noakhali, 1943-47. New Delhi: Sage Publications India Pvt Ltd. Brill, E.J. (1971), Contribution to Asian Studies. The Netherlands: Canadian Association. Chadha, Vivek (2005), Low Intensity Conflicts in India: An Analysis. New Delhi: Sage Publications. Chakrabarty, Bidyut and Kujur, Rajat Kumar (2010), Maoism in India Reincarnation of ultra-left wing extremism in the twenty-first century. New York: Routledge. Chatterjee, Pranab(2009), A Story of Ambivalent Modernization in Bangladesh and West Bengal. New York: Peter Lang Publishing Fisher, Margaret Welpley and Bondurant, Joan Valerie (1956), The Indian experience with democratic elections. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Gopal, S.(2008), 'The Naxalite Movement: Impact of External Networking,' in P. V. Ramana, ed., The Naxal Challenge: Causes, Linkages, and Policy Options. New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley Pvt. Ltd. Haque, T. and Sirohi, A. S.(1986), Agrarian Reforms and Institutional Changes in India . New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company Hazra, Amit (2006), Land Reforms: Myths and Realities. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. Isaac, T. M. Thomas and Franke, Richard(2002), Local democracy and development: the Kerala people's campaign for decentralized planning. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Jha, Manish(2010), 'Human Security Crisis in India: From the Field of a Conflict Zone,' in Malcolm McIntosh and Alan Hunter ed., New Perspectives on Human Security. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing Limited. Jones, Bill and Kavanagh, Dennis(2003), British Politics Today. Manchester:Manchester University Press Judge, Paramjit(1992), Insurrection to Agitation: The Naxalite Movement in Punjab. Bombay: Popular Prakshan Private Limited. K. Damdoaran(2011), 'Memoir of an Indian Communist,' in Francis Mulhern, ed., Lives on the Left: A Group Portrait. New York: Maple Vail. Kochanek, Stanley A. and Hardgrave, Robert L.(2008), India: Government and Politics in a Developing Nation. California: Thomson Learning Inc. Kochanek, Stanley(1988), 'The Coalition Strategies and Tactics of Indian Communism,' in Trond Gilberg, eds., Coalition Strategies of Marxist Parties. Durham: Duke University Press. Minault, Gail(1982), The Khilafat Movement: Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press. Mitra, Nripendra Nath (2003), The India Annual Register January-June 1946 Vol.1. Calcutta: Singha Printing Works. Mukherjee, Arunava (2011), 'Naxalite Movement,' in Smarak Swain ed., Social Issues of India. New Delhi: New Vishal Publication. Nossiter, Thomas Johnson (1982), Communism in Kerala: A Study in Political Adaptation. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Oetken, Jennifer (2009), 'Counterinsurgency in Birbhum,' in Sumit Ganguly and David P. Fidler ed., India and Counterinsurgency: Lessons Learned. New York: Routledge. Pandita, Rahul (2011), Hello, Bastar: The Untold Story of India's Maoist Movement. New Delhi: Tranquebar Press. Raghavan, Srinath (2010), War and Peace in Modern India (London: Palgrave Macmillan. Rajimwale, Anil and Nossiter, Thomas Johnson(1982), Communism in Kerala: A Study in Political Adaptation. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Raju, Yanadi ( 2003), Rayalaseema During Colonial Times: A Study in Indian Nationalism. New Delhi: Northern Book Centre, p.186 Ralhan, O.P. ( 2002), Encyclopaedia of Political Parties - India - Pakistan - Bangladesh - National -Regional - Local. Vol. 14, Communist Party of India. New Delhi: Anmol Publications, p. 209 Ramaswamy, E.A.(1995), 'Organized People and Econmic Reform,' in Philip Oldenburg, eds., India Briefing: Staying the Course. New York: ME Sharpe Inc., p103. Rao, M.V. S. Koteswara(2003), Communist Parties and United Front - Experience in Kerala and West Bengal. Hyderabad: Prajasakti Book House Ray, Hemen (1988), Sino-Soviet Conflict Over India. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. Roy, Shukla (1988), Indian Political Thought: Impact of Russian Revolution. California: Minerva Associates. Sethi, Manpreet(2006), 'Land Reform in India: Issues and Challenges,' in Peter Rosset, Raj Patel and Michael Courville, ed., Promised Land: Competing Visions of Agrarian Reform. New York: Food First Books Singh, Chandrika (1987), Communist and Socialist Movement in India: A Critical Account. Delhi: Shree Hari Printers. Singh, Mahendra Prasad (1981), Split in a Predominant Party: The Indian National Congress in 1969. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, p80. Sisson, Richard and Rose, Leo (1991), War and Secession: Pakistan, India, and the Creation of Bangladesh. California: University of California Press. Wilson, John and Kaustav, Dhar Chakrabarit(2011), Navigating the Near Non-Traditional Security Threats to India 2022. New Delhi: Observer Research Foundation 二、期刊資料 Borooah, Vani(2008), 'Deprivation, Violence, and Conflict: An Analysis of Naxalite Activity in the Districts of India,' International Journal of Conflict and Violence, Vol.2, No.2, p.318. Franda, Marcus (1969), 'India's Third Communist Party,' Asian Survey, Vol.9, No.11, p.800. Hill, Ronald (1984), The 'All-People's State' and 'Developed Socialism', in Neil Hardind eds., The State in Socialist Society. New York: State University of New York Press, p.111, p.802-804 三、網路資料 'About Sezs,' Special Economic Zones in India (2013/11/15), http://www.sezindia.nic.in/about-introduction.asp 'About Us,' Communist Party of India (Marxist)(2013/10/18), http://www.cpim.org/about-us 'Archive of General Elections 2009,' Election Commission of India (2013/11/25), http://eci.nic.in/eci_main1/statistical_report.aspx 'Attacks by Maoist Rebels in India Leave 17 Dead as Election Begins,' The Washington Post (2013/5/27), http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2009-04-17/world/36828559_1_maoist-rebels-election-officials-bharatiya-janata 'Brief History of CPI,' Communist Party of India (2013/10/2), https://sites.google.com/a/communistparty.in/cpi/brief-history-of-cpi 'Chhattisgarh Maoist attack: Senior Congress leaders among 27 killed,' Samay Live (2013/12/4), http://www.saharasamay.com/regional-news/chhattisgarh-news/676530406/chhattisgarh-maoist-attack-maoist-attack-in-chhattisgarh-congres.html 'Communist Party of India, Marxist (CPI M),' IndiaNetzone (2013/10/17), http://www.indianetzone.com/7/communist_party_india_(marxist).htm 'Conflict Map,' South Asia Terrorism Portal (2013/11/20), http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/database/conflictmap.htm 'Conflict Map,' South Asia Terrorism Portal(2013/12/1), http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/database/conflictmap2009.html 'Conflict Map,' South Asia Terrorism Portal (2013/12/1), http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/sair/images/10_35/Maoist_2012map.html 'CONSTITUENCY WISE DETAILED RESULTS', Election Commission of India (2013/05/27), http://eci.nic.in/eci_main/archiveofge2009/Stats/VOLI/25_ConstituencyWiseDetailedResult.pdf 'DISORDERS IN INDIA MARK ANNIVERSARY; Gandhi Sympathizers Arrested -- Pilgrimage to 'Jail' Halted,' The New York Times (2013/9/27), http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20611F83C5C167B93C2A81783D85F478485F 'E M S Namboodiripad,' Communist Party of India (Marxist)(2013/10/7), http://cpim.org/content/e-m-s-namboodiripad 'Election Result,' Election Commission of India (2013/11/23), http://eci.nic.in/eci_main1/ElectionStatistics.aspx 'Election Result-Kerala,' Election Commission of India (2013/11/23), http://eci.nic.in/eci_main1/ElectionStatistics.aspx 'Farm suicide trends in 2012 remain dismal,' The Hindu (2013/11/17), http://www.thehindu.com/multimedia/archive/01460/sainath_1460384a.gif 'Fatalities in Left-wing Extremism: 2003-2012,' South Asia Terrorism Portal (2013/12/3), http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/maoist/data_sheets/fatalitiesnaxalmha.htm 'INDIA GDP ANNUAL GROWTH RATE,' Trading Economics (2012/12/11), http://www.tradingeconomics.com/india/gdp-growth-annual 'India Maoist Assessment: 2013,' South Asia Terrorism Portal (2013/12/4), http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/maoist/Assessment/2013/indiamaoistassesment2013.htm 'India Maoists kidnap Italian tourists in Orissa,' BBC (2013/12/4), http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-17421561 'India Statistics,' Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (2013/11/17), http://mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/site/India_Statistics.aspx?status=1&menu_id=43 'India: Police Organization in different Naxalite –affected States,' South Asia Terrorism Portal (2012/12/2), http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/maoist/data_sheets/india_police.htm 'India: Urgent Inquiry Needed Into Nandigram Violence,' Human Rights Watch(2013/12/1),http://www.hrw.org/news/2008/01/14/india-urgent-inquiry-needed-nandigram-violence 'Indian Maoist rebels release Italian hostage,' The Telegraph (2013/12/4), http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/india/9199299/Indian-Maoist-rebels-release-Italian-hostage.html 'Integrated Action Plan to Develop Tribal and backward Districts in LWE Areas,' Ministry of Home Affairs (2013/12/4), http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=79472 'Left parties accept proposal on Speaker, 'The Hindu (2013/11/25), http://www.hindu.com/2004/05/27/stories/2004052704601100.htm 'Left parties accept proposal on Speaker,' The Hindu (2013/11/25), http://www.hindu.com/2004/05/27/stories/2004052704601100.htm 'Literacy in India,' The Indian Census 2011 (2014/1/7), http://www.census2011.co.in/literacy.php 'Maoist Groups,' South Asia Terrorism Portal (2013/12/1), http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/maoist/terrorist_outfits/left_wing_extremists.htm 'Modified VAT (Modvat)', India Finance & Investment Guide (2013/11/15), http://finance.indiamart.com/taxation/modified_vat.html 'Nano wars,' The Economics (2013/12/1), http://www.economist.com/node/12010079 'Naxal Management Division,' Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India(2013/12/2), http://mha.nic.in/naxal_new 'Naxal Problem needs a holistic approach,' Press Information Bureau, Government of India (2012/12/11), http://www.pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=50833 'ON CERTAIN IDEOLOGICAL ISSUES Resolution Adopted at the 14th Congress of the CPI(M) Madras, January 3-9, 1992,' Communist Party of India(Marxist)(2013/11/17), http://www.cpim.org/documents/1992-14-Cong--ideological-issues.pdf 'Party Programme-III Independence and After,' Communist Party of India(Marxist)(2013/11/17), http://www.cpim.org/party-programme#III 'Percentage of Population Below Poverty Line by States & UTs : 1973-74 to 2004-05,' Planning Commission, Government of India (2014/1/7), http://planningcommission.nic.in/data/datatable/1612/table_96.pdf 'Review of the 15th Lok Sabha Elections,' Communist Party of India(Marxist)(2013/11/25), http://cpim.org/documents/2009-15%20ls%20election%20review.pdf 'Review of the 15th Lok Sabha Elections,' Communist Party of India(Marxist)(2013/11/25), http://cpim.org/documents/2009-15%20ls%20election%20review.pdf 'SEZ Map,' India SEZ Politics (2013/11/15), http://www.indiasezpolitics.org/ 'State Government Finances in Kerala and Tamil Nadu,' Human Science (2013/11/20), http://humanscience.wikia.com/wiki/State_Government_Finances_in_Kerala_and_TamilNadu 'State-wise Literacy rates (1951-2001),' Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India (2014/1/7), http://www.iipsenvis.nic.in/Database/Population_4082.aspx 'STATISTICAL REPORT ON GENERAL ELECTION, 1957 TO THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF KERALA,' Election Commission of India (2013/10/7), http://eci.nic.in/eci_main/StatisticalReports/SE_1957/StatRep_Kerala_1957.pdf 'STATISTICAL REPORT ON GENERAL ELECTION, 2006 TO THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF WEST BENGAL,' Election Commission of India (2013/11/23), http://eci.nic.in/eci_main/StatisticalReports/SE_2006/StatReport_WB_2006.pdf 'STATISTICAL REPORT ON GENERAL ELECTION, 2006 TO THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY 'STATISTICAL REPORT ON GENERAL ELECTION, 2011 TO THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF WEST BENGAL,' Election Commission of India(2013/11/23), http://eci.nic.in/eci_main/StatisticalReports/AE2011/stat_WB_May2011.pdf, 'STATISTICAL REPORT ON GENERAL ELECTION, 2011 TO THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF WEST BENGAL,' Election Commission of India (2013/11/23), http://eci.nic.in/eci_main/StatisticalReports/AE2011/stat_WB_May2011.pdf, 'STATISTICAL REPORT ON GENERAL ELECTIONS, 1951, TO THE FIRST LOK SABHA,' Election Commission of India (2013/10/3), http://eci.nic.in/eci_main/StatisticalReports/LS_1951/VOL_1_51_LS.PDF 'STATISTICAL REPORT ON GENERAL ELECTIONS, 1967 TO THE FOURTH LOK SABHA,' Election Commission of India (2013/10/22), http://eci.nic.in/eci_main/StatisticalReports/LS_1967/Vol_I_LS_67.pdf 'The Story of Kerala,' Power Politics (2013/11/20), http://www.powerpolitics.in/Issues/August/page32.php 'Thirty Years of West Bengal Left Front Govt.,' Communist Party of India (Marxist) (2013/11/19), http://cpim.org/content/thirty-years-west-bengal-left-front-govt 'Timeline: Ayodhya holy site crisis,' BBC (2013/06/28), http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11436552 'World Trade Report 2012,' World Trade Organization (2012/12/11), http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/booksp_e/anrep_e/world_trade_report12_e.pdf ' Meetings & Statements,' The Solid Net (2013/10/19), http://solidnet.org/meetings-statements 'Jalianwalabagh Massacre, India History,' IndiaNetzone(2013/9/22), http://www.indianetzone.com/26/jalianwalabagh_amritsar_massacre_indian_history.htm 'Party Programme,' Communist Party of India (CPI) Official Website (2013/10/18), http://www.communistparty.in/p/party-programme.html 'Rowlatt Acts 1999,' IndiaNetzone(2013/9/22), http://www.indianetzone.com/14/the_rowlatt_act_1919.htm Arun Dev,' Naxals want to give up arms, enter mainstream,' The Times of India (2014/1/7), http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bangalore/Naxals-want-to-give-up-arms-enter-mainstream/articleshow/27674468.cms Bibek Debroy, 'The last of the three,' The Indian Express (2013/10/31), http://www.indianexpress.com/news/the-last-of-the-three/595405/ Chandrahas Choudhury, 'Walking with the Comrades, by Arundhati Roy,' The Washington Post (2013/6/21), http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2011-12-16/entertainment/35286890_1_tribal-peoples-parallel-government-maoists Delnaaz Irani , 'Surviving Mumbai gunman convicted over attacks,' BBC (2013/6/21), http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8657642.stm Ganguly, Sumit, 'Can India be Great?' The Diplomat (2013/11/15), http://apac2020.thediplomat.com/feature/can-india-be-great/ Jayshree Bajoria and Esther Pan, 'The U.S.-India Nuclear Deal,' Council on Foreign Relations (2013/11/25), http://www.cfr.org/india/us-india-nuclear-deal/p9663 Josy Joseph, 'An honest measure of poverty,' India.com (2014/1/7), http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-an-honest-measure-of-poverty-1323446 Milan Vaishnav, 'The Complicated Rise of India's Regional Parties,' The Global Think Tank (2014/1/7), http://carnegieendowment.org/2013/11/13/complicated-rise-of-india-s-regional-parties/gtph OF WEST BENGAL,' Election Commission of India (2013/11/23), http://eci.nic.in/eci_main/StatisticalReports/SE_2006/StatReport_WB_2006.pdf P. Sainah , 'Maharashtra leads in statistic of shame,' The Hindu (2013/11/17), http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/columns/sainath/maharashtra-leads-in-statistic-of-shame/article2577740.ece; Party Programme-II. Socialism In the Contemporary World,' Communist Party of India (Marxist)(2013/11/17), http://www.cpim.org/party-programme#II Rajimwale, Anil, 'Ajoy Ghosh: The Creative Marxist,' NEW AGE WEEKLY Central Organ of the Communist Party of India (2013/10/17), http://www.newageweekly.com/2010/03/ajoy-ghosh-creative-marxist-by-anil.html Reisman, Lisa, 'Indian Terrorist Group Naxalites Pose Big Threat to India Industry,' Metal Miner (2013/12/4), http://agmetalminer.com/2011/06/29/indian-terrorist-group-naxalites-pose-big-threat-to-india-mining-industry/ Shahzaib Shahzad, 'General & Provincial Elections 1945-1946 British India,' Blogger (2013/10/2), http://shahzaibku.blogspot.tw/2012/12/1946-elections-british-india.html Shekar Kumar, 'Difference between 'Developmental Expenditure' and 'Non-development Expenditure' (India),' ShareYourEssays.com (2013/11/20), http://www.shareyouressays.com/113693/difference-between-developmental-expenditure-and-non-development-expenditure-india Sivadas Varma, 'Glimpses of a historic moment,' The New India Express (2013/10/3), http://newindianexpress.com/cities/kochi/article112248.ece Somini Sengupta, 'Indian Government Survives Confidence Vote,' The New York Times (2013/11/26), http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/23/world/asia/23india.html?_r=2&ref=world&oref=slogin& SUVOJIT BAGCHI, 'Mahendra Karma killed, V.C. Shukla injured in Maoist attack,' The Hindu (2013/11/21), http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/mahendra-karma-killed-vc-shukla-injured-in-maoist-attack/article4750467.ece Venkitesh Ramakrishnan, 'THE NAXALITE CHALLENGE,' Frontline (2012/12/11), http://www.flonnet.com/fl2221/stories/20051021006700400.htm Years of Arrests & Imprisonment of Mahatma Gandhi, Gandhi Website (2013/9/22), http://www.mkgandhi.org/arrestofmahatma.htm
摘要: The disintegration of Soviet Union in the early 1990s symbolized the collapse of communism, yet the Communist Parties in India (including CPI and CPI-Marxist) didn't disintegrate like their comrades in other countries. Instead they continued to win seats in parliament and form ruling coalition in certain states (West Bengal, Kerala, and Tripura in particular). The success of Communists can attribute to their unique strategy: combining Marxist theories with Indian characteristics to create an image as truly social reformers. But in fact the Communists cannot be considered as a single unified group: After the violent clashes in the 1960s, the communist party split into several groups, some committed to the parliamentary road to socialism (CPI and CPI-M), while others undertook armed struggle for seizure of political power (CPI Maoists or Naxalites). All groups claimed to be Communists but their strategies are quite different. When India began to embrace economic globalization by introducing a series of reforms in the early 1990s, Communists in India also faced new challenges. Today they still claim to be the third largest political group, but their influence has substantial declined. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and analyze the leftist political parties in India today with more focus on parliamentary parties including CPI-M and CPI, and ultra-leftist organizations, namely Naxalites. In particular, this paper aims at analyzing the influence of these leftist parties in India today, and sees how they adjust their positions to accommodate the changes at home and challenges from abroad.
全世界最大的民主國家─印度,也是少數民主國家中,共產主義如此發達的國家。由於國內的族群、語言和宗教等十分多元,加上採取西方議會制度的政治體制,使各地的政黨如雨後春筍般不斷出現。印度共產黨乃其中之一,唯一的不同之處,在於其始終穩坐議會內的第三大勢力。 90年代初蘇聯的解體象徵共產主義的瓦解,正當各國的共產黨紛紛殞落時,印度的共黨團體卻能與時俱進,適時的改良其政策綱領,將馬克思的基礎理論融合印度的具體狀況,創造出具有印度特色的共產主義思想。印度共產黨自1920年成立以來,歷經兩次的大分裂以及國內外環境的衝擊,分成了策略和路線完全不同的兩派,其中一派為採取議會和平路線實現其理念的印度共產黨和印度共產黨(馬克思主義),另外一派則是透過武裝鬥爭顛覆政權的納薩爾派。體制內外的雙重發展,使得印度的共黨運動在衝突與和平的道路上深深影響著印度。 進入全球化的時代後,資本主義擴散到全世界,全球金融市場網絡的建立和跨國集團權力的增加,使國家無法抵抗國際市場的力量,印度也抵擋不住世界的潮流,開始對內進行經濟改革,希望透過國際資本的引進改善國內的經濟結構。印度共黨兩種不同的實踐路線,在全球化的背景之下深受影響,共產黨所組成的第三陣線聯盟雖然依舊是國會的第三大勢力,但得票率卻持續下降,另一方面,納薩爾派卻得到更多人民的支持。本文從1920年印度共產黨的創立開始探討,分析其在60年代兩次大分裂的主要原因,以及至近代後,印共、印共(馬)和納薩爾派的發展情況。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/93122
文章公開時間: 2015-01-27
Appears in Collections:國際政治研究所

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.